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1.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 37(1): 2321486, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US still has a high burden of preterm birth (PTB), with important disparities by race/ethnicity and poverty status. There is a large body of literature looking at the impact of pre-pregnancy obesity on PTB, but fewer studies have explored the association between underweight status on PTB, especially with a lens toward health disparities. Furthermore, little is known about how weight, specifically pre-pregnancy underweight status, and socio-economic-demographic factors such as race/ethnicity and insurance status, interact with each other to contribute to risks of PTB. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to measure the association between pre-pregnancy underweight and PTB and small for gestational age (SGA) among a large sample of births in the US. Our secondary objective was to see if underweight status and two markers of health disparities - race/ethnicity and insurance status (public vs. other) - on PTB. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from all births in California from 2011 to 2017, which resulted in 3,070,241 singleton births with linked hospital discharge records. We ran regression models to estimate the relative risk of PTB by underweight status, by race/ethnicity, and by poverty (Medi-cal status). We then looked at the interaction between underweight status and race/ethnicity and underweight and poverty on PTB. RESULTS: Black and Asian women were more likely to be underweight (aRR = 1.0, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.1 and aRR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.5, respectively), and Latina women were less likely to be underweight (aRR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.7). Being underweight was associated with increased odds of PTB (aRR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.3-1.3) and, after controlling for underweight, all nonwhite race/ethnic groups had increased odds of PTB compared to white women. In interaction models, the combined effect of being both underweight and Black, Indigenous and People of Color (BIPOC) statistically significantly reduced the relative risk of PTB (aRR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.8, 0.9) and SGA (aRR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.0). The combined effect of being both underweight and on public insurance increased the relative risk of PTB (aRR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.2) but there was no additional effect of being both underweight and on public insurance on SGA (aRR = 1.0, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: We confirm and build upon previous findings that being underweight preconception is associated with increased risk of PTB and SGA - a fact often overlooked in the focus on overweight and adverse birth outcomes. Additionally, our findings suggest that the effect of being underweight on PTB and SGA differs by race/ethnicity and by insurance status, emphasizing that other factors related to inequities in access to health care and poverty are contributing to disparities in PTB.


Assuntos
Declaração de Nascimento , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Etnicidade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia , Cobertura do Seguro , Parto , California/epidemiologia
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1291332, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550328

RESUMO

Background: To date, the United States (US) leads the world in the number of infections and deaths due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality are staggering. Age-adjusted data show that AA and Latino individuals have had higher rates of death over most of the pandemic and during surges. Project 2VIDA! is community-based participatory research (CBPR) that was developed to address individual, social, and contextual factors related to access and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among African American and Latino communities in Southern California. This paper describes the study protocol and overarching objectives. Methods and design: Project 2VIDA! is a multilevel intervention that builds on the principals of CBPR and is designed to increase uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine among African American and Latino individuals (≥16 years and older) in San Diego County. The intervention was developed with a working group comprised of representatives from community and academia and centers on targeted COVID-19 individual awareness and education, linkage to medical and supportive services, COVID-19 community outreach and health promotion and offering the COVID-19 vaccine through community pop-up clinics. Discussion: Findings from 2VIDA! will provide data on the impact, feasibility, and acceptability of the intervention which are all crucial for the adaptation, refinement, and improvement of vaccine outreach interventions for COVID-19 and other vaccine preventable infectious diseases that severely impact African American and Latino communities. Clinical trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05022472?term=Project+2VIDA&draw=2&rank=1, NCT05022472.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , California/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 332, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In California, preventive dental care is covered by Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program). However, many beneficiaries do not use their dental benefits. Given that a lack of knowledge about oral health and insurance coverage contributes to this underutilization, promoting the use of dental benefits among eligible individuals via an educational program is imperative. Responding to the particular needs of older immigrants with limited English proficiency, we developed a digital oral health intervention for older Korean-American Medi-Cal enrollees in Los Angeles. This educational intervention is designed to be delivered via computers and the Internet. It consists of a 15-min self-running PowerPoint presentation narrated in Korean with links to additional information on the Internet. The slides contain information about the basic etiology of oral diseases, oral hygiene, common myths about oral health and dental care, Medi-Cal coverage of preventive dental care, and how to find a dental clinic. METHODS: We pilot tested the intervention with 12 participants to examine its feasibility and acceptability. We also obtained participants' qualitative feedback about the intervention. RESULTS: A post-intervention quantitative assessment yielded high participant satisfaction and improved oral health and dental care knowledge. Participant responses to the intervention yielded four themes: (1) content and structure, (2) linguistic and cultural aspects, (3) delivery mode, and (4) additional concerns and suggestions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the intervention's feasibility and acceptability and suggest further refinement.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Medicaid , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Los Angeles , República da Coreia , California
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(8): e2306729121, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349877

RESUMO

Wildfires have become more frequent and intense due to climate change and outdoor wildfire fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations differ from relatively smoothly varying total PM2.5. Thus, we introduced a conceptual model for computing long-term wildfire PM2.5 and assessed disproportionate exposures among marginalized communities. We used monitoring data and statistical techniques to characterize annual wildfire PM2.5 exposure based on intermittent and extreme daily wildfire PM2.5 concentrations in California census tracts (2006 to 2020). Metrics included: 1) weeks with wildfire PM2.5 < 5 µg/m3; 2) days with non-zero wildfire PM2.5; 3) mean wildfire PM2.5 during peak exposure week; 4) smoke waves (≥2 consecutive days with <15 µg/m3 wildfire PM2.5); and 5) mean annual wildfire PM2.5 concentration. We classified tracts by their racial/ethnic composition and CalEnviroScreen (CES) score, an environmental and social vulnerability composite measure. We examined associations of CES and racial/ethnic composition with the wildfire PM2.5 metrics using mixed-effects models. Averaged 2006 to 2020, we detected little difference in exposure by CES score or racial/ethnic composition, except for non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native populations, where a 1-SD increase was associated with higher exposure for 4/5 metrics. CES or racial/ethnic × year interaction term models revealed exposure disparities in some years. Compared to their California-wide representation, the exposed populations of non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native (1.68×, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.81), white (1.13×, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.32), and multiracial (1.06×, 95% CI: 0.97 to 1.23) people were over-represented from 2006 to 2020. In conclusion, during our study period in California, we detected disproportionate long-term wildfire PM2.5 exposure for several racial/ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , California , Grupos Raciais , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos
5.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296741, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Supreme Court's decision in Students for Fair Admissions, Inc., v. Harvard College is likely to result in the matriculation of fewer students from historically excluded racial/ethnic groups at more selective colleges and universities and matriculation of more students at less selective colleges and universities. Because of this, it is important to understand how resources for pre-health advising, a modifiable factor that can help increase the diversity of the health workforce, vary across institutions with differing levels of selectivity. Colleges are known to vary in resources, structure, and investment in pre-health advising but data are lacking and there is no estimate of any pre-health advising resource gap. PURPOSE: To quantify availability of advising resources and identify perceived challenges in pre-health advising in California's highly diverse public and select private undergraduate institutions. METHODS: Structured 60-minute Zoom interviews from June 2022 -October 2022 at 18/23 CSU (California State Universities), 9/9 University of California (UC) institutions and 6 select private institutions with varying levels of selectivity. Two investigators independently analyzed interviews using a Grounded Theory Approach. The full study team reviewed transcripts and themes. KEY RESULTS: Pre-health advisor capacity varied greatly across the three types of institutions. CSU: mean = 1 FTE advisor: 24,620 graduates (range: 1: 1,059-1: 150,520); UC mean = 1 FTE advisor: 4,526 graduates (range: 1: 1,912-1: 10,920); private institutions mean = 1 FTE advisor:1,794 graduates (range: 1: 722-1: 5,300). Participants reported common challenges: advising capacity, lack of advisor training, advisor turnover, and student difficulties in accessing clinical opportunities and required coursework. CSU and UC participants noted that these had greatest impact for first generation and racially/ethnically underrepresented students for whom lack of informal professional networks, lack of other mentors, and financial responsibilities complicate college navigation and professional school application. CONCLUSIONS: Students at CSU campuses had 5 times less access to pre-health advising per graduate than UC students, and 13 times less than students at private institutions. Much greater investment is needed in California's public institutions, particularly CSUs, to increase equity in access to advising for pre-health professional students. Research should examine pre-health advising resource capacity in other states, especially those that are now facing race-neutral admissions policies at undergraduate institutions and health professions schools.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Estudantes , Humanos , Universidades , California
6.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 56(3): 133-144, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the college student Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) application process from the perspective of county agency workers. DESIGN: A qualitative study that included semistructured individual and group interviews (n = 14) between February and December, 2021. SETTING: Nine California counties with a University of California campus. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 24 county agency workers who regularly process or advise on college student SNAP applications. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Facilitators and barriers to processing student SNAP applications. ANALYSIS: Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five themes were identified regarding student applications: (1) a need for more consistency in policy dissemination and program administration, (2) student exemptions and the application process are perceived as challenging for students, (3) facilitators of successfully processing student applications, (4) tracking policy changes is burdensome, and (5) eliminate the student rules. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: County agency workers perceived that students experience unnecessary barriers to accessing SNAP benefits and that implementing the student rules was taxing. Expanding SNAP access to low-income college students could be an equitable solution to mitigate the risk of student hunger while they pursue their degrees.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Pobreza , California , Fome , Estudantes , Abastecimento de Alimentos
7.
Environ Manage ; 73(4): 858-875, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183446

RESUMO

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has become one of the most widespread environmental management instruments. Despite this, EIA is routinely criticized for being ineffective at impacting decision-making. This study compared the EIA systems of Paraná, Brazil and California, United States using the effectiveness dimensions from the EIA literature. This study formats the cases into contextual conditions using the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to identify the necessary or sufficient conditions that cause effective outcomes. These effectiveness outcomes are then ranked by EIA stakeholders via the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to identify stakeholder priorities and to improve stakeholder management. The results show that in Paraná stakeholders identified normative effectiveness as the most important dimension, while stakeholders in California identified this dimension as the second-most important following substantive effectiveness. Public participation was found to be a necessary condition for both substantive and normative effectiveness to occur. Early project definition was found to be sufficient for substantive effectiveness and necessary for normative effectiveness, for which stakeholder coordination was a sufficient condition. This suggests that in order for EIA to influence decision-making and foster sustainable development, greater care needs to be taken to actively engage stakeholders in public participation, with clear roles and project design communicated early on, and a clear role for regulatory authority to promote stakeholder coordination for acceptable outcomes. These findings suggest that some effectiveness dimensions are caused by similar conditions, which could help focus stakeholder management efforts and point to new avenues for future EIA effectiveness research.


Assuntos
Processo de Hierarquia Analítica , Meio Ambiente , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Brasil , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , California
8.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 123, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-Sa) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are historically associated with densely populated urban areas experiencing high poverty rates, intravenous drug use, and homelessness. However, the epidemiology of CA-Sa SSTIs in the United States has been poorly understood since the plateau of the Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic in 2010. This study examines the spatial variation of CA-Sa SSTIs in a large, geographically heterogeneous population and identifies neighborhood characteristics associated with increased infection risk. METHODS: Using a unique neighborhood boundary, California Medical Service Study Areas, a hotspot analysis, and estimates of neighborhood infection risk ratios were conducted for all CA-Sa SSTIs presented in non-Federal California emergency departments between 2016 and 2019. A Bayesian Poisson regression model evaluated the association between neighborhood-level infection risk and population structure, neighborhood poverty rates, and being a healthcare shortage area. RESULTS: Emergency departments in more rural and mountainous parts of California experienced a higher burden of CA-Sa SSTIs between 2016 and 2019. Neighborhoods with high infection rates were more likely to have a high percentage of adults living below the federal poverty level and be a designated healthcare shortage area. Measures of population structure were not associated with infection risk in California neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a potential change in the epidemiology of CA-Sa SSTIs in California emergency departments. Future studies should investigate the CA-Sa burden in other geographies to identify whether this shift in epidemiology holds across other states and populations. Further, a more thorough evaluation of potential mechanisms for the clustering of infections seen across California neighborhoods is needed.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Adulto , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
9.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 31(1): 21-30, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36803530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare disparities in outpatient ophthalmic care during early and later periods of the COVID-19 public health emergency. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared non-peri-operative outpatient ophthalmology visits by unique patients at an adult ophthalmology practice affiliated with a tertiary-care academic medical center in the Western US during three time periods: pre-COVID (3/15/19-4/15/19), early-COVID (3/15/20-4/15/20), and late-COVID (3/15/21-4/15/21). Differences in participant demographics, barriers to care, visit modality (telehealth, in person), and subspeciality of care were studied using unadjusted and adjusted models. RESULTS: There were 3095, 1172 and 3338 unique patient-visits during pre-COVID, early-COVID and late-COVID (overall age 59.5 ± 20.5 years, 57% female, 41.8% White, 25.9% Asian, 16.1% Hispanic). There were disparities in patient age (55.4 ± 21.8 vs. 60.2 ± 19.9 years), race (21.9% vs. 26.9% Asian), ethnicity (18.3% Hispanic vs. 15.2% Hispanic), and insurance (35.9% vs. 45.1% Medicare) as well as changes in modality (14.2% vs. 0% telehealth) and subspecialty (61.6% vs. 70.1% internal exam specialty) in early-COVID vs. pre-COVID (p < .05 for all). In late-COVID, only insurance (42.7% vs. 45.1% Medicare) and modality of care (1.8% vs. 0% telehealth) persisted as differences compared to pre-COVID. CONCLUSIONS: There were disparities in patients receiving outpatient ophthalmology care during early-COVID that returned close to pre-COVID baseline one year later. These results suggest that there has not been a lasting positive or negative disruptive effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on disparities in outpatient ophthalmic care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Saúde Pública , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medicare , California
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 912: 168913, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study assessed whether banning specific insecticides to reduce the PD burden in three Central California (CA) counties is cost-effective. METHOD: We applied a cost-effectiveness analysis using a cohort-based Markov model to estimate the impact and costs of banning seven insecticides that were previously associated with PD in these counties as well as mixture exposures to some of these pesticides. We relied for our estimations on the cohort of 65- and 66-year-olds living in these counties who were unaffected by PD at baseline in 2020 and projected their incidence, costs, and reduction in quality-adjusted-life-years (QALY) loss due to developing PD over a 20-year period. We included a shiny app for modeling different scenarios (https://sherlockli.shinyapps.io/pesticide_pd_economics_part_2/). RESULTS: According to our scenarios, banning insecticides to reduce the occurrence of PD in three Central CA counties was cost-effective relative to not banning insecticides. In the worst-case scenario of exposure to a single pesticide, methomyl, versus none would result in an estimated 205 (95 % CI: 75, 348) additional PD cases or 12 % (95 % CI: 4 %, 20 %) increase in PD cases over a 20-year period based on residential proximity to pesticide applications. The increase in PD cases due to methomyl would increase health-related costs by $72.0 million (95 % CI: $5.5 million, $187.4 million). Each additional PD patient due to methomyl exposure would incur $109,327 (95 % CI, $5554, $347,757) in costs per QALY loss due to PD. Exposure to methomyl based on workplace proximity to pesticide applications generated similar estimates. The highest PD burden and associated costs would be incurred from exposure to multiple pesticides simultaneously. CONCLUSION: Our study provides an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of banning specific insecticides to reduce PD burden in terms of health-related QALYs and related costs. This information may help policymakers and stakeholders to make decisions concerning the regulation of pesticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Doença de Parkinson , Praguicidas , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Metomil , California , Análise Custo-Benefício
12.
Public Health Rep ; 139(1): 120-128, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38018488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Substantial data on COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality among medically underserved populations are available, yet data on the social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among immigrants in the United States are limited. We identified COVID-19-related health and social disparities among US immigrants. METHODS: We analyzed predictors of COVID-19-related health and social outcomes (including ever had or thought had COVID-19, vaccine uptake, risk-reduction behaviors, job loss, childcare difficulties, and difficulty paying rent) during the pandemic by citizenship status, using data from the 2021 California Health Interview Survey. The overall sample size included 24 453 US-born citizens, naturalized citizens, and noncitizens aged ≥18 years. We examined relationships between sociodemographic variables, including immigration-related factors, and COVID-19-related health and social outcomes using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: When accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, noncitizens had higher odds than naturalized and US-born citizens of experiencing challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, including difficulty paying rent (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.47-2.42) and job loss (aOR = 1.43; 95%, CI, 1.14-1.79). At the bivariate level, noncitizens had the highest rate of ever had or thought had COVID-19 (24.7%) compared with US-born citizens (20.8%) and naturalized citizens (16.8%; all P < .001). Noncitizens also had a significantly higher likelihood of risk-reduction behaviors (eg, always wearing a face covering, getting vaccinated if available) than US-born citizens (P < .001). CONCLUSION: These findings reveal the disproportionate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among noncitizens and reflect limited socioeconomic resources, limited access to health care, and precarious employment among noncitizens in California during the pandemic. Citizenship status should be considered a critical immigration-related factor when examining disparities among immigrant populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração , California/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 10(1): 27-28, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991779

RESUMO

This Viewpoint describes key domains in which the California Cancer Care Equity Act may benefit patients, recommends potential improvements to further expand access and reduce disparities, and suggests possible safeguards to monitor and minimize unintended consequences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , California , Políticas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 26(2): 203-211, 2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37493636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prior studies report nicotine/tobacco use disparities for sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth but have insufficiently characterized SGM identity diversity. AIMS AND METHODS: Adolescents (mean age = 15.2) from 11 high schools in Southern California completed surveys in Fall 2021. Ever use of combustible (cigarettes, cigars, hookah) and noncombustible (e-cigarettes, e-hookah, heated tobacco, smokeless/snus, oral nicotine) nicotine/tobacco (among overall sample, n = 3795) and susceptibility to future initiation of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and flavored non-tobacco oral nicotine (among n = 3331 tobacco-naïve youth) were compared across four gender (male/masculine, female/feminine, transgender male/female, non-binary) and seven sexual (heterosexual, bisexual, pansexual, queer, questioning, gay/lesbian, asexual) identities. RESULTS: Non-binary (vs. cisgender male) youth had greater prevalence of ever combustible (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.76 to 4.66) and non-combustible (PR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.31 to 2.86) nicotine/tobacco use, and susceptibility to future nicotine/tobacco initiation (PR range = 2.32-2.68). Transgender (vs. cisgender male) youth had greater susceptibility to nicotine/tobacco use (PR range = 1.73-1.95), but not greater tobacco use prevalence. There was greater prevalence of non-combustible nicotine/tobacco use (PR range = 1.78-1.97) and susceptibility to nicotine/tobacco initiation (PR range = 1.36-2.18) for all sexual minority (vs. heterosexual) identities, except for asexual. Bisexual (PR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.16) and queer (PR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.31 to 6.27) youth had higher ever combustible tobacco use than heterosexual youth. Questioning (vs. heterosexual) youth were more susceptible to future tobacco initiation (PR range = 1.36-2.05) but did not differ in ever use. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in nicotine/tobacco use and susceptibility were present with similar effect sizes across most, but not all, SGM identities. Inclusive measurement of SGM identities in research and surveillance may inform more precise tobacco control efforts to reduce disparities. IMPLICATIONS: Among high school students from Southern California with substantial diversity in sexual and gender identities, there was greater prevalence of tobacco use and susceptibility to future tobacco initiation for most, but not all, sexual and gender minority youth, including those with emerging sexual and gender identities such as non-binary, queer and pansexual. Additionally, findings indicate that tobacco control initiatives targeting youth who are questioning their sexual identities may be particularly important for preventing tobacco use initiation. This study reinforces the importance of measuring diversity within the LGBTQ + community for tobacco use research, and highlights how inclusive measurement can inform more precise tobacco control interventions.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Identidade de Gênero , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Nicotina , Comportamento Sexual , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 193(2): 277-284, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37771041

RESUMO

Black women in the United States have the highest incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and are disproportionately burdened by its adverse sequalae, compared with women of all racial and ethnic groups. Segregation, a key driver of structural racism for Black families, can provide information critical to understanding these disparities. We examined the association between racial and economic segregation at 2 points and incident HDP using intergenerationally linked birth records of 45,204 Black California-born primiparous mothers (born 1982-1997) and their infants (born 1997-2011), with HDP ascertained from hospital discharge records. Women's early childhood and adulthood neighborhoods were categorized as deprived, mixed, or privileged based on the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (a measure of concentrated racial and economic segregation), yielding 9 life-course trajectories. Women living in deprived neighborhoods at both time points experienced the highest odds of HDP (from mixed effect logistic regression, unadjusted odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.40) compared with women living in privileged neighborhoods at both time points. All trajectories involving residence in a deprived neighborhood in early childhood or adulthood were associated with increased odds of HDP, whereas mixed-privileged and privileged-mixed trajectories were not. Future studies should assess the causal nature of these associations.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Características da Vizinhança , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Segregação Social , Disparidades Socioeconômicas em Saúde , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , California/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/economia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etnologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Health Serv Res ; 59 Suppl 1: e14236, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37749901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of Accountable Communities of Health (ACHs) on organizational and community partnerships and explore how ACHs contribute to systems change. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: The California Accountable Communities of Health Initiative (CACHI) was a 5-year, $17 M investment in community health transformation in 13 ACH sites. Data sources include two surveys, key informant interviews, small group conversations, and ACH meeting observations and document review. STUDY DESIGN: This was a mixed-methods, observational study. Surveys conducted in 2021 and 2022 focused on ACH progress in building organizational and community partnerships and ACH impact on partners and systems, respectively. Interviews and small group conversations were conducted toward the end of the CACHI grant period and designed to complement the surveys. DATA COLLECTION: Survey respondents included ACH backbone agency staff and partner organization representatives (n = 141 in 2021 and 88 in 2022). Semistructured individual interviews and group conversations were conducted with 40 ACH backbone staff and partners. Documents were collected via grant reporting and directly from ACH staff. Data were analyzed descriptively and thematically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ACHs appear to have supported organizational partnerships and collaboration. Seventy-six percent of survey respondents reported that their ACH had strengthened organizations' ability to work together and 65% reported developing new or deepened connections. While ACH participants reported a better understanding of community needs and priorities, progress on community relationships, and greater attention to equity and racial justice, many saw room for improvement on meaningful community engagement. Systems changes and precursors of systems change observed across ACH sites included strengthened partnerships, enhanced knowledge, increased capacity, more collaborative ways of working, and new funding streams. CONCLUSIONS: The ACH model is effective at strengthening organizational partnerships and catalyzing other systems changes and precursors including enhanced knowledge, increased capacity, more collaborative ways of working, and new funding.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Grupos Raciais , Humanos , California
17.
J Perinatol ; 44(2): 224-230, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37805592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine association of costs with quality of care and patient outcome across hospitals in California. METHODS: Retrospective study of very low birth weight (VLBW) births from 2014-2018 linking birth certificate, hospital discharge records and clinical data. Quality was measured using the Baby-MONITOR score. Clinical outcome was measured using survival without major morbidity (SWMM). Hierarchical generalized linear models, adjusting for clinical factors, were used to estimate risk-adjusted measures of costs, quality, and outcome for each hospital. Association between these measures was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: In total, 15,415 infants from 104 NICUs were included. Risk-adjusted Baby-MONITOR score, SWMM rate, and costs varied substantially. There was no correlation between risk-adjusted cost and Baby-MONITOR score (r = 0, p = 0.998). Correlation between risk-adjusted cost and SWMM rate was inverse and not significant (r = -0.07, p = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: With the metrics used, we found no correlation between cost, quality, and outcomes in the care of VLBW infants.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , California , Fatores de Risco , Peso ao Nascer
18.
Contraception ; 131: 110308, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37838310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of Catholic hospital delivery on short interval pregnancy in the California 2010-2014 Medicaid population. STUDY DESIGN: We used Cox regression to estimate the association between hospital affiliation and short interval pregnancy, adjusting for patient factors. RESULTS: Catholic hospital delivery had increased the risk of pregnancy within 6 months for Black (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.06, 1.17) and Hispanic (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05, 1.09) but not for White women (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.98, 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among California women with Medicaid, Catholic hospital delivery was associated with short interval pregnancy only among women of color.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Catolicismo , Hospitais Religiosos , Medicaid , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , California , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos , Grupos Raciais , Etnicidade
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 66(1): 94-103, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37553037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Amid the successes of local sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes, interest in state-wide policies has grown. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of a hypothetical 2-cent-per-ounce excise tax in California and its implications for population health and health equity. METHODS: Using the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost-Effectiveness Study microsimulation model, tax impacts on health, health equity, and cost effectiveness over 10 years in California were projected, both overall and stratified by race/ethnicity and income. Expanding on previous models, differences in the effect of intake of SSBs on weight by BMI category were incorporated. Costing was performed in 2020, and analyses were conducted in 2021-2022. RESULTS: The tax is projected to save $4.55 billion in healthcare costs, prevent 266,000 obesity cases in 2032, and gain 114,000 quality-adjusted life years. Cost-effectiveness metrics, including cost/quality-adjusted life year gained, were cost saving. Spending on SSBs was projected to decrease by $33 per adult and $26 per child overall in the first year. Reductions in obesity prevalence for Black and Hispanic Californians were 1.8 times larger than for White Californians, and reductions for adults with lowest incomes (<130% Federal Poverty Level) were 1.4 times the reduction among those with highest incomes (>350% Federal Poverty Level). The tax is projected to save $112 in obesity-related healthcare costs per $1 invested. CONCLUSIONS: A state-wide SSB tax in California would be cost saving, lead to reductions in obesity and improvement in SSB-related health equity, and lead to overall improvements in population health. The policy would generate more than $1.6 billion in state tax revenue annually that can also be used to improve health equity.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Bebidas , California , Impostos
20.
J Adv Nurs ; 80(2): 683-691, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37550826

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the impact of structural and intermediary social determinants of health (SDoH) on Californian adults' mental health during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2020 cycle of the California Health Interview Survey, the largest US state-level population health survey. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Using a general social determinant of health framework, we operationalized different survey questions to measure structural and intermediary determinants of mental health. RESULTS: Mental health during the early phase of COVID-19 among adults in California was associated with age, gender, health conditions, delayed care, employment status (loss of job or reduced income) and discrimination. People in higher social strata were more likely to have better mental health for many of these factors. CONCLUSION: This study supports the assertion that material circumstances (such as employment status) and discrimination are associated with experiencing mental health issues among adults in California during COVID-19. Racism is a public health issue, and as nurses, addressing racism is critical. In addition, much work is needed to address SDoH to improve health outcomes, especially among marginalized populations. IMPACT: This study addressed the knowledge gap concerning the social determinants of mental health among Californian adults during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who had reduced income and those who lost their jobs during the COVID-19 pandemic were 46% and 56%, respectively, more likely to report mental health problems. Those who experienced discrimination in healthcare were 304% more likely to report mental health issues. This research will increase the understanding of the social determinants of health, particularly for those with chronic illnesses and mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: No patient or public contribution, as we used an existing US state dataset. However, California Health Interview Survey is the largest state health survey in the United States and interviews more than 20,000 households each year representing the health care needs of Californians.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
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