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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142046, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982158

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a distinct spatiotemporal pattern in the United States. Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, but it is not well known whether COVID-19 outcomes in this patient population were associated with geography. Objective: To quantify spatiotemporal variation in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients with a historical diagnosis of invasive malignant neoplasm and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and November 2020. Data were collected from cancer care delivery centers in the United States. Exposures: Patient residence was categorized into 9 US census divisions. Cancer center characteristics included academic or community classification, rural-urban continuum code (RUCC), and social vulnerability index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary composite outcome consisted of receipt of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause death. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated associations of center-level and census division-level exposures with outcomes after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and quantified variation in adjusted outcomes across centers, census divisions, and calendar time. Results: Data for 4749 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-76] years; 2439 [51.4%] female individuals, 1079 [22.7%] non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 690 [14.5%] Hispanic individuals) were reported from 83 centers in the Northeast (1564 patients [32.9%]), Midwest (1638 [34.5%]), South (894 [18.8%]), and West (653 [13.8%]). After adjustment for patient characteristics, including month of COVID-19 diagnosis, estimated 30-day mortality rates ranged from 5.2% to 26.6% across centers. Patients from centers located in metropolitan areas with population less than 250 000 (RUCC 3) had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared with patients from centers in metropolitan areas with population at least 1 million (RUCC 1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.84). The type of center was not significantly associated with primary or secondary outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome rates across the 9 census divisions, but adjusted mortality rates significantly improved over time (eg, September to November vs March to May: aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study, significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes across US census divisions were not observed. However, substantial heterogeneity in COVID-19 outcomes across cancer care delivery centers was found. Attention to implementing standardized guidelines for the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 could improve outcomes for these vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , População Rural , Vulnerabilidade Social , População Urbana , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Censos , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(1): 30-34, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978479

RESUMO

One of the current worldwide public health problems is elderly financial abuse (EFA). Although EFA remains a hidden social phenomenon, it has been recognized as a serious concern in the United States, and currently, one in 18 cognitively intact older adults is affected by EFA. Detecting EFA is difficult because the perpetrators are often family members, trusted friends, or guardians. Thus, EFA is frequently unrecognized and grossly under-reported. In the coming decades, EFA will increase as the elderly population continues to grow rapidly worldwide. This article highlights the magnitude of the problem and the role of nurses and other health care providers in identifying, intervening in, and reporting EFA. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(1):30-34.].


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Idoso , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 146-158, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668806

RESUMO

To control pharmaceutical spending and improve access, the United States could adopt strategies similar to those introduced in Germany by the 2011 German Pharmaceutical Market Reorganization Act. In Germany, manufacturers sell new drugs immediately upon receiving marketing approval. During the first year, the German Federal Joint Committee assesses new drugs to determine their added medical benefit. It assigns them a score indicating their added benefit. New drugs comparable to drugs in a reference price group are assigned to that group and receive the same reimbursement, unless they are therapeutically superior. The National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds then negotiates with manufacturers the maximum reimbursement starting the 13th month, consistent with the drug's added benefit assessment and price caps in other European countries. In the absence of agreement, an arbitration board sets the price. Manufacturers accept the price resolution or exit the market. Thereafter, prices generally are not increased, even for inflation. US public and private insurers control prices in diverse ways, but typically obtain discounts by designating certain drugs as preferred and by restricting patient access or charging high copayment for nonpreferred drugs. This article draws 10 lessons for drug pricing reform in US federal programs and private insurance.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Alemanha , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Estados Unidos
4.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 141-145, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704836

RESUMO

Privatized Medicare Advantage has grown rapidly among seniors in the United States in recent years. It is now being promoted actively by corporate stakeholders and even by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services itself as a new proposal to extend this approach to cover all Americans. There is little public awareness, however, of the current costs and adverse impacts of Medicare Advantage on enrollees' access, costs, and outcomes of care while deceptive marketing and disinformation prevails. This article traces the history of Medicare Advantage, outlines false assertions being made by proponents of Medicare Advantage for All, and refutes them based on evidence and their track record. If ever enacted, it would end up lining the pockets of corporate stakeholders and Wall Street investors while limiting access to care, increasing costs, and reducing quality and outcomes of care. The United States already ranks last for access, equity, and outcomes of care in periodic studies by the Commonwealth Fund. This proposal would worsen that situation while costing patients, families, and taxpayers more as their health suffers.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C , Idoso , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151318, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743879

RESUMO

The United States has thousands of invasive species, representing a sizable, but unknown burden to the national economy. Given the potential economic repercussions of invasive species, quantifying these costs is of paramount importance both for national economies and invasion management. Here, we used a novel global database of invasion costs (InvaCost) to quantify the overall costs of invasive species in the United States across spatiotemporal, taxonomic, and socioeconomic scales. From 1960 to 2020, reported invasion costs totaled $4.52 trillion (USD 2017). Considering only observed, highly reliable costs, this total cost reached $1.22 trillion with an average annual cost of $19.94 billion/year. These costs increased from $2.00 billion annually between 1960 and 1969 to $21.08 billion annually between 2010 and 2020. Most costs (73%) were related to resource damages and losses ($896.22 billion), as opposed to management expenditures ($46.54 billion). Moreover, the majority of costs were reported from invaders from terrestrial habitats ($643.51 billion, 53%) and agriculture was the most impacted sector ($509.55 billion). From a taxonomic perspective, mammals ($234.71 billion) and insects ($126.42 billion) were the taxonomic groups responsible for the greatest costs. Considering the apparent rising costs of invasions, coupled with increasing numbers of invasive species and the current lack of cost information for most known invaders, our findings provide critical information for policymakers and managers.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Agricultura , Animais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Insetos , Estados Unidos
6.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114062, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773783

RESUMO

Environmental impact associated with production and consumption of pulses in the United States was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The system boundary was set to cradle-to-grave with a functional unit of 60 g (dry basis) of pulses consumed in a US household. Varieties of pulses modeled in the study included field pea (Pisum sativum), lentil (Lens culinaris), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and dry bean. Three methods of cooking pulses at the consumer stage tested in the study were cooking in open vessel on electric cooking range (OVC), cooking in stovetop pressure cooker on electric cooking range (SPC), and cooking in electric pressure cooker (EPC). OVC formed the base scenario against which all other scenarios were compared. The environmental impact of pulses varied with type of pulse crop, cooking method, and the batch size. Consumption of approximately 60 g of dry pulses resulted in the greatest environmental impact for OVC. The consumer stage contributed at least 83, 81, 76, 75, and 87 percent for global warming potential (GWP), fossil resource scarcity (FRS), water consumption (WC), freshwater eutrophication (FE), and marine eutrophication (ME), respectively for this scenario. EPC resulted in the greatest decrease in the environmental impact, compared to OVC, for GWP, FRS, FE, and ME for all pulse varieties, which was validated in the uncertainty analysis. SPC, on the other hand, decreased the impact across these categories only for chickpea and dry bean. The uncertainty analysis suggested that the differences associated with cooking methods in the mean land use and water consumption scores of pulses were statistically non-significant. The impact categories were also highly sensitive to the mass of pulses cooked in a batch. Increasing the reference flow in OVC to 1 kg decreased the environmental impact of pulses by 49-87 percent for all impact categories, excluding land use. Overall, the study identified the consumer stage as the hotspot for environmental impact in the supply chain of pulses in the United States. The large contribution of the consumer stage to the overall environmental impact of pulses was attributed to electricity consumption for cooking and associated upstream emissions.


Assuntos
Culinária , Aquecimento Global , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Eutrofização , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Estados Unidos
7.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E244-E255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review changes in public health finance since the 2012 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "For the Public's Health: Investing in a Healthier Future." DESIGN: Qualitative study involving key informant interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample of US public health practitioners, leaders, and academics expected to be knowledgeable about the report recommendations, public health practice, and changes in public health finance since the report. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Qualitative feedback about changes to public health finance since the report. RESULTS: Thirty-two interviews were conducted between April and May 2019. The greatest momentum toward the report recommendations has occurred predominantly at the state and local levels, with recommendations requiring federal action making less progress. In addition, much of the progress identified is consensus building and preparation for change rather than clear changes. Overall, progress toward the recommendations has been slow. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the achievements reported by respondents were characterized as increased dialogue and individual state or local progress rather than widespread, identifiable policy or practice changes. Participants suggested that public health as a field needs to achieve further consensus and a uniform voice in order to advocate for changes at a federal level. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Slow progress in achieving 2012 IOM Finance Report recommendations and lack of a cohesive voice pose threats to the public's health, as can be seen in the context of COVID-19 emergency response activities. The pandemic and the nation's inadequate response have highlighted deficiencies in our current system and emphasize the need for coordinated and sustained core public health infrastructure funding at the federal level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
8.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 9-22, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686893

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected almost all countries and territories. As of December 6, 2020, the United States of America and India have the highest prevalence. Each country has implemented different strategies to control and reduce the spread of disease. Here, the association between prevalence number and health policies is evaluated by comparing 2 groups of countries: (1) Italy, the United States of America, Germany, Spain, and India with a higher prevalence than a linear trend line; and (2) Singapore and China with a lower or equal prevalence than linear forecasts. A rapid overview revealed that many countries have similar strategies for controlling COVID-19, including the suspension of air travel, the lockdown on the cities with the most cases detected, active case findings, monitoring of close contacts, and raising public awareness. Also, they used a gradual and phased plan to reopen activities. So, the difference between countries in the burden of COVID-19 can be attributable to the strict mode and nonstrict mode of implementation of strategies. Limitations at the national levels call for systemic rather than regional strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
9.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 70-76, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) the willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine among Medicare beneficiaries, (2) the associated factors, and (3) the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: Data were taken from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) 2020 Fall COVID-19 Supplement, conducted October-November 2020. Willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine was measured by respondents' answer to whether they would get a COVID-19 vaccine when available. We classified responses of "definitely" and "probably" as "willing to get," and responses "probably not," "definitely not," and "not sure" as "vaccine hesitancy." Reasons for vaccine hesitancy were assessed by a series of yes/no questions focusing on 10 potential reasons. The analytical sample included 6715 adults 65 years and older. We conducted a logistic regression model to assess demographic factors and other factors associated with the willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine. All analyses were conducted in Stata 14 and accounted for the complex survey design of MCBS. RESULTS: Overall, 61.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.1-63.0) of Medicare beneficiaries would be willing to get a vaccine when available. Among those who were hesitant, more than 40% reported that mistrust of the government and side effects as the main reasons. Logistic regression model results showed that non-Hispanic Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.24-0.44) and Hispanics (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.77) were less willing to get a vaccine than non-Hispanic Whites; beneficiaries with an income of less than $25 000 (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.81) were less willing to get the vaccine than those with an income of $25 000 or more; those who did not think that the COVID-19 virus was more contagious (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41-0.69) or more deadly (AOR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.65) were also less willing to get the vaccine than those who thought that the virus was more contagious or more deadly than the influenza virus. CONCLUSIONS: The 2020 MCBS survey data showed that close to 40% of Medicare beneficiaries were hesitant about getting a COVID-19 vaccine, and the hesitancy was greater in racial/ethnic minorities. Medicare beneficiaries were concerned about the safety of the vaccine, and some appeared to be misinformed. Evidence-based educational and policy-level interventions need to be implemented to further promote COVID-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Medicare , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
10.
Med Care ; 60(1): 3-12, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Equitable access to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing is important for reducing disparities. We sought to examine differences in the health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing by race/ethnicity and insurance. Options included traditional health care settings and mobile testing units (MTUs) targeting communities experiencing disproportionately high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study among patients in a large health system in the Southeastern US. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing, defined as: (1) outpatient (OP) care; (2) emergency department (ED); (3) urgent care (UC); and (4) MTUs. Patient characteristics included race/ethnicity, insurance, and the existence of an established relationship with the health care system. RESULTS: Our analytic sample included 105,386 adult patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 55% of patients sought care at OP, 24% at ED, 12% at UC, and 9% at MTU. The sample was 58% White, 24% Black, 11% Hispanic, and 8% other race/ethnicity. Black patients had a higher likelihood of getting tested through the ED compared with White patients. Hispanic patients had the highest likelihood of testing at MTUs. Patients without a primary care provider had a higher relative risk of being tested through the ED and MTUs versus OP. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities by race/ethnicity were present in health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Health care systems may consider implementing mobile care delivery models to reach vulnerable populations. Our findings support the need for systemic change to increase primary care and health care access beyond short-term pandemic solutions.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etnologia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pain ; 163(1): 75-82, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924552

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In 2019, the American College of Rheumatology conditionally recommended tramadol and conditionally recommended against nontramadol opioids for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. Although tramadol is known to be less prone to opioid use disorders, little is known about the differing magnitude of negative clinical outcomes, health care resource utilization, and costs of tramadol relative to nontramadol opioids. Administrative claims records for commercially insured patients with osteoarthritis who were prescribed opioids were used to compare clinical and cost outcomes during a 3-year follow-up period by conducting a pre-post analysis and a matched case-cohort analysis. Data for 14,491 patients were analyzed: 4048 (28%) were initiated on tramadol, and 10,443 (72%) were initiated on nontramadol opioids. After matching, 4048 patients per cohort were analyzed. In each empirical analysis, tramadol patients did develop opioid use disorders; however, opioid use disorder rates were 3.5-fold higher in the nontramadol cohort (1.2% vs 4.2%). In addition, rates of other opioid-related clinical outcomes (falls, fractures, nausea, fatigue, and constipation) were also directionally lower among the tramadol cohort, although quantitatively similar (<5% difference) to the nontramadol cohort. Finally, in both analyses, the nontramadol cohort incurred higher levels of inpatient and emergency department visits and all-cause costs during the 3-year follow-up period. However, tramadol patients incur a higher incremental change (+$24,013) in costs relative to their pretreatment baseline compared with nontramadol (+$18,191). These real-world findings demonstrated lower risks with tramadol relative to other opioids, albeit risks and increased health care costs were present with tramadol, highlighting the need for further strategies to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Quadril , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Tramadol , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estresse Financeiro , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tramadol/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
12.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(1): 4-11, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365856

RESUMO

Despite high enthusiasm surrounding the rollout of the COVID-19 vaccine, some older adults continue to remain hesitant about its receipt. There is limited evidence on vaccine hesitancy among community-dwelling older adults. In this study, we examine the prevalence and predictors (particularly the role played by information sources) of vaccine hesitancy in this group. We use the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and employ multivariable logistic regression models to explore this. Relative to those relying on regular news, those depending on health care providers (HCPs), social media, other internet/webpages, and family/friends as the main information source on COVID-19 expressed higher negative vaccine intent. The high negative intent with HCPs as the main information source should be interpreted with caution. This could be reflective of the timing of the survey and changing attitude toward the vaccine among HCPs themselves.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Idoso , Humanos , Vida Independente , Medicare , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
13.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(1): 4-9, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to increase the value of health care in the United States, there has been increased focus on shifting certain procedures to an outpatient setting. While pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures (SCHFs) have traditionally been treated in an inpatient setting, recent studies have investigated the safety and efficiency of outpatient surgery for these injuries. This retrospective study aims to examine ongoing trends of outpatient surgical care for SCHFs, examine the safety and complication rates of these procedures, and investigate the potential cost-savings from this shift in care. METHODS: Pediatric patients less than 13 years old who underwent surgery for closed SCHF from 2009 to 2018 were identified using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 Clinical Modification and Procedural Classification System codes in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database. Linear regression was used to assess the shift in proportion of outpatient surgical management of these injuries over time. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare return to emergency department (ED) visit, readmission, reoperation, and other adverse events. A 2-sample t test was performed on the average charge amount per claim for inpatient versus outpatient surgery. RESULTS: A total of 8488 patients were included in the analysis showing there was a statistically significant shift towards outpatient management between 2009 (23% outpatient) and 2018 (59% outpatient) (P<0.0001). Relative to inpatient surgical management, outpatient surgical management had lower rates of return ED visits at 1 month (hazard ratio: 0.744, P=0.048). All other adverse events compared across inpatient and outpatient surgical management were not significantly different. The median amount billed per claim for inpatient surgeries was significantly higher than for outpatient surgeries ($16,097 vs. $9,752, P<0.0001). White race, female sex, and weekday ED visit were associated with increased rate of outpatient management. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the trend of increasing outpatient surgical management of pediatric SCHF from 2009 to 2018. The increased rate of outpatient management has not been associated with elevated complication rates but is associated with significantly reduced health care charges. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective cohort.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adolescente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Úmero , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 132: 108648, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic collided with the opioid epidemic and longstanding health inequities to exacerbate the disproportionate harms experienced by persons with opioid use disorder (OUD) who self-identify as from racial and ethnic minority groups. Disrupted access to harm reduction services (e.g., naloxone, sterile syringes, recovery support) is one pathway whereby COVID-19 might exacerbate health disparities. We tested the hypothesis that persons receiving medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) who self-identify as from racial/ethnic minority groups would experience more disruptions in access to harm reduction services than persons identifying as non-Hispanic White, even when controlling for severity of opioid use and sociodemographics (e.g., education, income, biological sex, age). METHODS: Analyses used data from a cluster randomized trial that had enrolled 188 patients, all of whom had provided baseline data on sociodemographics and severity of opioid use, across eight opioid treatment programs. Data collectors re-contacted participants between May and June 2020 and 133 (71% response rate) agreed to complete a survey about access to harm reduction services. RESULTS: Twenty-six respondents (20%) identified as from racial/ethnic minority groups (predominantly Black, Hispanic, and/or biracial). Between 7% and 27% of respondents reported disrupted access to harm reduction services. Logistic regressions indicated that persons identifying as from racial/ethnic minority groups were 8-10 times more likely than persons identifying as non-Hispanic White to report reduced access to naloxone and sterile syringes (p < .01), even when accounting for potential confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: This report concludes with a discussion of potential outreach strategies and policies to advance more equitable access to essential harm reduction services.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
15.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 28(1): 141-148, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As costs continue to rise in oncology, a strategy that has been implemented to limit these costs is use of alternative sites of care. However, there are differences in regulatory standards between common sites of care such as freestanding infusion clinics and hospital outpatient departments. The costs associated with United States Pharmacopeia compliance were evaluated in order to better understand the cost of universally compliant hospital outpatient departments. METHODS: Annual operational costs associated with United States Pharmacopeia compliance were estimated for a 30-chair infusion clinic with United States Pharmacopeia <797> and <800> pharmacy cleanrooms for non-hazardous and hazardous drugs, respectively. Annual United States Pharmacopeia compliance costs included: competency assessments, personal protective equipment, closed system transfer devices, labels, cleaning supplies, and environmental monitoring. One-time costs included initial cleanroom construction and renovations. Published information and benchmarks provided baseline assumptions for patient volume, staffing, and unit costs. If no published data was available, prices were estimated based on a similarly sized clinic. RESULTS: Recurring annual costs for a 30-chair fully compliant infusion clinic were calculated to be $785,207. One-time costs associated with initial construction and renovations were estimated to be $1,365,207-$1,535,207 and $965,207-$1,005,207, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with increased operational oversight and regulatory standards are a major contributing factor to the facility fee of hospital outpatient departments. Ultimately, all sites of care share in the goal to provide optimal patient care while considering all aspects of patient care, including cost. Therefore, a move towards consistent regulatory standards across all settings would aid in preventing discrepancies in care.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Antineoplásicos , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Custos de Medicamentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Oncologia/economia , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/economia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Med Econ ; 25(1): 7-13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple interventions may be used to treat symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), but concerns have been raised about the safety and efficacy of some therapies. Clinical trials have shown that hyaluronic acid (HA) can provide pain relief up to 6 months and possibly to 12 months, while real-world data has shown that pain medication and intra-articular corticosteroid (CS) injection utilization are reduced within 6 months after HA. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in prescription pain medication and CS utilization during 1 year after multimodal therapy that included high molecular weight, bio-fermentation derived HA (Bio-HA) use for knee OA. METHODS: Commercial and Medicare Supplemental claims data (IBM MarketScan Research Databases) (1 January 2012, through 31 December 2018) was used to identify unilateral Bio-HA patients using multimodal therapy (any combination of CS injection, opioids, and non-opioid pain medication). Monthly therapy utilization was compared in the 12 months after Bio-HA therapy initiation to the 4-month intra-multimodal period. RESULTS: A total of 13,999 patients underwent Bio-HA therapy with concurrent multimodal therapy. The number of filled opioid prescriptions decreased from 2,913.0/month to 2,861.5/month after Bio-HA, with a reduction in mean monthly prescriptions from 0.60 to 0.43 per user (p < 0.001). A number of opioid days supplied also decreased from 48,914/month to 39,730/month, with a decrease from 10.1/month to 6.0/month per user (p < 0.001). Bio-HA patients had prescription pain medication-free days for 71% of the time post-multimodal period compared to 53% during the intra-multimodal period (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with CS injections after Bio-HA decreased from 53.8% to 29.6% (p < 0.001). Total monthly CS injections decreased from 2,292 to 663. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that high molecular weight Bio-HA, as part of multimodal therapy, may be effective in providing longer-term pain relief with the reduction in pain therapy (CS injections and opioids) and increase in prescription pain medication-free days.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Fermentação , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Medicare , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Dor , Manejo da Dor , Prescrições , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
17.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964838

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Hospital readmissions are associated with poor patient outcomes, including higher risk for mortality, nutritional concerns, deconditioning, and higher costs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how acute occupational therapy service delivery factors affect readmission risk. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare inpatients with a diagnosis included in the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP; N = 17,618). Data were collected from medical records at a large urban hospital in southeastern Wisconsin. Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regression models were estimated to examine the association between acute occupational therapy service delivery factors and odds of readmission. In addition, the types of acute occupational therapy services for readmitted versus not-readmitted patients were compared. RESULTS: Patients had significantly higher odds of readmission if they received occupational therapy services while hospitalized (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.07, 1.31]). However, patshients who received acute occupational therapy services had significantly lower odds of readmission if they received a higher frequency (OR = 0.99, 95% CI [0.99,1.00]) of acute occupational therapy services. A significantly higher proportion of patients who were not readmitted, compared with patients who were readmitted, received activities of daily living (ADL) or self-care training (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: For patients with HRRP-qualifying diagnoses who received acute occupational therapy services, higher frequency of acute occupational therapy services was linked with lower odds of readmission. Readmitted patients were less likely to have received ADL or self-care training while hospitalized. What This Article Adds: Identifying factors of acute occupational therapy services that reduce the odds of readmission for Medicare patients may help to improve patient outcomes and further define occupational therapy's role in the U.S. quality-focused health care system.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Readmissão do Paciente , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964839

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Readmissions are costly for Medicare and are associated with poor patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether two domains relevant to acute occupational therapy practice-self-care status and social factors-were associated with readmissions for Medicare patients in the Medicare Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare inpatients with a diagnosis included in the HRRP (N = 17,618). Outcomes and Measures: Three logistic regression models were estimated to examine the associations among (1) self-care status and 30-day readmission, (2) social support and 30-day readmission, and (3) housing situation and 30-day readmission. Subgroup analyses were conducted for the individual HRRP diagnoses. RESULTS: No associations were found between acute self-care status, social support, or housing situation and 30-day readmission when all HRRP diagnoses were examined together. However, higher levels of independence with self-care were significantly associated with reduced odds of readmission for patients with pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings for patients with pneumonia are consistent with those of other studies done in the acute care setting. Deficiencies in acute occupational therapy documentation may have affected the findings for the other HRRP diagnoses. What This Article Adds: This study is the first to examine the association between acute self-care status (as documented by acute care occupational therapy practitioners) and readmission.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Readmissão do Paciente , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autocuidado , Fatores Sociais , Estados Unidos
19.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 35(1): 37-42, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since 2017, home health agencies (HHAs) have received reimbursement for the provision of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using disposable, portable devices to eligible Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. This study aimed to describe the use of disposable NPWT (dNPWT) versus traditional, durable medical equipment-based NPWT (tNPWT) in the home health setting over time and compare the types of beneficiaries using and associated Medicare payments for NPWT separate from the home health payment bundle. METHODS: Medicare fee-for-service claims were used to identify beneficiaries receiving NPWT from HHAs during home health stays. Assessment and Medicare administrative data were linked to compare characteristics between those receiving tNPWT or dNPWT and to calculate and contrast average Medicare payments for NPWT provided during the home health episode. RESULTS: In 2019, the vast majority of NPWT used was tNPWT (>99%). Beneficiaries using dNPWT had fewer health risk factors and used substantially less medical care than beneficiaries using tNPWT ($47,187 vs $60,440 in annual total Medicare payments per beneficiary). However, the average Medicare payments for dNPWT exceeded that of tNPWT ($1,624 vs $899) during a home health episode. CONCLUSIONS: Although dNPWT is well-suited for the home, its uptake has been slow. This may be attributable to HHAs' confusion in billing for dNPWT or differences in the wound types appropriate for dNPWT versus tNPWT. Policymakers should continue to monitor the use of dNPWT in the home health setting, especially given the greater average Medicare payment of dNPWT per episode.


Assuntos
Agências de Assistência Domiciliar , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Idoso , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Humanos , Medicare , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935914

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Occupational therapy's scope of practice aligns with the goals of comprehensive primary care set forth by the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148). To successfully integrate occupational therapy into primary care, we must understand occupational therapy practitioners' experiences in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To explore facilitators of, barriers to, and recommendations for integrating occupational therapy into primary care. DESIGN: A descriptive qualitative design that incorporated semistructured interviews, member checking sessions, and deductive thematic analysis. Interviews were structured to capture occupational therapists' experiences of and recommendations for practicing in primary care. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of licensed occupational therapists with at least 6 mo primary care experience in the United States. RESULTS: Seven participants reported 1 to 8 yr of experience in primary care. Four themes emerged that contextualized the experiences of occupational therapists in primary care. The first theme captured the process of gaining entry onto the primary care team. Once structurally embedded on the team, the second and third themes, respectively, captured barriers and facilitators to navigating team-based care and providing patient-centered care. The fourth theme reflected participants' vision and ideas of how to expand reach nationally to promote consistent integration of occupational therapy into primary care. Conclusion and Relevance: Given the important role of an interprofessional primary care team in improving population health, this study is timely in that it explored occupational therapists' experiences in this emerging practice area. What This Article Adds: Occupational therapists in this study used their skills, resources, and networks to become part of a primary care team. They indicated that they contributed to positive outcomes through working with patients on self-management, functional problem solving, and behavior change.


Assuntos
Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Terapia Ocupacional , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
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