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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122832, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635222

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the application of an electronic nose and chemometric analysis to discriminate volatile organic compounds between patients with COVID-19, post-COVID syndrome and controls in exhaled breath samples. A cross-sectional study was performed on 102 exhaled breath samples, 42 with COVID-19, 30 with the post-COVID syndrome and 30 control subjects. Breath-print analysis was performed by the Cyranose 320 electronic nose with 32 sensors. Group data were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA), and Support Vector Machine (SVM), and the test's diagnostic power was evaluated through a Receiver Operaring Characteristic curve(ROC curve). The results of the chemometric analysis indicate in the PCA a 97.6% (PC1 = 95.9%, PC2 = 1.0%, PC3 = 0.7%) of explanation of the variability between the groups by means of 3 PCs, the CDA presents a 100% of correct classification of the study groups, SVM a 99.4% of correct classification, finally the PLS-DA indicates an observable separation between the groups and the 12 sensors that were related. The sensitivity, specificity of post-COVID vs. controls value reached 97.6% (87.4%-99.9%) and 100% (88.4%-100%) respectively, according to the ROC curve. As a perspective, we consider that this technology, due to its simplicity, low cost and portability, can support strategies for the identification and follow-up of post-COVID patients. The proposed classification model provides the basis for evaluating post-COVID patients; therefore, further studies are required to enable the implementation of this technology to support clinical management and mitigation of effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Estudos Transversais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108616, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481232

RESUMO

This cross-country study investigates the potential to improve pig welfare by exploiting consumer demand, domestically and in export markets, for welfare pork produced in indoor production systems. The analysis is based on questionnaire data collected in 2019 focusing on demand for Danish welfare pork both in Denmark and in two nearby export markets, Sweden and Germany. To reduce hypothetical bias, a willingness-to-pay indicator is combined with an indicator of positive interest in buying a fictive Danish welfare labelled pork. We find that the market potential is relatively weak. Our findings indicate that there is some, albeit limited, potential in Denmark and Germany while demand is practically non-existing in Sweden, probably because the pig welfare guaranteed by Swedish legislation is similar to what is provided by the fictive welfare label employed in the study. Hence, consumer demand alone cannot secure enhanced pig welfare. Moreover, we found national differences in the characteristics of consumers who are interested in Danish welfare pork.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/normas , Adulto , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Suínos
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733394

RESUMO

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic since its emergence has posed a great danger to the health of the general populace while impacting the Nigerian healthcare delivery significantly. Since its emergence, the health system has been stretched with overwhelming responsibilities. The study assessed health providers´ perceived impact of coronavirus pandemic on the uptake of health care services in South West Nigeria. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional design using an online structured survey was used to elicit responses from 385 Nigerian health workers selected by convenience sampling technique. Data analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26. Comparison of the uptake of healthcare before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was performed using the Chi-square test. Results: findings revealed a significant difference between the uptake of health care prior and during the COVID-19 pandemic (χ2= 92.77, p=0.000) as 253 respondents (65.7%) reported that the hospital recorded a low turn-out of patients during the pandemic and 184 (47.8%) indicated that some of the facility units/departments were temporarily closed due to COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, there was a significant difference between health-related conditions requiring hospital admission before and during COVID-19 pandemic (χ2=3.334 p=0.046). Factors influencing uptake of health services during the COVID-19 pandemic are: fear of nosocomial infection, fear of stigmatization, and misconception/misinformation on COVID-19 diseases and care. Conclusion: the Nigerian health system in the past months has been remarkably impacted by the pandemic. This calls for immediate restructuring to maintain an equitable distribution of care, while minimizing risk to patients and health providers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Ansiedade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1195, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even as healthcare providers and systems were settling into the processes required for Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) under Bill C-14, new legislation was introduced (Bill C-7) that extended assisted death to persons whose natural death is not reasonably foreseeable. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences of nurses and nurse practitioners with the implementation and ongoing development of this transition. METHODS: This qualitative longitudinal descriptive study gathered data through semi-structured telephone interviews with nurses from across Canada; cross sectional data from 2020 to 2021 is reported here. The study received ethical approval and all participants provided written consent. FINDINGS: Participants included nurses (n = 34) and nurse practitioners (n = 16) with significant experience with MAID. Participants described how MAID had transitioned from a new, secretive, and anxiety-producing procedure to one that was increasingly visible and normalized, although this normalization did not necessarily mitigate the emotional impact. MAID was becoming more accessible, and participants were learning to trust the process. However, the work was becoming increasingly complex, labour intensive, and often poorly remunerated. Although many participants described a degree of integration between MAID and palliative care services, there remained ongoing tensions around equitable access to both. Participants described an evolving gestalt of determining persons' eligibility for MAID that required a high degree of clinical judgement. Deeming someone ineligible was intensely stressful for all involved and so participants had learned to be resourceful in avoiding this possibility. The required 10-day waiting period was difficult emotionally, particularly if persons worried about losing capacity to give final consent. The implementation of C-7 was perceived to be particularly challenging due to the nature of the population that would seek MAID and the resultant complexity of trying to address the origins of their suffering within a resource-strapped system. CONCLUSIONS: Significant social and system calibration must occur to accommodate assisted death as an end-of-life option. The transition to offering MAID for those whose natural death is not reasonably foreseeable will require intensive navigation of a sometimes siloed and inaccessible system. High quality MAID care should be both relational and dialogical and those who provide such care require expert communication skills and knowledge of the healthcare system.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Assistência Terminal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Assistência Médica , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 615, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy ageing is a complex construct which involves multiple dimensions. Previous studies of healthy ageing have focused only on measuring the intrinsic capacity of the older person. The objectives of this study were to design a multidimensional model of healthy ageing and to identify its determinants from national data in Ecuador. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out from the National Survey of Health and Well-being of the Older Adult, 2010. Sample was 1797 adults aged 65 years or more. A multidimensional model was designed based on the World Health Organization's concept of healthy ageing. For the analysis, two groups were created: a healthy ageing and a less healthy ageing group. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to analyze the probability of belonging to the healthy group according to sex, age, area of ​​residence, level of education, perceived health status, perceived life satisfaction, and poverty by income level. RESULTS: The 53.15% of the sample was classified in the healthy ageing group. Women and the poorest older adults were less likely to be in the healthy ageing group (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.464-0.737; OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.343-0.564). Older adults with secondary education or higher, who considered their health as excellent and who were satisfied with their life, had a greater probability of being in healthy ageing group (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.586-4.309; OR 28.49; 95% CI 3.623-224.02; OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.165-0.341). CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes with a multidimensional approach to healthy ageing. It proposes to evaluate the intrinsic capacity of the individual, the social and political environment and the interaction with it, through indicators that discriminate who are ageing in a healthy way and who are not. By using this model, it was identified that gender and economic situation seem to play an important role on heathy ageing of the Ecuadorian population. Public policies are necessary to promote healthy ageing, especially focused on improving socioeconomic conditions and gender equity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 759160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722453

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of mental disorders is an important topic, which has been reported in different countries in the world. In China, some studies were also conducted to get the prevalence of mental disorders at the national level and in some metropolitan cities. However, the prevalence of mental disorders in Chinese underdeveloped provinces has not been reported internationally in recent decades. Due to the discrepancy in the social-economic development of different Chinese provinces, we also have reasons to believe the different prevalence of mental disorders between underdeveloped provinces and other provinces. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among community residents aged 18 years and older in Hebei province, China. We screened 20,884 community residents in this study, and a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) Axis I disorders was used to make the diagnoses of mental disorders. Results: The weighted lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 15.87% (95% CI 15.38-16.38%), and the 1-month prevalence was 10.79% (95% CI 10.37-11.22%). Anxiety disorder ranked first in the classification of mental disorders for both lifetime (6.56%) and 1-month prevalence (6.25%). The weighted lifetime and 1-month region-gender-age-specific prevalence of mental disorders was also analyzed in this study. Conclusions: Mental disorders have been an important issue in Chinese economically underdeveloped regions, and the prevalence was at a high level compared with the results in the 2000s. There are several serious challenges in the work of Chinese mental disorders, which should be paid more attention to.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(9): 1064-1069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and cross-validate self-administered Rapid Geriatric Assessment (SA-RGA) app against administered Rapid Geriatric Assessment (A-RGA) to identify seniors with geriatric syndromes such as frailty, sarcopenia, and anorexia of ageing who may benefit from targeted intervention. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Primary Care and Community. PARTICIPANTS: A-RGA and SA-RGA app were administered to older adults ≥ 60 years old from December 2020 to April 2021. MEASUREMENTS: The RGA app screens for frailty (FRAIL), sarcopenia (SARC-F), anorexia of aging (SNAQ) and cognition (Rapid Cognitive Screen) with assisted management pathway. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 is administered for those who score positive for fatigue. The diagnostic performance of SA-RGA was compared against A-RGA as a reference by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and positive likelihood ratio (+LR). RESULTS: 123 participants with a mean age of 71 ± 5.9 years completed both the SA-RGA and A-RGA. Questions on fatigue, 5 or more illnesses, loss of weight and falls in the past year performed better with high sensitivity, specificity, NPV and +LR than self-functional assessment where SA-RGA participants reported lower prevalence on the FRAIL scale aerobic and resistance components, and higher prevalence on the SARC-F strength and rising from a chair components. CONCLUSION: The SA-RGA app performed well in certain domains such as assessment for weight loss, falls, number of chronic illness and fatigue. Self-functional assessment can be improved further by removing ambiguity in wordings such as "some" or "a lot" and replacing it with functional difficulty scale. SA-RGA has the potential to be incorporated in the eHEALTH platforms worldwide for early identifications of older adults at risk and to reduce health inequalities, at the same time building community resilience in the era of Covid-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 641, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying practical and distinguished indicators and influencing factors of male aging may be useful in predicting subsequent aging trends, designing personalized prevention, and improving lifestyle and health. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed in Jiashan County, China in 2016. A total of 690 local male residents, aged 40 to 80 years, were eligible for recruitment. Demographic and lifestyle information was collected through structured interviews. A self-designed head scale, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF5), Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS), and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were used. Analysis of variance, local polynomial regression smoothing curves, multiple linear regression, and partial correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: All the scales deteriorated with increasing age (P < 0.01), especially from the age of 60. The most significant changes between adjacent age groups were found in IIEF5 scores (16.7, 43.5 and 39.4%). Income, nutrition, personality and neighborhood relationship had an effect on SF-36 and AMS after adjusting for age (P < 0.01). Furthermore, neighborhood relationship modified the age effect on the head scale score and IIEF5 (P = 0.03); nutrition modified the relationship between age and SF-36 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Recession of reproductive health may be a distinct predictor of male aging. The associations of social inequalities or personality and health offer potential interventions for men's health in aging. Self-reported scales may limit the precision and more physical fitness tests could be combined for a more precise assessment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12287, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Declining physical capacity caused by aging increases the risk of occupational falls on the same level and to lower levels. In emerging countries in Asia, the development of a program for older farmers to assess their risk of occupational falls is valuable. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between physical capacity and experience of occupational falls among middle-aged and older Thai farmers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 419 Thai farmers aged 40 years and over during March and April, 2021. For the assessment of physical capacity, we used the Self-Check Risk Assessment of Falls and Other Accidents in the Workplace tool developed in Japan, consisting of five physical test components. Multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results revealed that 25.5% of participants had experienced occupational falls in the past 12 months. For each of the five physical test components, there was no significant association between physical capacity and experience of occupational falls. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was less than 0.60 for each of the five physical test components. A similar trend was observed when the analysis was limited to participants aged 50 years and over. CONCLUSIONS: The current study did not reveal any associations between physical capacity in each test and experience of occupational falls among middle-aged and older Thai farmers. Because the mechanisms underlying occupational falls are complex, multiple intervention approaches may be important for preventing accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Fazendeiros , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Prevenção de Acidentes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722449

RESUMO

Background: As the world is still being ravaged by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the first line of prevention lies in understanding the causative and preventive factors of the disease. However, given varied socioeconomic circumstances, there may be some inequality in the level of proper knowledge of COVID-19. Despite a proliferation of studies on COVID-19, the extent and prevalence of inequalities in knowledge about COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia are not known. Most related studies have only focused on understanding the determinants of COVID-19 knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in knowledge regarding COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were extracted from an online cross-sectional self-reported questionnaire conducted on the knowledge about COVID-19 from 3,388 participants. Frequencies and graphs were used to identify the level and distribution of inequality in knowledge about COVID-19. Concentration curves and concentration indices were further used to assess and quantify the income- and education-related inequality in knowledge about COVID-19. Results: The level of COVID-19 knowledge was high among the surveyed sample, although the extent of knowledge varied. The findings further suggest the existence of socioeconomic inequality in obtaining proper knowledge about COVID-19, indicating that inequality in comprehensive knowledge is disproportionately concentrated among the wealthy (concentration index = 0.016; P < 0.001) and highly educated individuals (concentration index = 0.003; P = 0.029) in Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: There is inequality in the level of knowledge about COVID-19 among the more socioeconomically privileged population of Saudi Arabia. Given that COVID-19 cases ebb and flow in different waves, it is important that proper policies be put in place that will help in improving knowledge among the lower income and less educated individuals, leading to behavior that can help reduce transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4541-4552, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730642

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to identify the factors associated with the costs of hospital admissions for Conditions Sensitive to Primary Care (CSPC) in the Unified Health System (SUS). It involved a cross-sectional, analytical study with random samples of hospitalizations in the SUS over the period of two years. The distribution of costs and the duration of 414 hospitalizations were evaluated according to sex, age group and CSPC. The high cost had a prevalence of 37.8% and was associated with being over 40 years of age and unmarried, with an income below 1.5 minimum wages, hospitalization longer than 7 days and admission to the ICU. The average period of hospitalizations was 9.35 days, and the average cost was R$3,606.09. The hospitalization of youths had a cost/day of R$207.08, while for the elderly the cost/day was R$399.53. Men had a higher prevalence of hospitalizations and were responsible for the elevated average cost of hospitalization. Cardiac, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular diseases were prevalent, and cardiac diseases were responsible for the highest cost of hospitalization. These results point to the urgent need to bolster Primary Health Care, with constant monitoring of these diseases, thereby ensuring that available resources are sufficient to treat them, without the need for hospitalization and unnecessary expenses.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4737-4748, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730659

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study investigated the association between self-reported race/skin color and two outcomes - psychosocial demand and physical demand at work - in 1,032 workers in an urban cleaning services company and two footwear manufacturers, located in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Psychosocial demand was measured through the Job Content Questionnaire and physical demand was measured through questions about postures and cargo handling. A Cox regression analysis provided prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted by age, gender, and educational level. Among blacks, there is a higher proportion of garbage collectors and a lower proportion of supervisory positions. Black workers are more subject to high psychological demand and low job control and, consequently, to high strain (PR=1.65). Also, they are more exposed to work with arms above shoulder level (PR=1.93), and material handling (PR=1.62), compared to white workers. Brown workers are more exposed to low job control (PR=1.36), work with arms above shoulder level (PR=1.48), and material handling (PR=1.25), also compared with whites. Social support is lower among blacks and brown. The study demonstrated inequities in psychosocial and physical exposures at work that are in line with the structural conception of racism. This evidence can contribute to the adoption of practices that increase equity in the world of work.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27418, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731116

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative effect on health care systems over the last year. Health care providers were forced to focus mainly on COVID-19 patients, neglecting in many cases equally important diseases, both acute and chronic. Therefore, also screening and diagnostic strategies for HIV could have been significantly impaired.This retrospective, multicenter, observational study aimed at assessing the number and characteristics of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and compared characteristics of people living with HIV at diagnosis between pre- and post-COVID-19 era (2019 vs 2020).Our results showed a significant reduction of HIV diagnoses during pandemic. By contrast, people living with HIV during pandemic were older and were diagnosed in earlier stage of disease (considering CD4+ T cell count) compared to those who were diagnosed the year before. Moreover, there was a significant decrease of new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men, probably for the impact of social distancing and restriction applied by the Italian Government. Late presentation incidence, if numbers in 2020 were lower than those in 2019, is still an issue.Routinely performing HIV testing in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is identifying and linking to care underdiagnosed people living with HIV earlier. Thus, combined tests (HIV and SARS-CoV-2) should be implemented in patients with SARS-CoV-2 symptoms overlapping HIV's ones. Lastly, our results lastly showed how urgent implementation of a national policy for HIV screening is necessary.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27541, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731154

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects specific groups of people. The relationship between breakfast consumption frequency and the risk of IBS is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between breakfast consumption frequency and the risk of IBS among Chinese female college students.In this cross-sectional study (n = 706) conducted in October 2018, the frequency of breakfast consumption was categorized as 0 to 3 times/week, 4 to 6 times/week, or daily. IBS was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria and was based on the presence of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 3 months during the previous 6 months, with at least 2 or more of the following conditions: changes in frequency or form of stool and/or decrease in pain after defecation. We adjusted for confounding factors, including age, only child (yes or no), parents' educational levels (senior high school or below, college, or postgraduate), parents' marital status (married, widowed, or divorced), smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker), drinking status (drinker or nondrinker), body mass index, and depressive symptoms. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between breakfast frequency and the risk of IBS.Among 706 participants, 23.7% were the only child in their family, and the proportion of parents divorced or widowed was 18.5%. The proportion of fathers and mothers with high school education or above was 93.3% and 96.3%, respectively. The prevalence of IBS among the participants was 17.3% (122/706). Multivariate logistic regressions analysis showed that breakfast consumption frequency is negatively associated with the risk of IBS after adjusting for confounding factors. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for IBS in the breakfast frequency category of 0 to 3 times/week, 4 to 6 times/week, and daily were 1.00 (reference), 0.96 (0.58, 1.60), and 0.45 (0.26, 0.78), respectively (P = .002).Our data revealed that regular breakfast consumption is associated with a lower risk of IBS among Chinese college students. Future cohort and/or interventional studies should be conducted to further explore the association between breakfast consumption frequency and IBS.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Desjejum/etnologia , Economia/tendências , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Estado Civil , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754356

RESUMO

Introduction: cross-border mobility of persons with Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health concern. We aimed at documenting health systems´ potential bottlenecks and opportunities in pulmonary TB continuum of care in cross-border expanses of East and Horn of Africa. Methods: a cross-sectional program assessment with descriptive analysis of TB services, health staff capacities, diagnostic capacities, data management and reporting, and treatment outcomes. Data were extracted from health facility TB registers and semi-structured key informant interviews conducted in selected 26 cross-border sites within the 7 member states of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) region. Results: the overall cross-border TB cure rate in the year preceding the study (37%) was way beneath the global target with considerable variations amongst the study countries. The restricted support to the cross-border health facilities was mediated and even exacerbated by expansive distances from the respective capital cities. Restricted geographical access to the facilities by cross-border populations was a longstanding challenge. Substantial staffing gaps, TB service delivery capacity needs and inadequate diagnostics were noticeable. The TB control guidelines were not harmonized between the countries and the inter-country referral systems were either absent or inappreciable, contributing to ineffective cross-border referrals and transfers. The frail linkages between stakeholders were contemptible, but increasing governments´ commitments in tackling infectious diseases were encouraging. Conclusion: cross-border TB interventions should drive regional TB policies, strategies and programs that sustain countries´ coordination, harmonization of management guidelines, advocacy for increased human resources support, enhanced capacity building of cross-border TB staff, adequate diagnostics equipping of the cross-border health facilities and seamless transfer and referral of patients traversing boundaries.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Emigração e Imigração , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/terapia , África , Fortalecimento Institucional , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Guias como Assunto , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770088

RESUMO

Ecuador assumed the commitment of including Palliative Care (PC) in its health policies. In 2014, the Ministry of Public Health (Ministerio de Salud Pública, MSP) approved the Clinical Practice Guide for Palliative Care (Guía de Práctica Clínica sobre Cuidados Paliativos, GPCCP), with application at the national level, as a mandatory internal regulation in all institutions belonging to the National Health System. In 2021, there is no evidence about the degree of implementation. The objective was to evaluate the implementation (I) of the GPCCP guide and the knowledge (C) of the health personnel working in the Zone 7 Health Centers (HCs). This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study. A total of 292 professionals were interviewed: managers (38), physicians (150), and nurses (104). Three surveys based on the GPCCP guide were elaborated: one for the implementation, which was applied to the individuals in charge, and the others to assess the health professionals' knowledge. The SPSS program was used, version 25. In the three groups, more than half of the participants had no training in PC, 91.2% of the HCs have the GPCCP guide, there is PC medical history (MH) in 38.2%, and morphine is used in 14.7%. The implementation of the GPCCP guide was inadequate in 52.9% of the cases. Only 25% treat the agony symptoms and 30%, delirium; 4.4% acknowledge the use of morphine in dyspnea, and 13.3% identify the subcutaneous route as the first choice for hydration at the end-of-life phase. Strategies to implement the GPCCP guide and to improve the health personnel's knowledge must be implemented in Zone 7 centers.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Transversais , Equador , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770102

RESUMO

Studies of the characteristics of informal caregivers and associated factors have focused on care-receiver disease or caregiver social and psychological traits; however, an integral description may provide better understanding of informal caregivers' problems. A multicenter cross-sectional study in primary healthcare centers was performed in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were a random sample of informal caregivers of patients in a home-care program. Primary outcomes were health-related quality of life and caregiver burden, and related factors were sociodemographic data, clinical and risk factors, social support and social characteristics, use of healthcare services, and care receivers' status. In total, 104 informal caregivers were included (mean age 68.25 years); 81.73% were female, 54.81% were retired, 58.65% had high comorbidity, and 48.08% of care receivers had severe dependence. Adjusted multivariate regression models showed health-related quality of life and the caregivers' burden were affected by comorbidity, age, time of care, and dependency of care receiver, while social support and depression also showed relative importance. Aging, chronic diseases, and comorbidity should be included when explaining informal caregivers' health status and wellbeing. The effectiveness of interventions to support informal caregivers should comprehensively evaluate caregivers when designing programs, centering interventions on informal caregivers and not care receivers' conditions.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1236, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, informal care has increased in most OECD-countries. Informal care is costly to caregivers and to society in the form of lost income and direct costs of providing care. Existing evidence suggests that providing informal care affects caregivers' overall health. However, estimates of the social costs of informal care based on national data on individuals are currently scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study contributes to the existing evidence on the costs of informal care by estimating the direct and indirect costs to caregivers using a purposive national household survey from Sweden. METHODS: Adopting a bottom-up, prevalence approach, the direct and indirect costs are estimated using the survey data and the value of working time and leisure time from existing sources. RESULTS: The results suggest that around 15% of the adult population of Sweden provide informal care and that such care costs around SEK 152 billion per year (around 3% of GDP; USD 16,3 billion; EUR 14,5 billion), or SEK 128000 per caregiver. Around 55% of costs are in the form of income loss to caregivers. The largest cost items are reduced work hours and direct costs of providing informal care. Replacing informal caregivers with professional care providers would be costly at around SEK 193,6 billion per year. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that, even in a country with a relatively generous welfare system, significant resources are allocated toward providing informal care. The costing analysis suggests that effective support initiatives to ease the burden of informal caregivers may be cost-effective.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Cuidadores , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Suécia
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2641-2644, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783750

RESUMO

A cross-sectional observational study was performed at the Poonch Medical College, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, from June 2018 to June 2019 to assess the relationship between self-esteem and the academic score of undergraduate medical students. Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale was used as data collection tool. The study questionnaire was electronically distributed to all 500 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (M.B.B.S) programme out of which 253 submitted the questionnaire (response rate: 50.6%). The mean academic score of all students was 66.61± 5.42 and the mean RSE score was 28.66± 3.98). A statistically significant correlation was not found between age, academic score, and RSE score. Female students had slightly higher academic performance scores and RSE scores compared to the male students, but this difference was not statistically significant. Future studies are required to assess the contributing factors responsible for better academic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 598083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744563

RESUMO

Objectives: Examining whether specific population groups who are not working and those who have an employment have the same health literacy level. Methods: Data were retrieved from a nationally representative cross-sectional study of the Danish population conducted with the health literacy questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q16) in 2016 and 2017. Socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from national registers. Odds ratio for the association between employment status and health literacy was estimated from logistic regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. Probability weights were used to adjust for differences in responses. Results: Logistic regression analyses showed that receiving unemployment benefits, social assistance, employment and support allowance, retirement pension and sickness benefit were significantly associated with having inadequate health literacy compared to being employed in any industry. The highest odds ratio for inadequate health literacy was present for receiving unemployment benefit OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23-2.56). Conclusion: Population groups not working and receiving economic public support have higher odds of inadequate health literacy competencies compared to those active in the labor force, considering age and socioeconomic factors. The result contributes to understanding health disparities in connection to occupational situation.


Assuntos
Emprego , Letramento em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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