Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69.169
Filtrar
Mais filtros

Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E50-E58, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706764

RESUMO

Introduction: The Health District (HD) is a critical component of Italy's National Health Service, responsible for ensuring Primary Health Care (PHC) services in response to community health needs. The Italian government established a national strategic reform program, the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (PNRR), starting in 2022, with a series of health interventions to reorganize the PHC setting, the main reform being the Ministerial Decree 77/2022 (DM77). Our study aimed to provide a description of socio-demographic data and to assess the correlation between HDs, in order to suggest health intervention priorities in PHC reforms. Materials and methods: We conducted our analysis using a cross-sectional record linkage of data from multiple sources to compare organizational and socio-demographic variables. A dataset was created with each of the 21 Italian Regions' HDs data of population, land area, mean age, ageing index, old-age dependency ratio, birth rate and death rate. The Inland Areas Project data was integrated for a socio-economic perspective. Results: Our study identified comparable groups of HDs, considering demographical, socio-economic and geographical aspects. The study provides a baseline understanding of the Italian situation prior to the implementation of DM77. It also highlights that inhabitants number cannot be the only variable to take into account for the definition of Italian HDs organisation and PHC reform, providing intercorrelated variables that take into account geographic location, demographic data, and socio-economic aspects. Conclusion: By acknowledging the interplay of demographic, socio-economic, and geographic factors, policymakers can tailor interventions to address diverse community needs, ensuring a more effective and equitable PHC system.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Itália , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Idoso , Demografia
3.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E73-E82, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706772

RESUMO

Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight among health workers calls for an appraisal of their lifestyle. This study assessed medical practitioners' workhour feeding and lifestyle practices and explored the relationship between these practices and their body mass index (BMI). Methods: The survey involved 321 medical practitioners selected from 9 northern Nigeria hospitals in 2021. Data collected included biodata, medication history, workhour feeding characteristics, lifestyle behaviours, blood pressure, height, and weight measurements. Data were analyzed using Epi info software (version 7). Results: Most respondents were male (70.7%). Their mean age was 38 ± 7.4 years. During their last workhours, 84.1% had lunch, and 46.4% took sugary drinks. Usually, 41.7% source their lunch from the hospital canteen, and 18.7% patronize their canteen at least weekly. Most reported healthy behaviour towards alcohol consumption (99.7%), fruit and vegetable consumption (54.8%) and smoking (98.4%). However, only 22.4% were physically active. Their mean healthy behaviour score and BMI were 2.8 ± 0.7 and 26.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2, respectively. The obesity and overweight rates were 18.4% and 37.7%, respectively. Their source of lunch during workhours, age, sex, years of practice, employment duration, marital status, job category, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive, and antidiabetic medication use were significantly associated with mean BMI. However, only antihypertensive medication use, being married, inadequate fruit/vegetable consumption and workhour sugary drinks consumption predicted obesity. The predictors of overweight/obese were years of practice (< 10 y) and use of antihypertensive medications. Conclusions: Obesity and overweight rates were high. Most were physically inactive. Workhour sugary drink consumption predicted obesity. Effective workplace and community interventions to improve practitioners' lifestyle behaviour and curtail obesity and overweight are needed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Alimentar , Médicos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
5.
Ter Arkh ; 96(3): 212-217, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713034

RESUMO

AIM: To assess clinical and demographic characteristics of severe asthma (SA) patients and their management in Russian Federation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This publication provides data for Russian part of population of the international observational study. In Phase I, retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with SA was performed with assessment of clinical and demographic data, medical history, comorbidities, treatment approaches and healthcare utilization. Phase II was a cross-sectional collection of patient-reported outcomes: level of asthma control assessed by ACT (Asthma Control Test) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Phase I patients were enrolled into Phase II if they signed a written consent form. RESULTS: A total of 315 patients were included in Phase I of the study, 106 (33.6%) of them entered Phase II. Majority of study participants were either obese (n=103; 39.8%) or overweight (n=94; 36.3%). The most common comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases (n=217; 71.4%), followed by chronic respiratory diseases (n=198; 68.8%). There were 268 (85.1%) patients who had at least one exacerbation during last 12 months. Data for blood eosinophil count were available in 176 patients; 81.3% of them (n=143) had only one test in the last 12 months. The mean (SD) last available blood eosinophil count was 161.2 (181.2) cells/mm3. Serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) value was known for 88 patients, and the mean (SD) last measured IgE value was 254.3 (249.7) ng/mL. Only 4.7% of Phase II participants had ACT scores indicative of controlled asthma (>20). As much as 74.5% had scores ≤15 suggesting uncontrolled disease. Most patients also had impaired HRQoL. CONCLUSION: Most SA patients had poor disease control with frequent exacerbations and high number of comorbidities. Blood eosinophils and IgE level measurements were not evaluated routinely which might be a barrier for appropriate phenotyping and treatment selection.


Assuntos
Asma , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/terapia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 53, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory actions are increasingly used to tackle issues such as excessive alcohol or sugar intake, but such actions to reduce sedentary behaviour remain scarce. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on sedentary behaviour call for system-wide policies. The Chinese government introduced the world's first nation-wide multi-setting regulation on multiple types of sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents in July 2021. This regulation restricts when (and for how long) online gaming businesses can provide access to pupils; the amount of homework teachers can assign to pupils according to their year groups; and when tutoring businesses can provide lessons to pupils. We evaluated the effect of this regulation on sedentary behaviour safeguarding pupils. METHODS: With a natural experiment evaluation design, we used representative surveillance data from 9- to 18-year-old pupils before and after the introduction of the regulation, for longitudinal (n = 7,054, matched individuals, primary analysis) and repeated cross-sectional (n = 99,947, exploratory analysis) analyses. We analysed pre-post differences for self-reported sedentary behaviour outcomes (total sedentary behaviour time, screen viewing time, electronic device use time, homework time, and out-of-campus learning time) using multilevel models, and explored differences by sex, education stage, residency, and baseline weight status. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses indicated that pupils had reduced their mean total daily sedentary behaviour time by 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -15.9 to -11.7%, approximately 46 min) and were 1.20 times as likely to meet international daily screen time recommendations (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.32) one month after the introduction of the regulation compared to the reference group (before its introduction). They were on average 2.79 times as likely to meet the regulatory requirement on homework time (95% CI: 2.47 to 3.14) than the reference group and reduced their daily total screen-viewing time by 6.4% (95% CI: -9.6 to -3.3%, approximately 10 min). The positive effects were more pronounced among high-risk groups (secondary school and urban pupils who generally spend more time in sedentary behaviour) than in low-risk groups (primary school and rural pupils who generally spend less time in sedentary behaviour). The exploratory analyses showed comparable findings. CONCLUSIONS: This regulatory intervention has been effective in reducing total and specific types of sedentary behaviour among Chinese children and adolescents, with the potential to reduce health inequalities. International researchers and policy makers may explore the feasibility and acceptability of implementing regulatory interventions on sedentary behaviour elsewhere.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Tempo de Tela , Jogos de Vídeo , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Exercício Físico , Estudantes , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Cancer Control ; 31: 10732748241255538, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Promoting cancer preventive behaviors among adolescents, especially those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, is crucial due to the significant impact of health behaviors in adolescence on disease risk in adulthood. With India witnessing a rise in cancer incidence and mortality, adolescence becomes a pivotal stage for establishing healthy habits, emphasizing the need for early cancer prevention efforts. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used survey data from 2242 adolescents attending public schools of Mumbai, India. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine the associations between cancer preventive behaviors and: (1) the individual and social determinants of health, and (2) media exposure. FINDINGS: Merely 21.5% of the adolescents ate fruits and vegetables daily, 50% of the adolescents exercised 3 or more times a week, and 20% of the adolescents admitted having used tobacco and/or supari. Girls were found to have lower odds of exercising, as well as using tobacco and/or supari. Wealth and father's education were positively associated with all 3 cancer preventive behaviors. Media exposure was negatively associated, with television exposure linked to reduced fruits and vegetables consumption, while movies and social media exposure were associated with increased tobacco and/or supari use. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that individual and social determinants of health and media exposure can influence cancer preventive health behaviors in low socio-economic status (SES) adolescents. Efforts to increase awareness to promote cancer preventive behaviors among the adolescents, particularly low SES adolescents, a population more vulnerable to poor health outcomes, is critical.


This study investigates factors that can influence cancer preventive behaviors among low socioeconomic status (SES) adolescents, focusing on dietary habits, physical activity, and avoidance of tobacco and areca nut. Our study gathered data from an underrepresented population of India, which is more vulnerable to poor health outcomes and have less access to health care. Our findings can alert public health officials, policy makers and non-governmental organizations to target this population and customize their intervention strategies to promote health and prevent cancer.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Comunicação , Exercício Físico , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
8.
Kardiologiia ; 64(4): 14-21, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742511

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and miRNA-34a expression in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and obstructive and nonobstructive coronary artery (CA) disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 64 patients with IHD (diagnosis verified by coronary angiography or multislice computed tomography coronary angiography), of which 33 (51.6%) were men aged 64.9±8.1 years. 20 patients had nonobstructive CA disease (stenosis <50%), and 44 had hemodynamically significant stenoses. The control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. MMP-1, -9, -13, and -14, miRNA-34a, and VEGF were measured in all patients. RESULTS: The concentration of MMP-1 was significantly higher in patients with ischemia and nonobstructive CA disease (INOCAD) (p=0.016), and the concentration of MMP-9 was the highest in the group with obstructive CA disease (p<0.001). The concentrations of MMP-13 and MMP-14 did not differ significantly between the groups. The highest VEGF concentrations were observed in the INOCAD group (p<0.001). The expression of miRNA-34a significantly differed between the IHD groups with different types of CA disease and controls (p <0.001). Patients with hemodynamically significant stenosis showed moderate relationships between the concentrations of MMP-14 and VEGF (ρ=0.418; p=0.024), as well as between VEGF and miRNA-34a (ρ=0.425; p=0.022). Patients with INOCAD had a significant negative correlation between the concentrations of MMP-13 and VEGF (ρ= -0.659; p=0.003). Correlation analysis showed in all IHD patients a moderate relationship of the concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-14 with VEGF (ρ=0.449; p=0.002 and p=0.341; p=0.019, respectively). According to ROC analysis, a MMP-9 concentration above 4.83 ng/ml can be a predictor for the presence of hemodynamically significant CA obstruction in IHD patients; a VEGF concentration higher than 27.23 pg/ml suggests the absence of hemodynamically significant CA stenosis. CONCLUSION: IHD patients with INOCAD had the greatest increase in MMP-1, whereas patients with obstructive CA disease had the highest level of MMP-9. According to our data, concentrations of MMP-9 and VEGF can be used to predict the degree of CA obstruction. The expression of miRNA-34a was significantly higher in IHD patients with INOCAD and CA obstruction than in the control group, which suggested a miRNA-34a contribution to the development and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. In the future, it may be possible to use this miRNA as a diagnostic marker for IHD.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , MicroRNAs , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Estudos Transversais , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Biomarcadores , Estenose Coronária/genética , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e04772023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747766

RESUMO

The present study aimed to analyze the demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors and risk behaviors associated with the recognition of a Usual Source of Care (USC), according to gender. This work was a cross-sectional study, based on the National Survey of School Health (2015), conducted with 100,464 Brazilian adolescents. Descriptive analyses were performed based on Pearson's χ2, and the prevalence ratio (PR) through logistic regression models in Stata 14 for each type of USC (Primary Health Care (PHC), Private Practice, Hospital, and Emergency), stratified by sex. Recognition of a USC was reported by 55.5% of the adolescents, 58.6% of whom were female. In the multivariate analysis, the variables that present social, economic, and risk behavior inequalities showed positive associations for USC PHC for both genders. For the other types of USC, the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics showed negative associations. The results of this study showed that PHC is the service with the highest recognition among adolescents in conditions of social vulnerability. This reinforces the need to consolidate the PHC in order to favor the health care of adolescents, establishing bonds and improving access to health actions.


Objetivou-se analisar os fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos, de saúde e comportamentos de risco associados ao reconhecimento de uma Fonte Usual de Cuidados (FUC). Estudo transversal, a partir da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (2015) realizado com 100.464 adolescentes brasileiros. Realizou-se análises descritivas através do χ2 de Pearson, e a razão de prevalência (RP) através dos modelos de regressão logística no Stata 14 para cada tipo de FUC (APS, Consultório Particular, Hospital e Emergência), estratificado por sexo. O reconhecimento de uma FUC foi referido por 55,5% dos adolescentes, sendo 58,6% do sexo feminino. Na análise multivariada, as variáveis que apresentam desigualdades sociais, econômicas e de comportamento de risco demonstraram associações positivas para a FUC APS, para ambos os sexos. Para os demais tipos de FUC, as características demográficas e socioeconômicas quando associadas apresentaram associações foram negativas. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a APS é o serviço com maior reconhecimento dos adolescentes em condições de vulnerabilidade social. O que reforça a necessidade de consolidação da APS a fim de favorecer a atenção à saúde dos adolescentes, no estabelecimento de vínculo e na melhoria do acesso às ações de saúde.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais , Assunção de Riscos , Criança , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Modelos Logísticos
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e11232023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747773

RESUMO

We analyzed the association between the recognition of a usual source of care (USC) of Primary Health Care (PHC) and access to services among Brazilian adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey with 68,968 Brazilian adolescents and cluster sampling. Descriptive analyses were carried out with Pearson's χ2 and prevalence ratios (PR) using logistic regression models between access and recognition of USC. It was observed that 74.6% reported access, and this was higher among females (79.3%). In the multivariate analysis, there was a positive association (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.24-1.26); and, when stratified by sex, positive associations for both sexes, (PR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.28-1.31) male and (PR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.20-1.23) female. The majority of Brazilian adolescents demonstrated PHC as a USC and were able to access services, but lack of access was more frequent among the most economically vulnerable and those with risk behaviors, indicating potentially avoidable inequities with more equitable and longitudinal PHC services.


Objetivou-se analisar a associação entre o reconhecimento de uma fonte usual do cuidado de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e o acesso aos serviços de APS, entre adolescentes brasileiros. Estudo transversal, a partir da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar realizada com 68.968 adolescentes brasileiros, através de amostragem por conglomerados. Foram realizadas análises descritivas através do χ2 de Pearson e a razão de prevalência (RP) através dos modelos de regressão logística entre acesso aos serviços de APS e o reconhecimento da FUC APS. Dos adolescentes que procuraram os serviços de APS, 74,6% referiram acesso, sendo a maior do sexo feminino (79,3%). Na análise multivariada, observa-se associação positiva (RP: 1,25; IC95%: 1,24-1,26), e na estratificado por sexo, observou-se associações positivas para ambos os sexos, (RP: 1,30; IC95%: 1,28-1,31) masculino e (RP: 1,21; IC95%: 1,20-1,23) feminino. Verifica-se que a maioria dos adolescentes brasileiros que têm a APS como sua FUC conseguiram acessar os serviços de APS, apesar de que, a falta de acesso foram mais frequentes entre os mais vulneráveis economicamente e devido a comportamentos de risco, indicando iniquidades potencialmente evitáveis por meio de uma APS mais efetiva e longitudinal.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Adolescente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Modelos Logísticos , Criança , Assunção de Riscos , Análise Multivariada , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e039, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747826

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the convergence between the domains of the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant image (AUQUEI) and the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10) in the mixed dentition. A sample of 676 children aged 8 to 10 years responded to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaires using the AUQUEI and the CPQ8-10, respectively. Clinical (dental caries and malocclusion) and socioeconomic variables were assessed. The validity of convergence between scores (total and per domain) of the two instruments was assessed by Spearman correlation analysis, considering that non-zero coefficient values represented a correlation between scores. The median was calculated to compare the scores of each questionnaire relative to the variables, and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied to determine statistically significant differences between the categories. A weak significant correlation (between 0.30 and 0.50) was observed between the domains and the total scores of instruments (p < 0.05), except for the leisure domain (p > 0.05). Participants with a lower family income had worse HRQoL (p < 0.05), and those with caries and malocclusion experience had worse OHRQoL (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the AUQUEI and CPQ8-10 instruments showed a weak correlation. Income and clinical variables had a negative impact on the AUQUEI and CPQ8-10, respectively.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dentição Mista , Má Oclusão , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Criança , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Má Oclusão/psicologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Transversais , Valores de Referência
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e041, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747828

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and socioeconomic and demographic variables, suicidal ideation, self-perception of oral health, and experiences of dental care in the Brazilian adult LGBTIQ+ population. A sample of 464 participants completed self-administered online questionnaires and provided information for OHRQoL assessment, using the OHIP-14 instrument at three hierarchical levels of explanatory variables: LGBTIQ+ identities; socioeconomic and demographic data and existential suffering; and self-perception of oral health and experience of dental care. The collected data were fitted to hierarchical multiple logistic regression models, in which the associations between each independent variable with the OHIP-14 prevalence outcome were analyzed. The OHIP-14-prevalence index showed that 33.2% of the participants answered 'frequently' or 'always', and the highest frequencies were obtained for the psychological discomfort (27.8%), psychological disability (18.3%), and physical pain (17.5%) domains. According to the adjusted final model, LGBTIQ+ individuals who were more likely to have their OHRQoL affected were those who were indifferent (OR=3.21; 95% CI: 1.26-8.20), dissatisfied (OR=10.45; 95% CI: 3.86-28.26), or very dissatisfied (OR=53.93; 95% CI: 12.12-239.93) with their oral health status, and also those who had or have difficulty accessing dental treatment (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.24-3.41) (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the OHRQoL of the investigated Brazilian LGBTIQ+ population showed associations with individual aspects and with access to dental services.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Modelos Logísticos , Idoso
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e126, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated potential predictors of food insecurity among UK university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Close-ended questionnaire administered to a cross-sectional sample of UK university students. SETTING: Data were collected using an online survey platform in October 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of UK university students (n 640). RESULTS: Odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression were statistically significant for three measures of economic hardship. First, students who relied on financial aid from student loans were 1·9 times more likely to report being food insecure than students who did not rely on financial aid from student loans. Second, students who could not pay their utility bill (v. those that could pay) were 3·1 times the odds of being food insecure. Finally, as perceived difficulty in paying for accommodation increased across the sample, the odds of being food insecure also increased (OR = 1·9). We also found that students who were recently ill were 2·2 times more likely to be food insecure compared with students who were not recently ill. We did not find any evidence that testing positive for COVID-19 predicted food insecurity, and university supplied food parcels/boxes did not reduce student food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Both economic factors and illness play a significant role in self-reported food insecurity in higher education students during pandemic lockdown. Further research is needed to explore food insecurity, economic factors and illness outside of a pandemic context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insegurança Alimentar , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Pandemias , Adolescente , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia
14.
J Rehabil Med ; 56: jrm34732, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Caregiver Burden Scale, (ii) predictors of burden in caregivers of persons with stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury, and (iii) severity of caregiver burden, and compare level of severity of burden in caregivers of persons with stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Pooled sample of 122 caregivers. METHODS: Psychometric properties including internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, inter-item and item-total correlation were investigated using the Caregiver Burden Scale. Severity of burden was compared using Fisher's exact test and ANOVA, and predictors of burden were investigated using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The total burden score exhibited good internal consistency (α = 0.93), with no floor or ceiling effects. Longer time as a caregiver was a significant predictor of higher total score. The majority (52.2%) reported a low level of caregiver burden (below cut-off of 2.00). Mean scores on the Caregiver Burden Scale were not significantly different among caregivers across diagnostic groups. Differences were found when comparing spinal cord injury caregivers with brain injury caregivers (traumatic brain injury and stroke, collectively), χ2(2) = 6.38, p = 0.04, as spinal cord injury caregivers were more likely to report low levels of burden. CONCLUSION: Good psychometric properties were reported, and most caregivers reported a low level of burden, and longer time as a caregiver was associated with higher burden. Consequently, the Caregiver Burden Scale is a valid measure to use when measuring burden in caregivers of stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Sobrecarga do Cuidador , Cuidadores , Psicometria , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Sobrecarga do Cuidador/psicologia , Dinamarca , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 353, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-consented care, a form of obstetric violence involving the lack of informed consent for procedures, is a common but little-understood phenomenon in the global public health arena. The aim of this secondary analysis was to measure the prevalence and assess change over time of non-consented care during childbirth in Mexico in 2016 and 2021, as well as to examine the association of sociodemographic, pregnancy-, and childbirth-factors with this type of violence. METHODS: We measured the prevalence of non-consented care and three of its variations, forced sterilization or contraception, forced cesarean section, and forced consent on paperwork, during childbirth in Mexico for 2016 (N = 24,036) and 2021 (N = 19,322) using data from Mexico's cross-sectional National Survey on the Dynamics of Household Relationships (ENDIREH). Weighted data were stratified by geographical regions. We performed adjusted logistic regression analyses to explore associations. RESULTS: The national prevalence of non-consented care and one of its variations, pressure to get a contraceptive method, increased from 2016 to 2021. A decrease in the prevalence was observed for forced contraception or sterilization without knowledge, forcing women to sign paperwork, and non-consented cesarean sections nationally and in most regions. Women between the ages of 26 and 35 years, married, cohabiting with partner, living in urban settings, who do not identify as Indigenous, and who received prenatal services or gave birth at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) facilities experienced a higher prevalence of non-consented care. Being 26 years of age and older, living in a rural setting, experiencing stillbirths in the last five years, having a vaginal delivery, receiving prenatal services at IMSS, or delivering at a private facility were significantly associated with higher odds of reporting non-consented care. CONCLUSION: While a decrease in most of the variations of non-consented care was found, the overall prevalence of non-consented care and, in one of its variations, pressure to get contraceptives, increased at a national and regional level. Our findings suggest the need to enforce current laws and strengthen health systems, paying special attention to the geographical regions and populations that have experienced higher reported cases of this structural problem.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Humanos , Feminino , México/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Parto , Adolescente , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esterilização Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303378, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domains of adequate menstrual health (MH) include access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). People who menstruate with social disadvantages-such as homelessness or drug injection practices-often face barriers to WASH access. However, validated instruments to measure MH are limited among marginalized populations, and available instruments involve lengthy surveys. We developed and evaluated psychometric properties of a novel 'MH WASH Domain Scale-12' among people who menstruate and who inject drugs in the Tijuana-San Diego region and identified correlates of MH access using this scale. METHODS: We constructed a MH-scale based on access to twelve WASH-related items: (1) menstrual products, (2) body hygiene (bathing per week), (3) water sources for bathing, (4) improved, (5) non-shared, (6) available, (7) private, (8) nearby, (9) and safe sanitation facilities, (10) availability of soap, (11) water source for handwashing, and (12) handwashing facilities with soap/water. Variables were dichotomized and summed, with scores ranging from 0-12 points and higher scores indicating better MH access. We assessed the scale's reliability and construct and content validity using data from a binational cross-sectional study. The sample included people who inject drugs (PWID) who had ever menstruated in their lifetime and were 18+ during 2020-2021. MH-WASH items were described, and the scale was further used as an outcome variable to identify correlates. RESULTS: Among 125 (124 cis-female and 1 trans-male) PWID that reported menstruating, our 'MH WASH Domain Scale-12' was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.81, McDonald's Omega total = 0.83) and valid. We identified two sub-domains: Factor-1 included items describing 'WASH availability' and Factor-2 contained items related to 'WASH security'-encompassing physical and biological safety. Scale scores were significantly lower among participants experiencing unsheltered homelessness compared to participants experiencing sheltered homelessness or living in permanent housing. CONCLUSION: We constructed and validated a novel and reliable scale to measure MH-related WASH access that can be used to assess MH among marginalized populations in English- and Spanish-speaking contexts. Using this scale we identified disparities in MH-WASH access among PWID and who menstruate in the US-Mexico border region.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Saneamento , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Água , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732645

RESUMO

This is a scoping review on mapping the use of digital tools to assess food consumption in Brazil. Searches were carried out in nine electronic databases (Medline, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid, Free Medical Journal and Crossref) to select studies published from October 2020 to December 2023. This review identified forty-eight digital tools in the 94 publications analyzed, the most frequent being web-based technologies (60%) and mobile devices (40%). Among these studies, 55% (n = 52) adopted a population-based approach, while 45% (n = 42) focused on specific regions. The predominant study design observed was cross-sectional (n = 63). A notable trend observed was the increasing frequency of validation studies in recent years. Although the use of digital tools in the assessment of food consumption in Brazil has grown in recent years, studies did not describe the process of creating and validating the tools, which would contribute to the improvement of data quality. Investments that allow the expansion of the use of the internet and mobile devices; the improvement of digital literacy; and the development of open-access tools, especially in the North and Northeast regions, are challenges that require a concerted effort towards providing equal opportunities, fostering encouragement, and delving deeper into the potential of digital tools within studies pertaining to food consumption in Brazil.


Assuntos
Internet , Brasil , Humanos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia Digital , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10250, 2024 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704420

RESUMO

Despite abundant scientific evidence supporting immunization benefits, vaccine hesitancy remains a significant global health concern, particularly during public health crises. Exploring public attitudes towards vaccination is crucial. This study aimed to develop and validate a tailored Public Vaccination Attitudes Scale specifically under the unique circumstances of a public health crisis. A psychometric evaluation was conducted using a cross-sectional study during the peak of a major public health crisis. The scale was developed and its psychometric properties validated using three approaches: (1) generating the item pool through literature research and focus group discussions; (2) assessing the items through expert consultation; and (3) evaluating construct validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data from a total of 3921 respondents were randomly divided into two subsets, one for EFA (n = 1935) and the other for CFA (n = 1986). A 22-item draft scale with five factors was created after literature research and focus group discussion. The content validity of this scale ranged between 0.88 and 1.00. EFA showed a 17-item scale with four factors (Cronbach's α > 0.7) accounting for 68.044% of the total variance. CFA showed that the values of the fit indices, including convergent validity and discriminant validity, were excellent or acceptable. The overall Cronbach's α was 0.874, and each factor ranged from 0.726 to 0.885. This study introduces a valuable tool for assessing vaccination attitudes during public health crises, aiding researchers, policymakers, and nurses in combating vaccine hesitancy. Emphasizing the importance of fostering vaccine acceptance, it enhances disease control during emergencies, contributing to the knowledge needed for more effective public health strategies and crisis responses.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Saúde Pública , Vacinação , Humanos , Psicometria/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Análise Fatorial , Adolescente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 272, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though childhood vaccination is a common and cost-effective public health intervention in preventing and reducing childhood disease and death, significant numbers of children do not complete vaccination within the first year of life. Studies indicated that user satisfaction influences service utilization and used as a key indicator of quality care. However, evidence on the level of mothers' satisfaction with immunization service are limited in urban and accessible places and not well investigated among remote and pastoral communities. As such, this study aimed to address this gap and investigated mothers' satisfaction towards child vaccination in a pastoralist and agrarian community of the South Omo zone in Southern region of Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 1221 randomly selected mothers with children eligible for childhood vaccination using a structured, pretested, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Maternal positive evaluations of the overall vaccination service were measured using 5-point Likert scale questions. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.5.1 and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistical package version 25. Exploratory factor analysis was used for Likert scale questions to extract factor scores which facilitate treatment of variables as continuous for further analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with the outcome variable. A P-value < 0.05 and adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI respectively were used to declare statistical significance and degree of association. RESULT: A total of 849 (69.53%) study participants were satisfied with the vaccination care provided for their children. Factors associated with mother's satisfaction with child vaccination care include maternal age less than 30 years (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.61-2.79), infants age between 8 and 12 months (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.62), not having history of adverse events following immunization (AOR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.01-2.45), having 1 child under the age of 5 years (AOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.02-1.76), waiting 30 min or less to get the service (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.05-1.85), traveling 30 min or less to the vaccination center (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.08-1.98), having poor knowledge about the importance of vaccination (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.06-2.16), and having moderate knowledge about the importance of vaccination (AOR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.06-2.18). CONCLUSION: Interestingly, mothers' satisfaction with their children's vaccination service was relatively higher in a predominantly pastoral community compared with most of previous studies conducted in Ethiopia. Maternal and child age, number of children under the age of 5 years, history of adverse events following immunization, distance to the vaccination center, waiting time to get service and maternal knowledge were factors significantly associated with mothers' satisfaction. Proactive measures with focus on increasing access to vaccination service, improving waiting time and raising awareness among mothers were recommended.


Assuntos
Mães , Vacinação , Humanos , Etiópia , Feminino , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Satisfação Pessoal , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia
20.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 62, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the anthropometric measures and pubertal growth of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to detect risk determinants affecting these measures and their link to glycemic control. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred children and adolescents were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Those with short stature were further evaluated using insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), bone age, and thyroid profile, while those with delayed puberty were evaluated using sex hormones and pituitary gonadotropins assay. RESULTS: We found that 12.5% of our patients were short (height SDS < -2) and IGF-1 was less than -2 SD in 72% of them. Patients with short stature had earlier age of onset of diabetes, longer duration of diabetes, higher HbA1C and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio compared to those with normal stature (p < 0.05). Additionally, patients with delayed puberty had higher HbA1c and dyslipidemia compared to those with normal puberty (p < 0.05). The regression analysis revealed that factors associated with short stature were; age at diagnosis, HbA1C > 8.2, and albumin/creatinine ratio > 8 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Children with uncontrolled T1DM are at risk of short stature and delayed puberty. Diabetes duration and control seem to be independent risk factors for short stature.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Puberdade , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Egito/epidemiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Puberdade/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Estatura , Puberdade Tardia/etiologia , Puberdade Tardia/diagnóstico , Puberdade Tardia/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Peptídeos Semelhantes à Insulina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA