Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27.720
Filtrar
Mais filtros

Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1380690, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721535

RESUMO

Background: Obesity has been extensively studied over the years, primarily focusing on the physiological aspects of the disease. However, the general burden of obesity mainly the financial implications and its influence on hospitalization and length of stay have only recently garnered attention in the literature, particularly in the case of Portugal. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association between obesity and hospitalizations in the Portuguese adult population and compare the average costs of hospitalization among participants with and without obesity. Methods: At baseline, the analytic sample consisted of 10,102 participants aged ≥18 years from the Portuguese population-based Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases Cohort (EpiDoC). Participants were then followed for up to 10 years from 2011 to 2021 in three more waves of data collection. Body mass index was derived from self-reported weight and height, and instances of hospitalization were self-reported by the participants. The associated costs for each hospitalization episode were categorized according to national legislation and valued according to the pricing for Diagnosis Related Groups. Results: Obesity was associated with more hospitalizations (for example, Obesity class I vs. normal weight: OR = 1.33 [1.14-1.55]). However, when the presence of multimorbidity was considered, this association diminished. While longer hospital length of stay was observed in individuals with higher obesity categories, this difference did not reach statistical significance. On average, the total hospitalization costs per patient with obesity amounted to €200.4 per year. Conclusion: Obesity is as a risk factor for hospitalizations and potentially with higher length of stay hospitalizations, with this effect being partially mediated by the concurrent presence of multimorbidity. Consequently, obesity constitutes an additional burden on healthcare systems. This underscores the imperative of implementing cost-effective prevention programs aimed at addressing and managing this significant public health concern.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Obesidade , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302593, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can affect multiple human organs structurally and functionally, including the cardiovascular system and brain. Many studies focused on the acute effects of COVID-19 on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke especially among hospitalized patients with limited follow-up time. This study examined long-term mortality, hospitalization, CVD and stroke outcomes after non-hospitalized COVID-19 among Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries in the United States. METHODS: This retrospective matched cohort study included 944,371 FFS beneficiaries aged ≥66 years diagnosed with non-hospitalized COVID-19 from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021, and followed-up to May 31, 2022, and 944,371 propensity score matched FFS beneficiaries without COVID-19. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and incidence of 15 CVD and stroke. Because most outcomes violated the proportional hazards assumption, we used restricted cubic splines to model non-proportional hazards in Cox models and presented time-varying hazard ratios (HRs) and Bonferroni corrected 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The mean age was 75.3 years; 58.0% women and 82.6% non-Hispanic White. The median follow-up was 18.5 months (interquartile range 16.5 to 20.5). COVID-19 showed initial stronger effects on all-cause mortality, hospitalization and 12 incident CVD outcomes with adjusted HRs in 0-3 months ranging from 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.09) for mortality to 2.55 (2.26-2.87) for pulmonary embolism. The effects of COVID-19 on outcomes reduced significantly after 3-month follow-up. Risk of mortality, acute myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism returned to baseline after 6-month follow-up. Patterns of initial stronger effects of COVID-19 were largely consistent across age groups, sex, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a consistent time-varying effects of COVID-19 on mortality, hospitalization, and incident CVD among non-hospitalized COVID-19 survivors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hospitalização , Medicare , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Incidência , Estudos de Coortes
3.
ESMO Open ; 9(5): 103447, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer that metastasizes to the brain. Particularly up to half of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) may develop brain metastases over the course of the disease. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence and the outcome of brain and leptomeningeal metastases (BLMM) in HER2-low BC. We compared the cumulative incidence of BLMM and associated outcomes among patients with HER2-low, HER2-negative (HER2-) and HER2+ mBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cohort study was conducted from the Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics (ESME) mBC database and included patients treated for mBC between 2012 and 2020 across 18 French comprehensive cancer centers and with known HER2 and hormone receptor (HR) status. The cumulative incidence of BLMM after metastatic diagnosis was estimated using a competing risk methodology with death defined as a competing event. RESULTS: 19 585 patients were included with 6118 (31.2%), 9943 (50.8%) and 3524 (18.0%) being HER2-low, HER2- and HER2+ mBC, respectively. After a median follow-up of 48.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 47.7-49.3 months], BLMM were reported in 4727 patients: 1192 (25.2%) were diagnosed with BLMM at first metastatic diagnosis and 3535 (74.8%) after metastatic diagnosis. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, histological grade, metastases-free interval and HR status showed that the risk of BLMM at metastatic diagnosis was similar in patients with HER2- compared to HER2-low mBC [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) 1.00 (0.86-1.17)] and higher in those with HER2+ compared to HER2-low [OR (95% CI) 2.23 (1.87-2.66)]. Similar results were found after metastatic diagnosis; the risk of BLMM was similar in HER2- compared to HER2-low [subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) (95% CI) 1.07 (0.98-1.16)] and higher in the HER2+ group [sHR (95% CI) 1.56 (1.41-1.73)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and evolution of BLMM in HER2-low mBC are similar to those in patients with HER2- tumors. In contrast to patients with HER2+ mBC, the prognosis of BLMM remains dismal in this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Meníngeas , Receptor ErbB-2 , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , França/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Incidência , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Meníngeas/secundário , Neoplasias Meníngeas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Adulto
4.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(5): e240825, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728021

RESUMO

Importance: Nursing home residents with Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) often receive burdensome care at the end of life. Nurse practitioners (NPs) provide an increasing share of primary care in nursing homes, but how NP care is associated with end-of-life outcomes for this population is unknown. Objectives: To examine the association of NP care with end-of-life outcomes for nursing home residents with ADRD and assess whether these associations differ according to state-level NP scope of practice regulations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study using fee-for-service Medicare claims included 334 618 US nursing home residents with ADRD who died between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2018. Data were analyzed from April 6, 2015, to December 31, 2018. Exposures: Share of nursing home primary care visits by NPs, classified as minimal (<10% of visits), moderate (10%-50% of visits), and extensive (>50% of visits). State NP scope of practice regulations were classified as full vs restrictive in 2 domains: practice authority (authorization to practice and prescribe independently) and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) authority (authorization to sign DNR orders). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospitalization within the last 30 days of life and death with hospice. Linear probability models with hospital referral region fixed effects controlling for resident characteristics, visit volume, and geographic factors were used to estimate whether the associations between NP care and outcomes varied across states with different scope of practice regulations. Results: Among 334 618 nursing home decedents (mean [SD] age at death, 86.6 [8.2] years; 69.3% female), 40.5% received minimal NP care, 21.4% received moderate NP care, and 38.0% received extensive NP care. Adjusted hospitalization rates were lower for residents with extensive NP care (31.6% [95% CI, 31.4%-31.9%]) vs minimal NP care (32.3% [95% CI, 32.1%-32.6%]), whereas adjusted hospice rates were higher for residents with extensive (55.6% [95% CI, 55.3%-55.9%]) vs minimal (53.6% [95% CI, 53.3%-53.8%]) NP care. However, there was significant variation by state scope of practice. For example, in full practice authority states, adjusted hospice rates were 2.88 percentage points higher (95% CI, 1.99-3.77; P < .001) for residents with extensive vs minimal NP care, but the difference between these same groups was 1.77 percentage points (95% CI, 1.32-2.23; P < .001) in restricted practice states. Hospitalization rates were 1.76 percentage points lower (95% CI, -2.52 to -1.00; P < .001) for decedents with extensive vs minimal NP care in full practice authority states, but the difference between these same groups in restricted practice states was only 0.43 percentage points (95% CI, -0.84 to -0.01; P < .04). Similar patterns were observed in analyses focused on DNR authority. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that NPs appear to be important care providers during the end-of-life period for many nursing home residents with ADRD and that regulations governing NP scope of practice may have implications for end-of-life hospitalizations and hospice use in this population.


Assuntos
Demência , Medicare , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Casas de Saúde , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Profissionais de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Demência/enfermagem , Demência/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410713, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728030

RESUMO

Importance: Older adults with socioeconomic disadvantage develop a greater burden of disability after critical illness than those without socioeconomic disadvantage. The delivery of in-hospital rehabilitation that can mitigate functional decline may be influenced by social determinants of health (SDOH). Whether rehabilitation delivery differs by SDOH during critical illness hospitalization is not known. Objective: To evaluate whether SDOH are associated with the delivery of skilled rehabilitation during critical illness hospitalization among older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study linked with Medicare claims (2011-2018). Participants included older adults hospitalized with a stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Data were analyzed from August 2022 to September 2023. Exposures: Dual eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid, education, income, limited English proficiency (LEP), and rural residence. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was delivery of physical therapy (PT) and/or occupational therapy (OT) during ICU hospitalization, characterized as any in-hospital PT or OT and rate of in-hospital PT or OT, calculated as total number of units divided by length of stay. Results: In the sample of 1618 ICU hospitalizations (median [IQR] patient age, 81.0 [75.0-86.0] years; 842 [52.0%] female), 371 hospitalizations (22.9%) were among patients with dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility, 523 hospitalizations (32.6%) were among patients with less than high school education, 320 hospitalizations (19.8%) were for patients with rural residence, and 56 hospitalizations (3.5%) were among patients with LEP. A total of 1076 hospitalized patients (68.5%) received any PT or OT, with a mean rate of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.86-1.02) units/d. After adjustment for age, sex, prehospitalization disability, mechanical ventilation, and organ dysfunction, factors associated with lower odds of receipt of PT or OT included dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.50-0.97]) and rural residence (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.48-0.87]). LEP was associated with a lower rate of PT or OT (adjusted rate ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.32-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight the need to consider SDOH in efforts to promote rehabilitation delivery during ICU hospitalization and to investigate factors underlying inequities in this practice.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Medicare , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1211, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and the incidence of hypertension among adults aged 18 or above in southwest China. METHODS: A multistage proportional stratified cluster sampling method was employed to recruited 9280 adult residents from 12 counties in southwest China, with all participants in the cohort tracked from 2016 to 2020. The questionnaire survey gathered information on demographics, lifestyle habits, and household income. The physical exam recorded height, weight, and blood pressure. Biochemical tests measured cholesterol levels. The chi-square test was employed to assess the statistical differences among categorical variables, while the Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the incidence of hypertension. RESULTS: The finally effective sample size for the cohort study was 3546 participants, after excluding 5734 people who met the exclusion criteria. Adults in the highest household income group had a significantly lower risk of hypertension compared to those in the lowest income group (HR = 0.636, 95% CI: 0.478-0.845). Besides, when compared to individuals in the illiterate population, the risk of hypertension among adults with elementary school, junior high school, senior high school and associate degree educational level decreased respectively by 34.4% (HR = 0.656, 95%CI: 0.533-0.807), 44.9% (HR = 0.551, 95%CI: 0.436-0.697), 44.9% (HR = 0.551, 95%CI: 0.405-0.750), 46.1% (HR = 0.539, 95%CI: 0. 340-0.854). After conducting a thorough analysis of socioeconomic status, compared with individuals with a score of 6 or less, the risk of hypertension in participants with scores of 8, 10, 11, 12, and greater than 12 decreased respectively by 23.9% (HR = 0.761, 95%CI: 0.598-0.969), 29.7% (HR = 0.703, 95%CI: 0.538-0.919), 34.0% (HR = 0.660, 95%CI: 0.492-0.885), 34.3% (HR = 0.657, 95%CI: 0.447-0.967), 43.9% (HR = 0.561, 95%CI: 0.409-0.769). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate a negative correlation between socioeconomic status and hypertension incidence among adults in southwest China, suggesting that individuals with higher socioeconomic status are less likely to develop hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Classe Social , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incidência , Estudos de Coortes , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(5): e240839, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700852

RESUMO

Importance: Medicaid beneficiaries must periodically redemonstrate their eligibility in a process that is called renewal, redetermination, or recertification. The number and characteristics of people who lose Medicaid coverage due to renewal requirements are not known. Objective: To measure the proportion of people who lose Medicaid coverage at the renewal deadline, overall and by enrollee characteristics, and time until regaining Medicaid coverage among those losing coverage at the deadline. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study tracked the duration of Medicaid enrollment among Wisconsin Medicaid enrollees with a 12-month renewal deadline. Data were collected for all nonelderly (aged <65 years) new enrollees from January 2016 through January 2018, except those enrolled due to disability or pregnancy. Individuals were followed through January 2020 to provide at least 24 months of data on each enrollment spell. Data were analyzed from August 2023 to February 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was coverage loss during the renewal process, defined as a loss in Medicaid coverage from month 12 to month 13 for people who were still enrolled at the start of month 12. Secondary outcomes included coverage loss prior to the renewal deadline and the duration of the gap in Medicaid coverage among those who lost coverage during the renewal process. Results: The study sample included 684 245 Medicaid enrollment spells across 586 044 people (51% female and 47% children 18 years or younger). Among enrollees, 20% lost Medicaid coverage at the renewal deadline. Of those who lost coverage, 37% regained Medicaid coverage within 6 months, and an additional 10% regained coverage within 12 months. Children younger than 12 years and people with more Medicaid-covered health care (top quartile of Medicaid-covered health care costs during the first 6 months of enrollment) were less likely than other groups to lose coverage during the renewal process (15% and 6% lost coverage at renewal, respectively) and more likely to regain Medicaid quickly. Personal characteristics such as gender and race and ethnicity remained associated with the risk of losing Medicaid at the renewal deadline after adjustment for baseline household income, enrollment group, and past use of Medicaid services. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the risk of coverage loss during the Medicaid renewal process was associated with age, past use of care, and other personal characteristics. These findings shed light on how renewal requirements shape access to Medicaid.


Assuntos
Definição da Elegibilidade , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Wisconsin , Estudos de Coortes , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança
8.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2344821, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the effectiveness, cost, and safety of four regimens recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for rifampicin resistance/multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (RR/MDR-TB) Treatment in Eastern China. METHODS: We performed a cohort study among patients with RR/MDR between 2020 and 2022 in Jiangsu Province. The treatment success rate, cost, and drug adverse reaction rate were compared. RESULTS: Between 2020 and 2022, 253 RR/MDR-TB patients were enrolled in the study. 37 (14.62%), 76 (30.04%), 74 (29.25%), and 66 (26.09%) patients had the short-term regimens, the new long-term oral regimens, the new long-term injectable regimens, and the traditional long-term regimens, respectively. The treatment success rate was the highest among patients treated with the short-term regimen (75.68%) and was the lowest among patients treated with the traditional long-term regimens (60.61%). The estimated mean cost per favorable outcome was 142.61 thousand Chinese Yuan (CNY), and the short-term regimens showed the lowest cost in the four regimes (88.51 thousand CNY vs. 174.24 thousand CNY, 144.00 thousand CNY, and 134.98 thousand CNY). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the short-term regimens, the new long-term oral regimen, and the new long-term injectable regimens were -3083.04, 6040.09, and 819.68 CNY compared to the traditional long-term regimens. CONCLUSIONS: For RR/MDR-TB patients in China who meet the criteria for short-term regimens, the short-term regimens were proven to be the most cost-effective of the four regimens recommended by WHO. For RR/MDR-TB patients in China who don't meet the criteria for short-term regimens, the new long-term injectable regimens are more cost-effective than the remaining two regimens.


This is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness, cost, and safety of four regimens recommended by the WHO for RR/MDR-TB treatment in China.For RR/MDR-TB patients in China who meet the criteria for the short-term regimens, the short-term regimens were proven to be the most cost-effective of the four regimens recommended by WHO.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Rifampina , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Humanos , China , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/economia , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/economia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Análise de Custo-Efetividade
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297694, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused tremendous loss of life and health but has also greatly disrupted the world economy. The impact of this disruption has been especially harsh in urban settings of developing countries. We estimated the impact of the pandemic on the occurrence of food insecurity in a cohort of women living in Mexico City, and the socioeconomic characteristics associated with food insecurity severity. METHODS: We analyzed data longitudinally from 685 women in the Mexico City-based ELEMENT cohort. Food insecurity at the household level was gathered using the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale and measured in-person during 2015 to 2019 before the pandemic and by telephone during 2020-2021, in the midst of the pandemic. Fluctuations in the average of food insecurity as a function of calendar time were modeled using kernel-weighted local polynomial regression. Fixed and random-effects ordinal logistic regression models of food insecurity were fitted, with timing of data collection (pre-pandemic vs. during pandemic) as the main predictor. RESULTS: Food insecurity (at any level) increased from 41.6% during the pre-pandemic period to 53.8% in the pandemic stage. This increase was higher in the combined severe-moderate food insecurity levels: from 1.6% pre-pandemic to 16.8% during the pandemic. The odds of severe food insecurity were 3.4 times higher during the pandemic relative to pre-pandemic levels (p<0.01). Socioeconomic status quintile (Q) was significantly related to food insecurity (Q2 OR = 0.35 p<0.1, Q3 OR = 0.48 p = 0.014, Q4 OR = 0.24 p<0.01, and Q5 OR = 0.17 p<0.01), as well as lack of access to social security (OR = 1.69, p = 0.01), and schooling (OR = 0.37, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity increased in Mexico City households in the ELEMENT cohort as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results contribute to the body of evidence suggesting that governments should implement well-designed, focalized programs in the context of economic crisis such as the one caused by COVID-19 to prevent families from the expected adverse health and well-being consequences associated to food insecurity, especially for the most vulnerable.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insegurança Alimentar , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410432, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717771

RESUMO

Importance: The burden of the US opioid crisis has fallen heavily on children, a vulnerable population increasingly exposed to parental opioid use disorder (POUD) in utero or during childhood. A paucity of studies have investigated foster care involvement among those experiencing parental opioid use during childhood and the associated health and health care outcomes. Objective: To examine the health and health care outcomes of children experiencing POUD with and without foster care involvement. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used nationwide Medicaid claims data from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2020. Participants included Medicaid-enrolled children experiencing parental opioid use-related disorder during ages 4 to 18 years. Data were analyzed between January 2023 and February 2024. Exposure: Person-years with (exposed) and without (nonexposed) foster care involvement, identified using Medicaid eligibility, procedure, and diagnostic codes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes included physical and mental health conditions, developmental disorders, substance use, and health care utilization. The Pearson χ2 test, the t test, and linear regression were used to compare outcomes in person-years with (exposed) and without (nonexposed) foster care involvement. An event study design was used to examine health care utilization patterns before and after foster care involvement. Results: In a longitudinal sample of 8 939 666 person-years from 1 985 180 Medicaid-enrolled children, 49% of children were females and 51% were males. Their mean (SD) age was 10 (4.2) years. The prevalence of foster care involvement was 3% (276 456 person-years), increasing from 1.5% in 2014 to 4.7% in 2020. Compared with those without foster care involvement (8 663 210 person-years), foster care involvement was associated with a higher prevalence of developmental delays (12% vs 7%), depression (10% vs 4%), trauma and stress (35% vs 7%), and substance use-related disorders (4% vs 1%; P < .001 for all). Foster children had higher rates of health care utilization across a wide array of preventive services, including well-child visits (64% vs 44%) and immunizations (41% vs 31%; P < .001 for all). Health care utilization increased sharply in the first year entering foster care but decreased as children exited care. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Medicaid-enrolled children experiencing parental opioid use-related disorder, foster care involvement increased significantly between 2014 and 2020. Involvement was associated with increased rates of adverse health outcomes and health care utilization. These findings underscore the importance of policies that support children and families affected by opioid use disorder, as well as the systems that serve them.


Assuntos
Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Medicaid , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Filho de Pais com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Filho de Pais com Deficiência/psicologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249548, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717774

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Diabetes is associated with poorer prognosis of patients with breast cancer. The association between diabetes and adjuvant therapies for breast cancer remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively examine the associations of preexisting diabetes with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and endocrine therapy in low-income women with breast cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This population-based cohort study included women younger than 65 years diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer from 2007 through 2015, followed up through 2016, continuously enrolled in Medicaid, and identified from the linked Missouri Cancer Registry and Medicaid claims data set. Data were analyzed from January 2022 to October 2023. EXPOSURE: Preexisting diabetes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of utilization (yes/no), timely initiation (≤90 days postsurgery), and completion of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as adherence (medication possession ratio ≥80%) and persistence (<90-consecutive day gap) of endocrine therapy in the first year of treatment for women with diabetes compared with women without diabetes. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic and tumor factors. RESULTS: Among 3704 women undergoing definitive surgery, the mean (SD) age was 51.4 (8.6) years, 1038 (28.1%) were non-Hispanic Black, 2598 (70.1%) were non-Hispanic White, 765 (20.7%) had a diabetes history, 2369 (64.0%) received radiotherapy, 2237 (60.4%) had chemotherapy, and 2505 (67.6%) took endocrine therapy. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes were less likely to utilize radiotherapy (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86), receive chemotherapy (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.93), complete chemotherapy (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-0.99), and be adherent to endocrine therapy (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91). There were no significant associations of diabetes with utilization (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71-1.28) and persistence (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88-1.36) of endocrine therapy, timely initiation of radiotherapy (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.86-1.38) and chemotherapy (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.77-1.55), or completion of radiotherapy (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.91-1.71). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, preexisting diabetes was associated with subpar adjuvant therapies for breast cancer among low-income women. Improving diabetes management during cancer treatment is particularly important for low-income women with breast cancer who may have been disproportionately affected by diabetes and are likely to experience disparities in cancer treatment and outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Diabetes Mellitus , Pobreza , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Missouri/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma remains a common cause of hospital admissions across the life course. We estimated the contribution of key risk factors to asthma-related hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: This was a UK-based cohort study using linked primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum) and secondary care (Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care) data. Patients were eligible if they were aged 5 years and older and had been diagnosed with asthma. This included 90 989 children aged 5-11 years, 114 927 adolescents aged 12-17 years and 1 179 410 adults aged 18 years or older. The primary outcome was asthma-related hospital admissions from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019. The secondary outcome was asthma-related ICU admissions. Incidence rate ratios adjusted for demographic and clinical risk factors were estimated using negative binomial models. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated for modifiable risk factors. RESULTS: Younger age groups, females and those from ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic backgrounds had an increased risk of asthma-related hospital admissions. Increasing medication burden, including excessive use of short-acting bronchodilators, was also strongly associated with the primary outcome. Similar risk factors were observed for asthma-related ICU admissions. The key potentially modifiable or treatable risk factors were smoking in adolescents and adults (PAF 6.8%, 95% CI 0.9% to 12.3% and 4.3%, 95% CI 3.0% to 5.7%, respectively), and obesity (PAF 23.3%, 95% CI 20.5% to 26.1%), depression (11.1%, 95% CI 9.1% to 13.1%), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (2.3%, 95% CI 1.2% to 3.4%), anxiety (2.0%, 95% CI 0.5% to 3.6%) and chronic rhinosinusitis (0.8%, 95% CI 0.3% to 1.3%) in adults. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant sociodemographic inequalities in the rates of asthma-related hospital and ICU admissions. Treating age-specific modifiable risk factors should be considered an integral part of asthma management, which could potentially reduce the rate of avoidable hospital admissions.


Assuntos
Asma , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249465, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709533

RESUMO

Importance: The influence of race and ethnicity on initiation of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) is relatively understudied in Medicare data. Objective: To investigate disparities in the initiation of DOACs compared with warfarin by race, ethnicity, and social vulnerability. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used a 50% sample of Medicare fee-for-service data from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2019 (mean patient enrollment duration, 7.7 years). Analysis took place between January 2023 and February 2024. A cohort of older adults (aged ≥65 years) with atrial fibrillation who newly initiated warfarin or DOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) was identified. Exposure: Patients were classified as non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The likelihood of starting use of DOACs compared with warfarin was modeled, adjusting for race, ethnicity, age, sex, county-level social vulnerability, and other clinical factors. Results: Among 950 698 anticoagulation initiations, consisting of 680 974 DOAC users and 269 724 warfarin users (mean [SD] age, 78.5 [7.6] years; 52.6% female), 5.2% were Black, 4.3% were Hispanic, and 86.7% were White. During the 10-year study period, DOAC use increased for all demographic groups. After adjustment, compared with White patients, Black patients were 23% less likely (adjusted odds ratio [AOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.79) and Hispanic patients were 13% less likely (AOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.85-0.89) to initiate DOAC use. Disparities in DOAC initiation were greatest among Black patients in the earlier years but attenuated during the study period. For instance, in 2010, the OR of Black patients initiating DOACs was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.50-0.57), attenuating linearly over time to 0.69 by 2013 (95% CI, 0.65-0.74) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.89) by 2017. By 2019, these differences became nonsignificant (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.18). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Medicare patients with atrial fibrillation, Black and Hispanic patients were less likely to initiate DOACs for atrial fibrillation, although these differences diminished over time. Identifying the factors behind these early disparities is crucial for ensuring equitable access to novel therapies as they emerge for Black and Hispanic populations.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Medicare , Varfarina , Humanos , Idoso , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , População Branca/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
14.
Respir Med ; 227: 107612, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive condition associated with a variable prognosis. The relationship between socioeconomic status or distance travelled to respiratory clinics and prognosis is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine whether socioeconomic status, distance to hospital and time to referral affects survival in patients with IPF. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used data collected from the British Thoracic Society Interstitial Lung Diseases Registry, between 2013 and 2021 (n = 2359) and calculated the quintile of Index of Multiple Deprivation 2019 score, time from initial symptoms to hospital attendance and distance as the linear distance between hospital and home post codes. Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: There was a significant association between increasing quintile of deprivation and duration of symptoms prior to hospital presentation, Gender Age Physiology (GAP) index and receipt of supplemental oxygen and antifibrotic therapies at presentation. The most deprived patients had worse overall survival compared to least deprived after adjusting for smoking status, GAP index, distance to hospital and time to referral (HR = 1.39 [1.11, 1.73]; p = 0.003). Patients living furthest from a respiratory clinic also had worse survival compared to those living closest (HR = 1.29 [1.01, 1.64]; p = 0.041). INTERPRETATION: The most deprived patients with IPF have more severe disease at presentation and worse outcomes. Living far from hospital was also associated with poor outcomes. This suggests inequalities in access to healthcare and requires consideration in delivering effective and equitable care to patients with IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Privação Social , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 24(5): 661-669, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents an increasing public health problem in Peru. This study aims to estimate the national economic burden of this disease for the public funder, the social security, and private sector insurers. METHODS: Direct healthcare costs were estimated for a cohort of 45-to-75-year-old adults diagnosed with T2DM in 2019, over a 20-year period. Disease progression was modeled using PROSIT Models and literature, including acute and chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Three scenarios of glycemic control were considered: current levels of 35.8% of the population controlled (HbA1c < 7%) (S1); 100% controlled (S2) and; 100% uncontrolled (S3). The impact of diabetes prevalence on overall costs was evaluated in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Total national economic burden was estimated at $15,405,448,731; an annual average per patient of $2,158. Total costs would decrease to $12,853,113,596 (-16.6%) in S2 and increase to $16,828,713,495 (+9.2%) in S3. Treating patients with complications and risk factors could cost 6.5 times more, being stroke the complication with the highest impact. Up to a 67.6% increase in total costs was found when increasing T2DM prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: T2DM places a heavy burden on the Peruvian healthcare budget that will be even greater if poor glycemic control is maintained.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Controle Glicêmico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Peru , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Controle Glicêmico/economia , Progressão da Doença , Prevalência , Estudos de Coortes , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Complicações do Diabetes/economia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ ; 385: e077939, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To answer a national research priority by comparing the risk-benefit and costs associated with reverse total shoulder replacement (RTSR) and anatomical total shoulder replacement (TSR) in patients having elective primary shoulder replacement for osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Population based cohort study using data from the National Joint Registry and Hospital Episode Statistics for England. SETTING: Public hospitals and publicly funded procedures at private hospitals in England, 2012-20. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 60 years or older who underwent RTSR or TSR for osteoarthritis with intact rotator cuff tendons. Patients were identified from the National Joint Registry and linked to NHS Hospital Episode Statistics and civil registration mortality data. Propensity score matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting were used to balance the study groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was revision surgery. Secondary outcome measures included serious adverse events within 90 days, reoperations within 12 months, prolonged hospital stay (more than three nights), change in Oxford Shoulder Score (preoperative to six month postoperative), and lifetime costs to the healthcare service. RESULTS: The propensity score matched population comprised 7124 RTSR or TSR procedures (126 were revised), and the inverse probability of treatment weighted population comprised 12 968 procedures (294 were revised) with a maximum follow-up of 8.75 years. RTSR had a reduced hazard ratio of revision in the first three years (hazard ratio local minimum 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.59) with no clinically important difference in revision-free restricted mean survival time, and a reduced relative risk of reoperations at 12 months (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 0.83) with an absolute risk difference of -0.51% (95% confidence interval -0.89 to -0.13). Serious adverse events and prolonged hospital stay risks, change in Oxford Shoulder Score, and modelled mean lifetime costs were similar. Outcomes remained consistent after weighting. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings provide reassurance that RTSR is an acceptable alternative to TSR for patients aged 60 years or older with osteoarthritis and intact rotator cuff tendons. Despite a significant difference in the risk profiles of revision surgery over time, no statistically significant and clinically important differences between RTSR and TSR were found in terms of long term revision surgery, serious adverse events, reoperations, prolonged hospital stay, or lifetime healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro , Osteoartrite , Sistema de Registros , Reoperação , Humanos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Masculino , Feminino , Artroplastia do Ombro/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos de Coortes , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Análise Custo-Benefício , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia
17.
J Affect Disord ; 357: 60-67, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's mental health during the perinatal period is a major public health problem in Pakistan. Many challenges and competing priorities prevent progress to address the large treatment gap. Aim To quantify the long-term impacts of untreated perinatal depression and anxiety in economic terms, thus highlighting its overall burden based on country-specific evidence. METHODS: Cost estimates were generated for a hypothetical cohort of women giving birth in 2017, and their children. Women and children experiencing adverse events linked to perinatal mental health problems were modelled over 40 years. Costs assigned to adverse events included were those linked to losses in quantity and quality-of-life, productivity, and healthcare-related expenditure. Present values were derived using a discount rate of 3 %. Data were taken from published cohort studies, as well as from sources of population, economic and health indicators. RESULTS: The total costs were $16.5 billion for the cohort and $2680 per woman giving birth. The by far largest proportion referred to quality-of-life losses ($15.8 billion). Productivity losses and out-of-pocket expenditure made up only a small proportion of the costs, due to low wages and market prices. When the costs of maternal suicide were included, total costs increased to $16.6 billion. LIMITATIONS: Important evidence gaps prevented the inclusion of all cost consequences linked to perinatal mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: Total national costs are much higher compared with those in other, higher middle-income countries, reflecting the excessive disease burden. This study is an important first step to inform resource allocations.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/economia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Depressão/economia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Complicações na Gravidez/economia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes
18.
Ann Epidemiol ; 94: 9-18, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Longitudinal studies are essential for examining how social and institutional determinants of health, historical and contemporary, affect disparities in COVID-19 related outcomes. The unequal impacts of COVID-19 likely exacerbated selected attrition in longitudinal research. This study examines attrition and survey mode effects in the SHOW COVID-19 study which recruited from a statewide, representative cohort. MATERIALS & METHODS: Participants were recruited from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW) cohort. Online surveys, or phone interviews, were administered at three timepoints during 2020-2021. The surveys captured social, behavioral, and structural determinants of health and the lived experience. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of participation and survey mode effects. RESULTS: A total of 2304 adults completed at least one COVID-19 online survey. Participants were more educated, older, and more likely to be female, married, non-Hispanic, and White compared to non-participants. Phone participants were older, less educated, and more likely be non-White, food insecure, and have co-morbidities compared to online participants. Mode effects were seen with reporting COVID-19 beliefs, loneliness, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: The SHOW COVID-19 cohort offers unique longitudinal data but suffered from selected attrition. Phone interview is an important mode for retention and representation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Longitudinais , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 16(2): 217-229, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562640

RESUMO

Background: The objective of our study was to analyze the postoperative direct medical expenses and hospital lengths of stay (LOS) of elderly patients who had undergone either hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) for femoral neck fractures and to determine the indication of THA by comparing those variables between the 2 groups by time. Methods: In this comparative large-sample cohort study, we analyzed data from the 2011 to 2018 Korean National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. The included patients were defined as elderly individuals aged 60 years or older who underwent HA or THA for a femoral neck fracture. A 1:1 risk-set matching was performed on the propensity score, using a nearest-neighbor matching algorithm with a maximum caliper of 0.01 of the hazard components. In comparative interrupted time series analysis, time series were constructed using the time unit of one-quarter before and after 3 years from time zero. For the segmented regression analysis, we utilized a generalized linear model with a gamma distribution and logarithmic link function. Results: A total of 4,246 patients who received THA were matched and included with 4,246 control patients who underwent HA. Although there was no statistically significant difference in direct medical expense and hospital LOS for the first 6 months after surgery, direct medical expenses and hospital LOS in THA were relatively reduced compared to the HA up to 24 months after surgery (p < 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, the THA group's hospital LOS decreased significantly compared to that of the HA group during the 7 to 36 months postoperative period in the 65 ≤ age < 80 age group (p < 0.05). Direct medical expenses of the THA group significantly decreased compared to those of the HA group during the period from 7 to 24 months after surgery in the men group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: When performing THA in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures, the possibility of survival for at least 2 years should be considered from the perspective of medical expense and medical utilization. Additionally, in healthy and active male femoral neck fracture patients under the age of 80 years, THA may be more recommended than HA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Fraturas do Colo Femoral , Hemiartroplastia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Internação , Estudos de Coortes , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e246721, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619839

RESUMO

Importance: Delayed appendicitis diagnosis is associated with worse outcomes. Appendicitis hospital care costs associated with delayed diagnosis are unknown. Objective: To determine whether delayed appendicitis diagnosis was associated with increased appendicitis hospital care costs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from patients receiving an appendectomy aged 18 to 64 years in 5 states (Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Wisconsin) that were captured in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient and Emergency Department databases for the years 2016 and 2017 with no additional follow-up. Data were analyzed January through April 2023. Exposures: Delayed diagnosis was defined as a previous emergency department or inpatient hospital encounter with an abdominal diagnosis other than appendicitis, and no intervention 7 days prior to appendectomy encounter. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was appendicitis hospital care costs. This was calculated from aggregated charges of encounters 7 days prior to appendectomy, the appendectomy encounter, and 30 days postoperatively. Cost-to-charge ratios were applied to charges to obtain costs, which were then adjusted for wage index, inflation to 2022 US dollar, and with extreme outliers winsorized. A multivariable Poisson regression estimated appendicitis hospital care costs associated with a delayed diagnosis while controlling for age, sex, race and ethnicity, insurance status, care discontinuity, income quartile, hospital size, teaching status, medical school affiliation, percentage of Black and Hispanic patient discharges, core-based statistical area, and state. Results: There were 76 183 patients (38 939 female [51.1%]; 2192 Asian or Pacific Islander [2.9%], 14 132 Hispanic [18.5%], 8195 non-Hispanic Black [10.8%], 46 949 non-Hispanic White [61.6%]) underwent appendectomy, and 2045 (2.7%) had a delayed diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis patients had median (IQR) unadjusted cost of $11 099 ($6752-$17 740) compared with $9177 ($5575-$14 481) for nondelayed (P < .001). Patients with delayed diagnosis had 1.23 times (95% CI, 1.16-1.28 times) adjusted increased appendicitis hospital care costs. The mean marginal cost of delayed diagnosis was $2712 (95% CI, $2083-$3342). Even controlling for delayed diagnosis, non-Hispanic Black patients had 1.22 times (95% CI, 1.17-1.28 times) the adjusted increased appendicitis hospital care costs compared with non-Hispanic White patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, delayed diagnosis of appendicitis was associated with increased hospital care costs.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Humanos , Feminino , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Tardio , Hospitalização , Pacientes Internados
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA