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1.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): D16-D27, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553971

RESUMO

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha afectado significativamente la calidad de los servicios de cuidado de la salud. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos en los atributos de la calidad en salud de los servicios de atención de enfermedades diferentes a la COVID-19 en Colombia, durante el periodo 2020-2022. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 24 artículos de alcance nacional y otros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander y Cundinamarca. Resultados: La pandemia por COVID-19 impactó la calidad de los servicios en la atención de enfermedades como cáncer, accidentes cerebrovasculares y de eventos como la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. Conclusión: La calidad de la salud se vio afectada en todas sus dimensiones durante las fases de la pandemia, especialmente en la población con enfermedades crónicas y relacionadas con la salud infantil y materna. Además, se destacaron respuestas como el uso de la telemedicina y de la atención domiciliaria para contribuir a la calidad de la salud en Colombia.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the quality of health care services. Objective: To analyze the effects of COVID-19 on the quality of health care services focused on treating diseases other than COVID-19 in Colombia during the 2020-2022 period. Materials and methods: 24 articles were analyzed, which included some studies focused on national issues and others specific to the departments of Antioquia, Cordoba, Santander, and Cundinamarca. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the quality of health services caring for diseases such as cancer, strokes, and critical circumstances like voluntary termination of pregnancy. Conclusion: All dimensions of health care were affected during the pandemic, especially impacting populations with chronic diseases and diseases related to child and maternal health. It is important to highlight that telemedicine and home care contributed to improving the quality of health in Colombia.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 afetou significativamente a qualidade dos serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da COVID-19 nos atributos de qualidade em saúde dos serviços de atenção a outras doenças além da COVID-19 na Colômbia, durante o período 2020-2022. Materiais e métodos: foram analisados 24 artigos de âmbito nacional e outros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander e Cundinamarca. Resultados: A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou a qualidade dos serviços no cuidado de doenças como câncer, acidente vascular cerebral e eventos como a interrupção voluntária da gravidez. Conclusão: A qualidade da saúde foi afetada em todas as suas dimensões durante as fases da pandemia, especialmente na população com doenças crônicas e doenças relacionadas à saúde infantil e materna. Além disso, foram destacadas respostas como o uso da telemedicina e do atendimento domiciliar para contribuir para a qualidade da saúde na Colômbia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção à Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
2.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 45(1): 69-80, jan./jun. 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554908

RESUMO

Objetivo: verificar a influência da pandemia de Covid-19 no risco de desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares em mulheres. Metodologia: pesquisa quantitativa, com mulheres com acesso ao computador, a celular e à internet. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de um questionário on-line contendo 60 perguntas, com respostas fechadas, que visavam conhecer a sua relação com a alimentação. Foram verificados o consumo alimentar e o risco de desenvolvimento de anorexia nervosa (Eating Attitudes Test - EAT-26) e bulimia nervosa (Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh- BITE). Resultados: participaram da pesquisa 92 mulheres, sendo que 81,50% (n=75) referiram que ficaram em casa durante a pandemia. Sobre a ingestão de alimentos, 45,70% (n=42) relataram que consumiram diariamente frutas e hortaliças, 55,40% (n=51) ingeriram de 1 a 2 vezes/semana bolachas, salgadinhos, doces e guloseimas e 62,00% (n=57) consumiam embutidos pelo menos 1 vez/semana. Ainda, 18,50% (n=17) apresentaram risco para o desenvolvimento de anorexia nervosa e 83,60% (n=73) risco de bulimia nervosa. Entretanto, analisando se esse risco estava associado à pandemia, verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre o grupo que permaneceu em casa e o grupo que saiu para trabalhar (p > 0,05). Conclusão: portanto, grande parte das voluntárias apresentaram um risco de desenvolver algum transtorno alimentar, entretanto, não houve uma relação entre o possível risco de desenvolver transtornos alimentares influenciado pela pandemia.


Objective: to verify the influence of the Covid-19 pandemic on the risk of developing eating disorders in women. Methodology: quantitative research, with women with access to a computer, cell phone and internet. Data collection was carried out using an online questionnaire containing 60 questions, with closed answers, which aimed to understand their relationship with food. Food consumption Abstract and the risk of developing nervous anorexia (Eating Attitudes Test - EAT-26) and nervous bulimia (Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh - BITE) were verified. Results: 92 women participated in the research, with 81.50% (n=75) reporting that they stayed at home during the pandemic. Regarding food intake, 45.70% (n=42) reported that they consumed fruits and vegetables daily, 55.40% (n=51) ate cookies, snacks, sweets and sweets 1 to 2 times/week and 62, 00% (n=57) consumed sausages at least once/week. Furthermore, 18.50% (n=17) were at risk for developing nervous anorexia and 83.60% (n=73) were at risk for nervous bulimia. However, analyzing whether this risk was associated with the pandemic, it was found that there was no significant difference between the group that remained at home and the group that went out to work (p > 0.05). Conclusion: therefore, most of the volunteers presented a risk of developing an eating disorder, however, there was no relationship between the possible risk of developing eating disorders influenced by the pandemic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Health Informatics J ; 30(2): 14604582241259337, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838647

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the impact of PDMP integration in the EHR on provider query rates within twelve primary care clinics in one academic medical center. Methods: Using linked data from the EHR and state PDMP program, we evaluated changes in PDMP query rates using a stepped-wedge observational design where integration was implemented in three waves (four clinics per wave) over a five-month period (May, July, September 2019). Multivariable negative binomial general estimating equations (GEE) models assessed changes in PDMP query rates, overall and across several provider and clinic-level subgroups. Results: Among 206 providers in PDMP integrated clinics, the average number of queries per provider per month increased significantly from 1.43 (95% CI 1.07 - 1.91) pre-integration to 3.94 (95% CI 2.96 - 5.24) post-integration, a 2.74-fold increase (95% CI 2.11 to 3.59; p < .0001). Those in the lowest quartile of PDMP use pre-integration increased 36.8-fold (95% CI 16.91 - 79.95) after integration, significantly more than other pre-integration PDMP use quartiles. Conclusions: Integration of the PDMP in the EHR significantly increased the use of the PDMP overall and across all studied subgroups. PDMP use increased to a greater degree among providers with lower PDMP use pre-integration.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(6): 1475-1484, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity, lack of access to sufficient food for an active, healthy life, is a persistent problem in the United States. Recently, nutrition security has emerged as a new concept. However, limited research exists examining how nutrition security relates to the established concept of food security. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed a recent metric of nutrition security and explored how well it describes the underlying construct among a sample of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. We examined the correlation between food and nutrition security and demographic predictors of joint food and nutrition security status. METHODS: We conducted a national, web-based survey (Qualtrics; 30 September-19 October, 2022) in English and Spanish of adults aged ≥18 y (n = 1454) who reported receiving SNAP benefits in the past 12 mo. We measured food security using the US Department of Agriculture 6-item Food Security Survey and assessed nutrition security using the Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition Household Nutrition Security measure. We used multinominal logistic regression to examine demographic predictors of food and nutrition security. RESULTS: The majority (80.4%) of SNAP participants experienced food insecurity, and 59.1% reported experiencing nutrition insecurity. Food and nutrition security were moderately correlated (0.41); 55.6% of SNAP participants were both food and nutrition insecure, 3.5% were food secure but nutrition insecure, 24.8% were food insecure but nutrition secure, and 16.1% were both food and nutrition secure. Of SNAP participants, 24.8% reported experiencing food insecurity but not nutrition insecurity. Hispanic ethnicity and Southern residence were associated with joint food and nutrition insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions about how nutrition security is conceptualized and measured and its added value beyond existing food security measurement scales. Further research is needed to understand differences in food and nutrition security experiences and risk factors and determine a validated definition and measure of nutrition security for future policy solutions.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Insegurança Alimentar , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
5.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 34(6): 732-736, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of COVID-19 among both the newly diagnosed patients and patients under follow-up for breast cancer by focusing on patients' accessibility to management and comparing the distribution of them before and during pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Single-centric retrospective study. Place and Duration of the Study: Department of General Surgery and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Atilim University, Medicana International Ankara Hospital, Ankara, Turkiye, from March 2018 to 2022. METHODOLOGY: The data were collected to analyse numbers and distributions of physician visits regarding breast cancer. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 55.98 ± 12.60 years. The percentages of newly diagnosed cases showed similarity (7.37% vs. 9.79%) before and during the pandemic (p = 0.18).  The number of imaging studies decreased by 53.33% in patients under follow-up (p = 0.006), despite screening tests showed a similar trend (p = 0.145). General surgery visits marked up (+44.6%), in contrast to plastic surgery visits (-42.04%, p <0.001). Patients' admissions decreased in many COVID-19 related clinics (pulmonology, emergency, internal medicine, and intensive care), but cardiology (+96.59%) and rehabilitation (+75%) admissions increased during the pandemic (p <0.001). The number of medical oncology and radiation oncology visits did not change (p >0.05). CONCLUSION: Total number of physician visits was similar before and during the pandemic despite the changing distribution. While COVID-19 led to markedly rising trends of surgical, cardiological, and rehabilitative management in patients with breast cancer, falling trends were seen in other specialities except oncology which showed a plateau during two years. The falling trends of visits to pulmonology, emergency, internal medicine, and intensive care clinics may be explained by crowded COVID-19 cases. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, COVID-19, Surgery, Oncology, Rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pandemias , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2354009, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family interactions, which are always multi-faceted, are complicated further by family members with disabilities. In resource-poor settings, policies and programmes that address the needs of and challenges faced by families are often inaccessible or unavailable. Approximately 13% of the families in Tanzania have at least one member with a disability, yet family-centred research on caring for disabled children and adolescents is scarce in this context. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to explore the needs and challenges faced by families that care for children and adolescents with physical disabilities in the Kilimanjaro Region of north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: This qualitative study had a constructivist grounded-theory design. In-depth interviews, using a semi-structured interview guide based on the social-capital framework, were conducted with 12 female participants aged between 24 and 80. A conceptual model of family needs, inspired by Maslow's hierarchy of needs, informed the analysis. RESULTS: Challenging needs were grouped into five categories, which were linked to Maslow's hierarchy of needs and related to the central concept of 'adaptive adjustment': (1) 'barely surviving'; (2) 'safety needs in jeopardy'; (3) 'sociocultural protection'; (4) 'self-esteem far beyond reach', and (5) 'dreaming of self-actualisation'. CONCLUSION: Families caring for children and adolescents with physical disabilities in north-eastern Tanzania have needs that extend beyond the available and accessible resources. Families can adjust and adapt by avoiding certain situations, accepting the reality of their circumstances and exploring alternative ways of coping. A sustainable support system, including social networks, is essential for meeting basic needs and ensuring safety.


Main findings: The challenges associated with caring for children and adolescents with disabilities are related to various environmental and social barriers, any of which can significantly impact the wellbeing of all family members.Added knowledge: In the context of a study conducted in north-eastern Tanzania, both nuclear and extended family networks were found to be valuable sources of support for these families.Global health impact for policy and action: Families must take considerable steps to strengthen their sociocultural support systems while, the support of the government and other stakeholders is crucial in addressing the challenges faced by families caring for children and adolescents with disabilities.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Crianças com Deficiência , Teoria Fundamentada , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Tanzânia , Adolescente , Feminino , Criança , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Entrevistas como Assunto , Família/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Masculino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
8.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(4)2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is among the most prevalent substance use disorders in the USA. Despite availability of effective interventions, treatment initiation and engagement remain low. Existing interventions target motivation and practical barriers to accessing treatment among individuals established within treatment systems. In contrast, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Treatment-Seeking (CBT-TS) aims to elicit and modify treatment-seeking beliefs to increase treatment-seeking behaviors among treatment-naïve samples. We aim to understand which beliefs were endorsed by those who did/did not initiate treatment, including changes in number of drinking days. METHOD: We examined treatment seeking beliefs elicited during CBT-TS among community-based adults with moderate-severe AUD with no treatment history. In this study, we discuss which beliefs were modifiable (i.e. those discussed during the intervention among individuals who subsequently attended treatment and may be associated with treatment-seeking behaviors). RESULTS: Of the 194 participants who received the intervention, 16 categories of beliefs were endorsed. Of the 38 participants (19.6%) who attended treatment, the most frequently endorsed belief was 'Not wanting specific types of substance use treatment or supports' (50%), a belief that may inhibit treatment seeking. The idea 'Treatment is positive' (47%) was also frequently cited, a belief that may facilitate treatment seeking. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the beliefs that were more frequently endorsed among adults with moderate-severe, but untreated AUD who reported attending treatment following CBT-TS. Findings point to the potential of discussing and modifying treatment-seeking beliefs among treatment-naïve adults with severe AUD to increase treatment-seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Alcoolismo/terapia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2413004, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833253

RESUMO

Importance: It is essential to identify inequitable cancer care for ethnic minority groups, which may allow policy change associated with improved survival and decreased mortality and morbidity. Objective: To investigate ethnic disparities in survival and mortality among New Zealand (NZ) patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) and the association of other variables, including socioeconomic status, tumor stage, and age at diagnosis, with survival rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among NZ patients diagnosed with specific HNCs from 2010 to 2020. Anonymized data were obtained from the NZ Cancer Registry, including patients diagnosed from International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes C00-C14 and C30-C32. Data were analyzed from July 2020 through January 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: Censored Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to analyze survival distribution. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association of age, tumor stage at diagnosis, and socioeconomic status with survival rates. Age-standardized mortality rates were assessed. Results: Among 6593 patients with HNCs (4590 males [69.6%]; 4187 patients aged 51-75 years [63.5%]), there were 706 Maori individuals (10.7%) and 5887 individuals with other ethnicity (89.3%), including 4327 NZ European individuals (65.6%; defined as New Zealanders of European descent). Maori individuals had a decreased survival proportion at all years after diagnosis compared with individuals with other ethnicity (eg, 66.1% [95% CI, 62.6%% to 69.8%] vs 71.2% [95% CI, 70.0% to 72.4%] at 2 years). At 1 year after diagnosis, Maori individuals did not have a significantly increased mortality rate compared with 5795 individuals with other ethnicity with data (193 deaths [27.3%] vs 1400 deaths [24.2%]; P = .06), but the rate was significantly increased at 5 years after diagnosis (277 deaths [39.3%] vs 2034 deaths [35.1%]; P = .03); there was greater disparity compared with NZ European individuals (1 year: 969 deaths [22.4%]; P = .003; 5 years: 1441 deaths [33.3%]; P = .002). There were persistent age-adjusted mortality rate disparities: 40.1% (95% CI, -25.9% to 71.2%) for Maori individuals and 18.8% (95% CI, -15.4% to 24.4%) for individuals with other ethnicity. Maori individuals were diagnosed at a mean age of 58.0 years (95% CI, 57.1-59.1 years) vs 64.3 years. (95% CI, 64.0-64.7 years) for individuals with other ethnicity, or 5 to 7 years younger, and died at mean age of 63.5 years (95% CI, 62.0-64.9 years) compared with 72.3 years (95% CI, 71.8-72.9 years) for individuals with other ethnicity, or 7 to 10 years earlier. Maori individuals presented with proportionally more advanced disease (only localized disease, 102 patients [14.5%; 95% CI, 12.0%-17.4%] vs 1413 patients [24.0%; 95% CI, 22.9%-25.1%]; P < .001) and showed an increase in regional lymph nodes (276 patients [39.1%; 95% CI, 35.5%-42.9%] vs 1796 patients [30.5%; 95% CI, 29.3%-31.8%]; P < .001) at diagnosis compared with individuals with other ethnicity. Socioeconomic status was not associated with survival. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that Maori individuals experienced worse survival outcomes and greater mortality rates from HNC in NZ and presented with more advanced disease at a younger age. These findings suggest the need for further research to alleviate these disparities, highlight the importance of research into minority populations with HNC globally, and may encourage equity research for all cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Taxa de Sobrevida , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301860, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of different machine learning models in estimating the pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical expenditures associated with Diabetes Mellitus type II diagnosis, based on the clinical risk index determined by the analysis of comorbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we have used data from 11,028 anonymized records of patients admitted to a high-complexity hospital in Bogota, Colombia between 2017-2019 with a primary diagnosis of Diabetes. These cases were classified according to Charlson's comorbidity index in several risk categories. The main variables analyzed in this study are hospitalization costs (which include pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical expenditures), age, gender, length of stay, medicines and services consumed, and comorbidities assessed by the Charlson's index. The model's dependent variable is expenditure (composed of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical expenditures). Based on these variables, different machine learning models (Multivariate linear regression, Lasso model, and Neural Networks) were used to estimate the pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical expenditures associated with the clinical risk classification. To evaluate the performance of these models, different metrics were used: Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Squared Error (MSE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Coefficient of Determination (R2). RESULTS: The results indicate that the Neural Networks model performed better in terms of accuracy in predicting pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical expenditures considering the clinical risk based on Charlson's comorbidity index. A deeper understanding and experimentation with Neural Networks can improve these preliminary results, therefore we can also conclude that the main variables used and those that were proposed can be used as predictors for the medical expenditures of patients with diabetes type-II. CONCLUSIONS: With the increase of technology elements and tools, it is possible to build models that allow decision-makers in hospitals to improve the resource planning process given the accuracy obtained with the different models tested.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastos em Saúde , Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Hospitalização/economia , Comorbidade , Adulto , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303907, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833462

RESUMO

The number of refugees globally grew to 35.3 million in 2022, and many refugees are exposed to various health risks along their migration journey. As a result, they may arrive in host communities with numerous health issues, including communicable diseases and chronic and mental health conditions. Navigating the healthcare system in a host country proves to be a significant challenge for them, leading to delayed care. This qualitative study explored the convolute healthcare needs of refugees in the United States by soliciting insights from stakeholders involved in refugee resettlement and healthcare. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen stakeholders who work closely with refugees, including healthcare providers, cultural/clinical health navigators supporting refugees, staff from refugee resettlement agencies and governmental entities, and researchers studying refugee health. Following informed consent, interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into MAXQDA 2022 (VERBI Software) for thematic analysis. The results revealed key themes, including the heterogeneity of refugee populations, limited awareness of preventive healthcare, high prevalence and suboptimal management of chronic conditions, complexity of the healthcare system, lack of follow-up, and language barriers. Further research is warranted concerning the long-term health of refugee populations in the United States. Additionally, more tailored programs involving peer educators are recommended to support refugee communities in navigating the complex healthcare system in the host country.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados , Refugiados/psicologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Masculino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Adulto , Participação dos Interessados , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304618, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833484

RESUMO

Patients from equity-deserving populations, such as those who are from racialized communities, the 2SLGBTQI+ community, who are refugees or immigrants, and/or who have a disability, may experience a unique set of challenges accessing virtual models of care. The objective of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of patients from equity-deserving communities and their family members who received care from a Virtual Emergency Department (ED) in Toronto, Canada. Forty-three participants (36 patients and 7 family caregivers) with different and intersecting identities who used the Virtual ED participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore reasons for accessing the Virtual ED, barriers to access, and how the Virtual ED met their care needs and expectations, including ways their experience could have been improved. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the data. Patients from equity-deserving populations described negative past experiences with ED in-person care, which included recounts of discrimination or culturally insensitive care while waiting to see the ED physician or nurse. Conversely, participants found the Virtual ED to be a socially and culturally safe space since they could now by-pass the waiting room experience. However, virtual care could not replace in-person care for certain issues (e.g., physical exam), and there was a need for greater promotion of the service to specific communities that might benefit from having access to the Virtual ED. Targeted outreach to help raise awareness of the service to equity-deserving communities is an important future direction.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Canadá
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304600, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recommendation of universal diagnostic testing before malaria treatment aimed to address the problem of over-treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy and the heightened risk of selection pressure and drug resistance and the use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) was a key strategy, particularly among primary healthcare (PHC) workers whose access to and use of other forms of diagnostic testing were virtually absent. However, the use of MRDT can only remedy over-treatment when health workers respond appropriately to negative MRDT results by not prescribing anti-malarial drugs. This study assessed the use of MRDT and anti-malarial drug prescription practices, and the predictors, among PHC workers in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional questionnaire survey, among consenting PHC workers involved in the diagnosis and treatment of malaria, from January 15, 2020 to February 5, 2020. Data was collected via structured self-administered questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Of the 490 participants surveyed: 81.4% usually/routinely used MRDT for malaria diagnosis and 18.6% usually used only clinical symptoms; 78.0% used MRDT for malaria diagnosis for all/most of their patients suspected of having malaria in the preceding month while 22.0% used MRDT for none/few/some; 74.9% had good anti-malarial drug prescription practice; and 68.0% reported appropriate response to negative MRDT results (never/rarely prescribed anti-malarial drugs for the patients) while 32.0% reported inappropriate response (sometimes/often/always prescribed anti-malarial drugs). The identified predictor(s): of the use of MRDT was working in health facilities supported by the United States' President's Malaria Initiative (PMI-supported health facilities); of good anti-malarial drug prescription practice were having good opinion about MRDT, having good knowledge about malaria diagnosis and MRDT, being a health attendant, working in PMI-supported health facilities, and increase in age; and of appropriate response to negative MRDT results was having good opinion about MRDT. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence indicate the need for, and highlight factors to be considered by, further policy actions and interventions for optimal use of MRDT and anti-malarial drug prescription practices among the PHC workers in Ebonyi state, Nigeria, and similar settings.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Pessoal de Saúde , Malária , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/diagnóstico , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Diagnóstico Rápido
14.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 52(2): 186-195, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834363

RESUMO

The care and housing of transgender (TGD) incarcerated persons is a complex concern that is growing because of the increased recognition and diagnosis of gender dysphoria in society. To remain current in this evolving landscape, there have been updates to federal manuals and state guidelines regarding the medical care and housing of the TGD population. Since the publication by Glezer and colleagues in 2013, there has not been a comprehensive overview of current federal and state guidelines, and legal and other considerations on this topic. We provide an update with special consideration given to housing practices, safety, and access to care. A review of the literature shows that the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) standards and Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) requirements are not uniformly implemented and enforced on a state level. In fact, some states have policies that are in direct conflict with federal requirements. The safety and equitable treatment of both TGD and cisgender populations is an important topic that merits attention. As new challenges emerge, an increase in federal enforcement and consistency is needed to ensure the humane treatment and protection of TGD inmates.


Assuntos
Habitação , Prisioneiros , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Pessoas Transgênero/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Habitação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12873, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834610

RESUMO

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a critical form of Acute Lung Injury (ALI), challenging clinical diagnosis and severity assessment. This study evaluates the potential utility of various hematological markers in burn-mediated ARDS, including Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), MPV-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (MPVLR), Platelet count, and Platelet Distribution Width (PDW). Employing a retrospective analysis of data collected over 12 years, this study focuses on the relationship between these hematological markers and ARDS diagnosis and severity in hospitalized patients. The study establishes NLR as a reliable systemic inflammation marker associated with ARDS severity. Elevated MPV and MPVLR also emerged as significant markers correlating with adverse outcomes. These findings suggest these economical, routinely measured markers can enhance traditional clinical criteria, offering a more objective approach to ARDS diagnosis and severity assessment. Hematological markers such as NLR, MPV, MPVLR, Platelet count, and PDW could be invaluable in clinical settings for diagnosing and assessing ARDS severity. They offer a cost-effective, accessible means to improve diagnostic accuracy and patient stratification in ARDS. However, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings and investigate their integration with other diagnostic tools in diverse clinical settings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Queimaduras , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Humanos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Queimaduras/sangue , Queimaduras/complicações , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Contagem de Plaquetas , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Idoso
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12856, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834637

RESUMO

The recommended first-line treatment for Mycoplasma genitalium infections is azithromycin. However, the prevalence of macrolide resistance for M. genitalium has increased to more than 50% worldwide. In 2013, Australia introduced a resistance-guided therapy (RGT) strategy to manage M. genitalium infections. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of the RGT approach compared to no RGT (i.e., without macrolide resistance profile test) in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Australia. We constructed dynamic transmission models of M. genitalium infections in women, MSM, and MSW in Australia, each with a population of 100,000. These models compared the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained between RGT and no RGT scenarios from a healthcare perspective over ten years. All costs are reported in 2022 Australian dollars (Australian $). In our model, RGT is cost saving in women and MSM, with the incremental net monetary benefit of $1.3 million and $17.9 million, respectively. In MSW, the RGT approach is not cost-effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -$106.96 per QALY gained. RGT is cost saving compared to no RGT for M. genitalium infections in women and MSM, supporting its adoption as the national management strategy for these two population groups.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma genitalium , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/economia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/economia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/economia
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12763, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834661

RESUMO

With the continuous progress of technology, the subject of life science plays an increasingly important role, among which the application of artificial intelligence in the medical field has attracted more and more attention. Bell facial palsy, a neurological ailment characterized by facial muscle weakness or paralysis, exerts a profound impact on patients' facial expressions and masticatory abilities, thereby inflicting considerable distress upon their overall quality of life and mental well-being. In this study, we designed a facial attribute recognition model specifically for individuals with Bell's facial palsy. The model utilizes an enhanced SSD network and scientific computing to perform a graded assessment of the patients' condition. By replacing the VGG network with a more efficient backbone, we improved the model's accuracy and significantly reduced its computational burden. The results show that the improved SSD network has an average precision of 87.9% in the classification of light, middle and severe facial palsy, and effectively performs the classification of patients with facial palsy, where scientific calculations also increase the precision of the classification. This is also one of the most significant contributions of this article, which provides intelligent means and objective data for future research on intelligent diagnosis and treatment as well as progressive rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Paralisia de Bell , Humanos , Paralisia de Bell/diagnóstico , Paralisia de Bell/fisiopatologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Feminino , Masculino , Expressão Facial , Adulto , Inteligência Artificial , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paralisia Facial/diagnóstico , Paralisia Facial/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Facial/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Reconhecimento Facial Automatizado/métodos
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 383, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to multiple antibiotics by several pathogens has been widely described in children and has become a global health emergency. This is due to increased use by parents, caregivers, and healthcare providers. This study aims to describe the prevalence rates of antibiotic prescribing, ascertain the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs, and target improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing in the paediatric population over time in a hospital. METHOD: A point prevalence survey of antibiotic use was performed yearly for 4 years to monitor trends in antibiotic prescribing. Data from all patients admitted before 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. A web-based application designed by the University of Antwerp was used for data entry, validation, and analysis ( http://www.global-pps.com ). RESULTS: A total of 260 children, including 90 (34.6%) neonates and 170 (65.4%) older children, were admitted during the four surveys. Overall, 179 (68.8%) patients received at least one antibiotic. In neonates, the prevalence of antibiotic use increased from 78.9 to 89.5% but decreased from 100 to 58.8% in older children. There was a reduction in the use of antibiotics for prophylaxis from 45.7 to 24.6%. The most frequently prescribed antibiotic groups were third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. The most common indications for antibiotic prescription were sepsis in neonates and central nervous system infection in older children. The documentation of reason in notes increased from 33 to 100%, while the stop-review date also increased from 19.4 to 70%. CONCLUSION: The indicators for appropriate antibiotic prescription improved over time with the introduction of antibiotic stewardship program in the department.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , África Subsaariana , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Prevalência , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento
19.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 79, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) is still in its early stages, with few studies available to identify and predict effective indicators of this disease. On the other hand, early diagnosis and intervention are crucial to reduce the burden of MAFLD. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of eleven anthropometric indices and their appropriate cut-off values as a non-invasive method to predict and diagnose MAFLD in the Iranian population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from the Hoveyzeh Cohort Study, a prospective population-based study conducted in Iran that enrolled a total of 7836 subjects aged 35 to 70 years from May 2016 through August 2018. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off values of anthropometric indices for predicting MAFLD risk were determined for waist circumference(WC) (102.25 cm for males and 101.45 cm for females), body mass index (BMI) (27.80 kg/m2 for males and 28.75 kg/m2 for females), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (0.96 for both males and females), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (0.56 for males and 0.63 for females), body adiposity index (BAI) (23.24 for males and 32.97 for females), visceral adiposity index (VAI) (1.64 for males and 1.88 for females), weight-adjusted waist index (WWI) (10.63 for males and 11.71 for females), conicity index (CI) (1.29 for males and 1.36 for females), body roundness index (BRI) (4.52 for males and 6.45 for females), relative fat mass (RFM) (28.18 for males and 44.91 for females) and abdominal volume index (AVI) (18.85 for males and for 21.37 females). VAI in males (sensitivity: 77%, specificity: 60%, Youden's Index: 0.37) and RFM in females (sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 59%, Youden's Index: 0.35) were found to have higher sensitivity and specificity compared to other anthropometric indices. Furthermore, anthropometric indices demonstrated statistically significant correlations with various hepatic and cardiometabolic indices. Among these, the strongest positive correlations were observed between WC, BMI, BAI, BRI, and AVI with the Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI), TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC, as well as between VAI and the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP), Cardiometabolic Index (CMI), and the Triglyceride and Glucose (TyG) Index. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric indices are effective in predicting MAFLD risk among Iranian adults, with WWI, VAI, and RFM identified as the strongest predictors. The proposed cutoff values could serve as a straightforward and non-invasive methods for the early diagnosis of MAFLD.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria/métodos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Circunferência da Cintura , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Prognóstico , Adiposidade , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Seguimentos
20.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1607063, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835806

RESUMO

Objectives: This study investigates gender and sex disparities in COVID-19 epidemiology in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, focusing on the interplay with socioeconomic position (SEP) and age. Methods: We analyzed COVID-19 surveillance data from March 2020 to June 2021, using an intersectional approach. Negative binomial regression models assessed disparities between women and men, across SEP quintiles and age groups, in testing, positivity, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and mortality (Incidence Rate Ratios [IRR], with 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]). Results: Women had higher testing and positivity rates than men, while men experienced more hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths. The higher positivity in women under 50 was mitigated when accounting for their higher testing rates. Within SEP quintiles, gender/sex differences in testing and positivity were not significant. In the lowest quintile, women's mortality risk was 68% lower (Q1: IRR 0.32, CI 0.20-0.52), with decreasing disparities with increasing SEP quintiles (Q5: IRR 0.66, CI 0.41-1.06). Conclusion: Our findings underscore the complex epidemiological patterns of COVID-19, shaped by the interactions of gender/sex, SEP, and age, highlighting the need for intersectional perspectives in both epidemiological research and public health strategy development.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Fatores Sexuais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos
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