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1.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 165(2): 480-486, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surgery for obstetric fistula is a highly effective treatment to restore continence and improve quality of life. However, a lack of data on the cost-effectiveness of this procedure limits prioritization of this essential treatment. This study measures the effectiveness of fistula surgeries using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. METHODS: In 2021 and 2022, the Fistula Foundation funded 20 179 fistula surgeries and related procedures at 143 hospitals among 27 countries. We calculated DALYs averted specifically for vesicovaginal fistula and rectovaginal fistula procedure types (n = 13 235 surgeries) by using disability weights from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study. We based cost calculations on direct treatment expenses, including medical supplies, health provider fees, and preoperative and postoperative care. We measured effectiveness using data on the risk of permanent disability, country-specific average life spans, and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: The total treatment cost was $7.6 million, and a total of 131 433 DALYs were averted. Thus, the cost per DALY averted-the cost to restore 1 year of healthy life-was $58. For this analysis, we took a cautious approach and weighted only surgeries that resulted in a closed fistula with restored continence. We calculated DALYs averted by country. Limitations of the study include data entry errors inherent in patient logs and lack of long-term outcomes. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrates that obstetric fistula surgery, along with having a significant positive impact on maternal health outcomes, is highly cost-effective in comparison with other interventions. The study therefore highlights the benefits of prioritizing fistula treatment as part of the global agenda for maternal health care.


Assuntos
Fístula Vesicovaginal , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fístula Vesicovaginal/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Fístula Retovaginal/cirurgia
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081482, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569673

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There is a substantial lack of inter-facility referral systems for emergency obstetrical and neonatal care in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Data on the costs and cost-effectiveness of such systems that reduce preventable maternal and neonatal deaths are scarce. SETTING: We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a non-governmental organisation (NGO)-run inter-facility referral system for emergency obstetrical and neonatal care in rural Southern Madagascar by analysing the characteristics of cases referred through the intervention as well as its costs. DESIGN: We used secondary NGO data, drawn from an NGO's monitoring and financial administration database, including medical and financial records. OUTCOME MEASURES: We performed a descriptive and a cost-effectiveness analysis, including a one-way deterministic sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: 1172 cases were referred over a period of 4 years. The most common referral reasons were obstructed labour, ineffective labour and eclampsia. In total, 48 neonates were referred through the referral system over the study period. Estimated cost per referral was US$336 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was US$70 per additional life-year saved (undiscounted, discounted US$137). The sensitivity analysis showed that the intervention was cost-effective for all scenarios with the lowest ICER at US$99 and the highest ICER at US$205 per additional life-year saved. When extrapolated to the population living in the study area, the investment costs of the programme were US$0.13 per person and annual running costs US$0.06 per person. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the inter-facility referral system was a very cost-effective intervention. Our findings may inform policies, decision-making and implementation strategies for emergency obstetrical and neonatal care referral systems in similar resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Madagáscar , Análise Custo-Benefício
3.
Yale J Biol Med ; 97(1): 93-98, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559456

RESUMO

Background: Becoming a parent has been highlighted as a period associated with increased risks for loneliness, with around one-third of parents reporting feeling lonely often or always. However, as most understanding of loneliness is based on elderly or student cohorts, further insights into the costs of parental loneliness is needed. Method: We conducted a literature review of impacts of loneliness in pregnancy and parenthood and present a synthesis of the health, social, societal, and economic costs. We draw on evidence about impacts and costs of loneliness in other cohorts to help provide a wider context to understand the impacts and costs and how parental loneliness differs from other populations. Results: Similar to literature with elderly cohorts, parental loneliness has impacts on health and wellbeing, such as depression in new parents and increased general practitioner (GP) visits in pregnancy. But also has intergenerational impacts via its association with poor mental health and social competence and increased respiratory tract infections in the child. Physical health impacts widely associated with loneliness in other cohorts have yet to be examined in parents. Loneliness in parents is likely to result in social withdrawal further isolating parents and wider societal and economic costs relating to absence from employment and informal caring roles. Conclusion: Parental loneliness has the potential for negative and pervasive impacts. As parental loneliness has wide ranging and intergenerational impacts it is important that a multi-sectoral perspective is used when examining its costs.


Assuntos
Solidão , Transtornos Mentais , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Depressão
4.
Yale J Biol Med ; 97(1): 99-106, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559458

RESUMO

Pregnant individuals and infants in the US are experiencing rising morbidity and mortality rates. Breastfeeding is a cost-effective intervention associated with a lower risk of health conditions driving dyadic morbidity and mortality, including cardiometabolic disease and sudden infant death. Pregnant individuals and infants from racial/ethnic subgroups facing the highest risk of mortality also have the lowest breastfeeding rates, likely reflective of generational socioeconomic marginalization and its impact on health outcomes. Promoting breastfeeding among groups with the lowest rates could improve the health of dyads with the greatest health risk and facilitate more equitable, person-centered lactation outcomes. Multiple barriers to lactation initiation and duration exist for families who have been socioeconomically marginalized by health and public systems. These include the lack of paid parental leave, increased access to subsidized human milk substitutes, and reduced access to professional and lay breastfeeding expertise. Breast pumps have the potential to mitigate these barriers, making breastfeeding more accessible to all interested dyads. In 2012, The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) greatly expanded access to pumps through the preventative services mandate, with a single pump now available to most US families. Despite their near ubiquitous use among lactating individuals, little research has been conducted on how and when to use pumps appropriately to optimize breastfeeding outcomes. There is a timely and critical need for policy, scholarship, and education around pump use given their widespread provision and potential to promote equity for those families facing the greatest barriers to achieving their personal breastfeeding goals.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Lactente , Feminino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(4): 477-485, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560795

RESUMO

In New Jersey, universal screening for perinatal depression at the time of delivery has resulted in a 95 percent screening rate. The widespread availability of screening data allowed me to investigate the association between perinatal depression severity and infant emergency department (ED) use and charges in the first year of life. I used birth records linked to hospital discharge records for the period 2016-19. Compared with infants who had mothers with no symptoms, infants with mothers with mild or moderate/severe depressive symptoms had significantly higher overall and nonemergent ED use, but not significantly higher emergent ED use. The positive associations between depressive symptoms and ED charges were particularly striking for infants with Medicaid, which pays for a disproportionate share of pediatric ED care in the United States. This study contributes to the evidence base linking perinatal depression screening and pediatric ED use. Opportunities may exist within Medicaid to optimize screening and referrals for perinatal depression, with potential cost-saving benefits for reducing nonemergent pediatric ED visits.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Criança , Lactente , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Mães , Medicaid , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(4): 523-531, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560800

RESUMO

Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMAD), a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, affect approximately one in seven births in the US. To understand whether extending pregnancy-related Medicaid eligibility from sixty days to twelve months may increase the use of mental health care among low-income postpartum people, we measured the effect of retaining Medicaid as a low-income adult on mental health treatment in the postpartum year, using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design and linked all-payer claims data, birth records, and income data from Colorado from the period 2014-19. Relative to enrolling in commercial insurance, retaining postpartum Medicaid enrollment was associated with a 20.5-percentage-point increase in any use of prescription medication or outpatient mental health treatment, a 16.0-percentage-point increase in any use of prescription medication only, and a 7.3-percentage-point increase in any use of outpatient mental health treatment only. Retaining postpartum Medicaid enrollment was also associated with $40.84 lower out-of-pocket spending per outpatient mental health care visit and $3.24 lower spending per prescription medication for anxiety or depression compared with switching to commercial insurance. Findings suggest that extending postpartum Medicaid eligibility may be associated with higher levels of PMAD treatment among the low-income postpartum population.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Medicaid , Adulto , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Colorado , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Período Pós-Parto , Parto
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(4): 514-522, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560803

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether antidepressant prescriptions for perinatal mood and anxiety disorder (PMAD) increased after several professional organizations issued clinical recommendations in 2015 and 2016. This serial, cross-sectional, logistic regression analysis evaluated changes in antenatal and postpartum antidepressant prescriptions among commercially insured people who had a live-birth delivery as well as a PMAD diagnosis during the period 2008-20. For people with antenatal PMAD, the odds of an antenatal antidepressant prescription decreased 3 percent annually from 2008 to 2016 and increased by 32 percent in 2017, and the annual rate of change increased 5 percent for 2017-20 compared with 2008-16. For people with postpartum PMAD, the odds of a postpartum antidepressant prescription decreased 2 percent annually from 2008 to 2016 and experienced no significant change in 2017, but the annual rate of change increased 3 percent for 2017-20 compared with 2008-16. The clinical recommendations issued in 2015 and 2016 were associated with increased antidepressant prescriptions for PMAD, particularly for antenatal PMAD. These findings indicate that clinical recommendations represent an effective tool for changing prescribing patterns.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Seguro Saúde
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 359, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service in England pledged >£365 million to improve access to mental healthcare services via Community Perinatal Mental Health Teams (CPMHTs) and reduce the rate of perinatal relapse in women with severe mental illness. This study aimed to explore changes in service use patterns following the implementation of CPMHTs in pregnant women with a history of specialist mental healthcare in England, and conduct a cost-analysis on these changes. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal cohort design based on existing routine administrative data. The study population was all women residing in England with an onset of pregnancy on or after 1st April 2016 and who gave birth on or before 31st March 2018 with pre-existing mental illness (N = 70,323). Resource use and costs were compared before and after the implementation of CPMHTs. The economic perspective was limited to secondary mental health services, and the time horizon was the perinatal period (from the start of pregnancy to 1-year post-birth, ~ 21 months). RESULTS: The percentage of women using community mental healthcare services over the perinatal period was higher for areas with CPMHTs (30.96%, n=9,653) compared to areas without CPMHTs (24.72%, n=9,615). The overall percentage of women using acute care services (inpatient and crisis resolution teams) over the perinatal period was lower for areas with CPMHTs (4.94%, n=1,540 vs. 5.58%, n=2,171), comprising reduced crisis resolution team contacts (4.41%, n=1,375 vs. 5.23%, n=2,035) but increased psychiatric admissions (1.43%, n=445 vs. 1.13%, n=441). Total mental healthcare costs over the perinatal period were significantly higher for areas with CPMHTs (fully adjusted incremental cost £111, 95% CI £29 to £192, p-value 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Following implementation of CPMHTs, the percentage of women using acute care decreased while the percentage of women using community care increased. However, the greater use of inpatient admissions alongside greater use of community care resulted in a significantly higher mean cost of secondary mental health service use for women in the CPMHT group compared with no CPMHT. Increased costs must be considered with caution as no data was available on relevant outcomes such as quality of life or satisfaction with services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Gestantes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Medicina Estatal , Estudos de Coortes , Parto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 409, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The maternal mortality ratio in Ethiopia is still high, with an estimate of 412 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2016. Signal functions for emergency obstetric and neonatal care must be accessible and usable in order to successfully prevent maternal deaths. It is an important strategy to reduce maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in countries with limited resources. Hence, an assessment of the availability of fully functioning EmONC services and their coverage per 500,000 people in Ethiopia is crucial. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of data from the Ethiopian Service Provision Assessment Survey (ESPA), a national-level survey data source. Data collection for the survey took place from August 11, 2021, to February 4, 2022. For this investigation, 905 healthcare facilities in total were evaluated for the availability of emergency obstetric and new-born care (EmONC) services at all hospitals, selected health centers, and private clinics were evaluated. Descriptive data analysis was done by the using statistical package for social science version 26 (SPSS) to run frequency and cross-tabs. Global Positioning System (GPS) (arc map 10.8) Software was used for spatial distribution in order to locate the physical accessibility of EmONC providing health facilities on flat map surfaces. It was projected based on Ethiopia's geographic coordinate system at Adindan UTM zone 370N. RESULTS: Of 905 health facilities, only 442 (49%) could provide fully functioning BEmONC, and 250 (27.6%) health facilities have been providing fully functioning CEmONC. The overall coverage of BEmONC ratios in Ethiopia is 1.5-3.77 per 500,000 population and CEmONC (0.83-2.1) per 500,000 populations. Regions such as Amhara, SNNPR and Addis Ababa had found to have high BEmONC ratio. The geographical distribution of the EmONC showed that the central areas of the country, such as southwest Shewa and east Shewa, the Oromia region, the northern areas of the South Nation, nationalities, and peoples regions (SNNPR), including the Gurage zone and the Wolaita-Soddo zone, and the middle areas in the Amhara region (west Gojjam or around Bahir Dar town), and the southern areas, Debra Tabor and Debre Birhane zones, all had greater access to facilities offering complete EmONC services. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive emergency obstetrics and neonatal care (CEmONC) in Ethiopia met WHO recommendations, despite basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEmONC) falling below those standards in Ethiopia. There are extremely large disparities in the accessibility of both basic and comprehensive emergency obstetrics and neonatal care in Ethiopia. Thus, Strategic planning is needed to improve infrastructures and inputs for EmONC services, particularly in remote areas of the country. Additionally, private facilities ought to place a priority on the provision of these services.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Obstetrícia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instalações de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Parto Obstétrico
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299818, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pregnant beneficiaries in the two primary Medicaid eligibility categories, traditional Medicaid and pregnancy Medicaid, have differing access to care especially in the preconception and postpartum periods. Pregnancy Medicaid has higher income limits for eligibility than traditional Medicaid but only provides coverage during and for a limited time period after pregnancy. Our objective was to determine the association between type of Medicaid (traditional Medicaid and pregnancy Medicaid) on receipt of outpatient care during the perinatal period. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared outpatient visits using linked birth certificate and Medicaid claims from all Medicaid births in Oregon and South Carolina from 2014 through 2019. Pregnancy Medicaid ended 60 days postpartum during the study. Our primary outcome was average number of outpatient visits per 100 beneficiaries each month during three perinatal time points: preconceputally (three months prior to conception), prenatally (9 months prior to birthdate) and postpartum (from birth to 12 months). RESULTS: Among 105,808 Medicaid-covered births in Oregon and 141,385 births in South Carolina, pregnancy Medicaid was the most prevelant categorical eligibility. Traditional Medicaid recipients had a higher average number of preconception, prenatal and postpartum visits as compared to those in pregnancy Medicaid. DISCUSSION: In South Carolina, those using traditional Medicaid had 450% more preconception visits and 70% more postpartum visits compared with pregnancy Medicaid. In Oregon, those using traditional Medicaid had 200% more preconception visits and 29% more postpartum visits than individuals using pregnancy Medicaid. Lack of coverage in both the preconception and postpartum period deprive women of adequate opportunities to access health care or contraception. Changes to pregnancy Medicaid, including extended postpartum coverage through the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, may facilitate better continuity of care.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Período Pós-Parto , Anticoncepção
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1268653, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577277

RESUMO

Introduction: The cost-effectiveness study of syphilis screening in pregnant women has not been synthesized. This study aimed to synthesize the economic evidence on the cost-effectiveness of syphilis screening in pregnant women that might contribute to making recommendations on the future direction of syphilis screening approaches. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases for relevant studies published before 19 January 2023 and identified the cost-effectiveness analyses for syphilis screening in pregnant women. The methodological design quality was appraised by the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) 2022 checklist. Results: In total, 17 literature met the eligibility criteria for a full review. Of the 17 studies, four evaluated interventions using different screening methods, seven assessed a combination of syphilis testing and treatment interventions, three focused on repeat screening intervention, and four evaluated the interventions that integrated syphilis and HIV testing. The most cost-effective strategy appeared to be rapid syphilis testing with high treatment rates in pregnant women who were positive. Discussion: The cost-effectiveness of syphilis screening for pregnancy has been widely demonstrated. It is very essential to improve the compliance with maternal screening and the treatment rates for positive pregnant women while implementing screening.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Sífilis , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Análise Custo-Benefício , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Gestantes , Sífilis/diagnóstico
12.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 289-296, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), T1 mapping, and T2 mapping, in assessing the microstructural and perfusion changes in the kidneys of rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: An IUGR rat model was established through a low-protein diet during pregnancy. Offspring from pregnant rats on a low-protein diet were randomly divided into an IUGR 8-week group and an IUGR 12-week group, while offspring from pregnant rats on a normal diet were divided into a normal 8-week group and a normal 12-week group (n=8 for each group). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (Dt), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), T1 value, and T2 value of the renal cortex and medulla were compared, along with serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels among the groups. RESULTS: The Dt value in the renal medulla was higher in the IUGR 12-week group than in the IUGR 8-week group, and the D* value in the renal medulla was lower in the IUGR 12-week group than in both the normal 12-week group and the IUGR 8-week group (P<0.05). The T1 value in the renal medulla was higher than in the cortex in the IUGR 8-week group, and the T1 value in the renal medulla was higher in the IUGR 12-week group than in both the IUGR 8-week group and the normal 12-week group, with the cortical T1 value in the IUGR 12-week group also being higher than that in the normal 12-week group (P<0.05). The T2 values in the renal medulla were higher than those in the cortex across all groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the T2 values of either the cortex or medulla among the groups (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels among the groups (P>0.05). Glomerular hyperplasia and hypertrophy without significant fibrotic changes were observed in the IUGR 8-week group, whereas glomerular atrophy, cystic stenosis, and interstitial inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis were seen in the IUGR 12-week group. CONCLUSIONS: IVIM MRI can be used to assess and dynamically observe the microstructural and perfusion damage in the kidneys of IUGR rats. MRI T1 mapping can be used to evaluate kidney damage in IUGR rats, and the combination of MRI T1 mapping and T2 mapping can further differentiate renal fibrosis in IUGR rats.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Rim , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Creatinina , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Perfusão , Gravidez
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 234, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and a defining event for pregnant people, infants, and whanau (extended families). Recommendations have been made for a national preterm birth prevention initiative focusing on equity in Aotearoa New Zealand, including the development of a national best practice guide. An understanding of the number and quality of guidelines, and consideration of their suitability and impact on equity is required. METHODS: Guidelines were identified through a systematic literature search, search of professional bodies websites, and invitation to regional health services in Aotearoa New Zealand. Obstetric and midwifery clinical directors were invited to report on guideline use. Identified guidelines were appraised by a 23-member trans-disciplinary Review Panel; quantitatively using the AGREE-II instrument and qualitatively using modified ADAPTE questions. The quality of guidelines available but not in use was compared against those in current use, and by health services by level of maternity and neonatal care. Major themes affecting implementation and impact on equity were identified using Braun and Clarke methodology. RESULTS: A total of 235 guidelines were included for appraisal. Guidelines available but not in use by regional health services scored higher in quality than guidelines in current use (median domain score Rigour and Development 47.5 versus 18.8, p < 0.001, median domain score Overall Assessment 62.5 versus 44.4, p < 0.001). Guidelines in use by regional health services with tertiary maternity and neonatal services had higher median AGREE II scores in several domains, than those with secondary level services (median domain score Overall Assessment 50.0 versus 37.5, p < 0.001). Groups identified by the Review Panel as experiencing the greatest constraints and limitations to guideline implementation were rural, provincial, low socioeconomic, Maori, and Pacific populations. Identified themes to improve equity included a targeted approach to groups experiencing the least advantage; a culturally considered approach; nationally consistent guidance; and improved funding to support implementation of guideline recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: We have systematically identified and assessed guidelines on preterm birth. High-quality guidelines will inform a national best practice guide for use in Taonga Tuku Iho, a knowledge translation project for equity in preterm birth care and outcomes in Aotearoa.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Povo Maori , Nova Zelândia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal
14.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; mar. 2024. 257 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538043

RESUMO

Este livro celebra os 30 anos do Conselho Municipal de Saúde de Porto Alegre e reúne um conjunto de textos que apresentam e discutem ações e lutas ocorridas a partir de 2017 relacionadas ao CMS-POA, buscando sistematizar e dar visibilidade aos temas emergentes e principais desafios enfrentados no período. O CMS-POA tem a tradição de compartilhar seu percurso e suas reflexões por meio de notas públicas, manifestos e, a cada quinquênio, um livro. Os livros comemorativos têm se consolidado ao longo dos 15, 20, 25 e agora 30 anos do Conselho. Os registros memoriais dessa trajetória constituem um movimento de resistência e refundação dos fazeres do Conselho, que tem enfrentado o desafio de monitorar e consolidar o SUS na cidade. Nesse livro, em especial, buscamos aprofundar o tema emergente do empresariamento da Saúde, mas também de ações e projetos desenvolvidos pelo CMS-POA e por seus parceiros, o que demanda reflexões sobre o atual cenário das políticas de saúde e dos interesses em disputa. Os textos foram escritos por parceiros históricos do Conselho que conosco acreditam que saúde é democracia e, portanto, se faz com participação social.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 210, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Instrumental vaginal birth, a very common intervention in obstetrics, concerns nearly one in eight women in France. Instrumentally assisted vaginal childbirth can be for maternal and/or fetal indications. Although it reduces recourse to caesarean section, it is subject to risks. Practices concerning instrumental birth are disparate, varying among different practitioners, maternity units and countries, and it is essential to be able to evaluate them. Our objective was to create a classification tool of women requiring instrumental birth to facilitate the analysis of practices within our maternity unit as well as to enable temporal and geographical comparisons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We propose a simple and robust classification based on the same principles as Robson's classification. It is made up of seven totally inclusive and mutually exclusive groups. Our classification was refined and validated using the Delphi method by a panel of 14 experts from throughout France, and tested in our maternity unit using data from throughout 2021. RESULTS: The seven clinically relevant groups are based on five obstetric criteria (multiplicity, presentation, gestational age, previous type of birth, induction of labor). To classify each woman in a group, five successive questions are posed in a predefined order. The classification has been validated by the experts with highly satisfactory overall agreement. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the quality of care, we propose a tool to standardize the evaluation of instrumental vaginal birth practice (called the "Isère classification", after the county where we work in south-eastern France). It will also facilitate the comparison the practices among different maternity units in a network, a country or even among different countries.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 360, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in a deprived neighborhood is associated with poorer health, due to factors such as lower socio-economic status and an adverse lifestyle. There is little insight into whether living in deprived neighborhood is associated with adverse maternity care outcomes and maternity health care costs. We expect women in a deprived neighborhood to experience a more complicated pregnancy, with more secondary obstetric care (as opposed to primary midwifery care) and higher maternity care costs. This study aimed to answer the following research question: to what extent are moment of referral from primary to secondary care, mode of delivery, (extreme or very) preterm delivery and maternity care costs associated with neighborhood deprivation? METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used a national Dutch database with healthcare claims processed by health insurers. All pregnancies that started in 2018 were included. The moment of referral from primary to secondary care, mode of delivery, (extreme or very) preterm delivery and maternity care costs were compared between women in deprived and non-deprived neighborhoods. We reported descriptive statistics, and results of ordinal logistic, multinomial and linear regressions to assess whether differences between the two groups exist. RESULTS: Women in deprived neighborhoods had higher odds of being referred from primary to secondary care during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.41-1.57) and to start their pregnancy in secondary care (adjusted OR 1.55, 95%CI 1.44-1.66). Furthermore, women in deprived neighborhoods had lower odds of assisted delivery than women in non-deprived neighborhoods (adjusted OR 0.73, 95%CI 0.66-0.80), and they had higher odds of a cesarean section (adjusted OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.13-1.25). On average, women in a deprived neighborhood had higher maternity care costs worth 156 euros (95%CI 104-208). CONCLUSION: This study showed that living in a deprived neighborhood is associated with more intensive maternal care and higher maternal care costs in the Netherlands. These findings support the needs for greater attention to socio-economic factors in maternity care in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cesárea
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1345442, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515598

RESUMO

Objective: We sought to examine trends in diagnosed behavioral health (BH) conditions [mental health (MH) disorders or substance use disorders (SUD)] among pregnant and postpartum individuals between 2008-2020. We then explored the relationship between BH conditions and race/ethnicity, acknowledging race/ethnicity as a social construct that influences health disparities. Methods: This study included delivering individuals, aged 15-44 years, and continuously enrolled in a single commercial health insurance plan for 1 year before and 1 year following delivery between 2008-2020. We used BH conditions as our outcome based on relevant ICD 9/10 codes documented during pregnancy or the postpartum year. Results: In adjusted analyses, white individuals experienced the highest rates of BH conditions, followed by Black, Hispanic, and Asian individuals, respectively. Asian individuals had the largest increase in BH rates, increasing 292%. White individuals had the smallest increase of 192%. The trend remained unchanged even after adjusting for age and Bateman comorbidity score, the trend remained unchanged. Conclusions: The prevalence of diagnosed BH conditions among individuals in the perinatal and postpartum periods increased over time. As national efforts continue to work toward improving perinatal BH, solutions must incorporate the needs of diverse populations to avert preventable morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , População Branca , Morbidade , População Negra
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301106, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequality in antenatal care visits is a great concern in developing countries including Bangladesh; however, there is a scarcity of investigation to assess the factors of inequality and these changes over time. In this study, we investigated the trend of socioeconomic inequalities (2004-2017) in 1+ANC and 4+ANC visits, and extracted determinants contributions to the observed inequalities and urban-rural disparities in Bangladesh over the period from 2011 to 2017. METHODS: The data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) conducted in 2004, 2007, 2011 and 2017 were analyzed in this study. The analysis began with exploratory and bivariate analysis, followed by the application of logistic regression models. To measure the inequalities, the Erreygers concentration index was used, and regression-based decomposition analyses were utilized to unravel the determinant's contribution to the observed inequalities. The Blinder-Oaxaca type decomposition is also used to decompose the urban-rural disparity into the factors. RESULTS: Our analysis results showed that the prevalence of 1+ANC and 4+ANC visits has increased across all the determinants, although the rate of 4+ANC visits remains notably low. The magnitudes of socioeconomic inequality in 4+ANC visits represented an irregular pattern at both the national and urban levels, whereas it increased gradually in rural Bangladesh. However, inequalities in 1+ANC visits declined substantially after 2011 across the national, rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Decomposition analyses have suggested that wealth status, women's education, place of residence (only for 4+ANC visits), caesarean delivery, husband education, and watching television (TV) are the main determinants to attribute and changes in the level of inequality and urban-rural disparity between the years 2011 and 2017. CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings of our study, it is imperative for authorities to ensure antenatal care visits are more accessible for rural and underprivileged women. Additionally, should focus on delivering high-quality education, ensuring the completion of education, reducing income disparity as well as launching a program to enhance awareness about health facilities, and the impact of caesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Natal , População Rural , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
19.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 28(2): 67-72, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425174

RESUMO

The Talang Mamak tribe is an indigenous tribe that lives in groups (the extended family) in rural locations. All decisions are made after much deliberation. Traditional birth attendants are still used for childbirth. The objective of the study is to analyze the factors that influence reproductive health-needing behavior among Talang Mamak women of reproductive age. With 160 respondents, data was analyzed using logistic regression. The study discovered that education p = 0.001 with PR=4,738, knowledge p = 0.001 with PR=13,800, attitude p= 0.001 with PR=3,133, and tradition p= 0.001 with PR=226.66 are variables that influence the behavior of women of reproductive age toward needing reproductive health services. Among the five variables influencing the outcome, one stands out: tradition, which has an Exp(ß) value of 192.422. The multivariate results show that three variables are included in the modeling: tradition p = 0.001, knowledge p = 0.001, and education p = 0.001. Good traditions, good knowledge, and higher education in the Talang Mamak tribe have a more behavioral probability of needing reproductive health services in women of reproductive age 99%, while another 1% probability by other variables is not examined in this study.


La tribu Talang Mamak est une tribu indigène qui vit en groupes (la famille élargie) dans les zones rurales. Toutes les décisions sont prises après de longues délibérations. Les accoucheuses traditionnelles sont encore utilisées pour l'accouchement. L'objectif de l'étude est d'analyser les facteurs qui influencent le comportement en matière de santé reproductive chez les femmes Talang Mamak en âge de procréer. Avec 160 répondants, les données ont été analysées par régression logistique. L'étude a découvert que l'éducation p = 0,001 avec PR = 4 738, la connaissance p = 0,001 avec PR = 13 800, l'attitude p = 0,001 avec PR = 3 133 et la tradition p = 0,001 avec PR = 226,66 sont des variables qui influencent le comportement des femmes en situation de procréation. âge pour avoir besoin de services de santé reproductive. Parmi les cinq variables influençant le résultat, une se démarque : la tradition, qui a une valeur Exp(ß) de 192,422. Les résultats multivariés montrent que trois variables sont incluses dans la modélisation : tradition p = 0,001, connaissances p = 0,001 et éducation p = 0,001. Les bonnes traditions, les bonnes connaissances et l'enseignement supérieur dans la tribu Talang Mamak ont une probabilité comportementale plus élevée d'avoir besoin de services de santé reproductive chez les femmes en âge de procréer (99 %), tandis qu'une autre probabilité de 1 % selon d'autres variables n'est pas examinée dans cette étude.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodução , Escolaridade , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
J Mass Spectrom ; 59(4): e5015, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501738

RESUMO

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic neurobehavioral ailment and is prevalent in pregnancy. OUD is commonly treated with methadone or buprenorphine (BUP). Pregnancy is known to alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs and may lead to changes in drug exposure and response. A simple, specific, and sensitive analytical method for measuring the parent drug and its metabolites is valuable for assessing the impact of pregnancy on drug exposure. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method that utilized a simple protein precipitation procedure for sample preparation and four deuterated internal standards for quantification was developed and validated for BUP and its major metabolites (norbuprenorphine [NBUP], buprenorphine-glucuronide [BUP-G], and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide [NBUP-G]) in human plasma. The standard curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 ng/mL for BUP and NBUP, and 0.1-200 ng/mL for BUP-G and NBUP-G. Intra- and inter-day bias and precision were within ±15% of nominal values for all the analytes. Quality controls assessed at four levels showed high recovery consistently for all the analytes with minimal matrix effect. Adequate analyte stability was observed at various laboratory conditions tested. Overall, the developed method is simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible, and was successfully applied for the quantification of BUP and its metabolites in plasma samples collected from pregnant women in a clinical study assessing BUP exposure during OUD treatment.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Buprenorfina/análogos & derivados , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacocinética , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , 60705 , Glucuronídeos , Buprenorfina/análise , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
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