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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 89-95, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374353

RESUMO

Background: Total laboratory automation (TLA) is an innovation in laboratory technology; however, the high up-front costs restrict its widespread adoption. To examine whether the capital investment for TLA is worthwhile, we analyzed its clinical- and cost-effectiveness for the expected payback period. Methods: Clinical chemistry tests and immunoassays performed in the clinical laboratory of a tertiary care hospital were divided into a post-TLA group, including 1,182,419 tests performed during December 2019, and a pre-TLA group, including 1,151,501 tests performed during December 2018. Laboratory information system data were used to measure clinical effectiveness, and depreciation data were used to calculate TLA costs. Results: Laboratory performance improved after TLA adoption in all four key performance indicators: mean turn-around time (TAT), representing the timeliness of result reporting, decreased by 6.1%; the 99th percentile of TAT, representing the outlier rate, decreased by 13.3%; the TAT CV, representing predictability, decreased by 70.0%; and weighted tube touch moment (wTTM), representing staff safety, improved by 77.6%. Based on these effectiveness results, economic evaluation was performed using two approaches. First, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and wTTM were used as the most cost-effective performance indicators. Second, the expected payback period was calculated. Considering only staff cost reduction, it was anticipated that 4.75 yrs would be needed to payback the initial investment. Conclusions: TLA can significantly enhance laboratory performance, has a relatively quick payback period, and can reduce total hospital expenses in the long term. Therefore, the capital investment for TLA adoption is considered to be worthwhile.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Laboratórios , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMO

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Nitritos , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Dietética , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , República da Coreia
3.
Talanta ; 236: 122832, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635222

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the application of an electronic nose and chemometric analysis to discriminate volatile organic compounds between patients with COVID-19, post-COVID syndrome and controls in exhaled breath samples. A cross-sectional study was performed on 102 exhaled breath samples, 42 with COVID-19, 30 with the post-COVID syndrome and 30 control subjects. Breath-print analysis was performed by the Cyranose 320 electronic nose with 32 sensors. Group data were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA), and Support Vector Machine (SVM), and the test's diagnostic power was evaluated through a Receiver Operaring Characteristic curve(ROC curve). The results of the chemometric analysis indicate in the PCA a 97.6% (PC1 = 95.9%, PC2 = 1.0%, PC3 = 0.7%) of explanation of the variability between the groups by means of 3 PCs, the CDA presents a 100% of correct classification of the study groups, SVM a 99.4% of correct classification, finally the PLS-DA indicates an observable separation between the groups and the 12 sensors that were related. The sensitivity, specificity of post-COVID vs. controls value reached 97.6% (87.4%-99.9%) and 100% (88.4%-100%) respectively, according to the ROC curve. As a perspective, we consider that this technology, due to its simplicity, low cost and portability, can support strategies for the identification and follow-up of post-COVID patients. The proposed classification model provides the basis for evaluating post-COVID patients; therefore, further studies are required to enable the implementation of this technology to support clinical management and mitigation of effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Estudos Transversais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126708, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352521

RESUMO

The level and distribution of 16 USEPA Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in aquaculture farmed fish (Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis mossambicus) and shellfish (Corbicula fluminea Formosa and Meretrix lusoria) were determined in Taiwan and then assessed cancer and non-cancer risks for those consuming these kinds of seafood. Results indicated that C. fluminea Formosa accumulated the highest average concentration of total PAHs (43.0 ± 11.3 ng/g wet weight) while M. lusoria contained the lowest concentration (20.0 ± 5.8 ng/g) among all species. The low-molecular-weight PAHs were dominant for both fish and shellfish, which consistent with other studies. Notably, parts of high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in shellfish whereas that was little in fish. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of all PAHs were smaller than 1 and the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for Benzo[a]pyrene were below 1 × 10-5, suggesting that PAHs in the collected seafood could pose a low hazard to residents. Although the results indicated that the studied seafood is safe for human consumption, children and seniors post relatively higher risks, suggesting that it needs to continue monitoring and control the PAHs concentration in seafood and the associated environments.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Aquicultura , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Lagoas , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Taiwan
5.
Food Chem ; 368: 130814, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428689

RESUMO

Furfural compounds are produced during infant formula production when heat treatment is involved. In this study, a robust method was established for determining potential and free furfural compounds (furfural, 5-methyl-2-furfural, 2-acetylfuran and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural) using a modified QuEChERS technique coupled with GC-MS/MS. Further, 36 samples of two batches, covering the whole infant formula production chain were analyzed by the method to investigate how furfurals evolved during process. Then risk assessment was conducted using the Toxtree and T.E.S.T. software and evaluated by hazard quotient. Results showed the contents of bound and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural demonstrated largest increase during spray-drying (6-11 times) and homogenization stages (12-33 times), respectively. As the sum up of bound and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural was found can cause safety risks in the production chain due to the high hazard quotient value (3.11), indicating it should be controlled in homogenization and spray-drying stages.


Assuntos
Furaldeído , Fórmulas Infantis , Furaldeído/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Food Chem ; 368: 130826, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454369

RESUMO

The safety and quality of aquatic foods are a public concern due to their content of pollutants, such as arsenic. A formula is derived for quantifying the benefit-risk ratio (HQ) of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids vs. arsenic in Chinses mitten crabs. Among these arsenic species, the proportion of inorganic arsenic, which is extremely harmful to the human body, is<5%, and its level does not exceed the national standard limit. Meanwhile, comparing with the HQ from the original method, the HQs from groups 0 min, 5 min, 15 min are significantly higher(p < 0.05). This suggests the original assessment method could underestimate the risk of eating crabs. Eating steamed crabs is easier to digest essential fatty acids (EFAs) than eating raw crabs, and it also protects consumers against arsenic exposure. To achieve a good balance of dietary benefits and risks, the steaming duration of the crabs should exceed 30 min.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Braquiúros , Animais , China , Digestão , Humanos , Nutrientes , Medição de Risco
7.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108616, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481232

RESUMO

This cross-country study investigates the potential to improve pig welfare by exploiting consumer demand, domestically and in export markets, for welfare pork produced in indoor production systems. The analysis is based on questionnaire data collected in 2019 focusing on demand for Danish welfare pork both in Denmark and in two nearby export markets, Sweden and Germany. To reduce hypothetical bias, a willingness-to-pay indicator is combined with an indicator of positive interest in buying a fictive Danish welfare labelled pork. We find that the market potential is relatively weak. Our findings indicate that there is some, albeit limited, potential in Denmark and Germany while demand is practically non-existing in Sweden, probably because the pig welfare guaranteed by Swedish legislation is similar to what is provided by the fictive welfare label employed in the study. Hence, consumer demand alone cannot secure enhanced pig welfare. Moreover, we found national differences in the characteristics of consumers who are interested in Danish welfare pork.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/normas , Adulto , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Suínos
8.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113882, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638040

RESUMO

Due to its increasing demands for fossil fuels, Indonesia needs an alternative energy to diversify its energy supply. Landfill gas (LFG), which key component is methane (CH4), has become one of the most attractive options to sustain its continued economic development. This exploratory study seeks to demonstrate the added value of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) in generating sustainable energy, resulting from CH4 emissions in the Bantargebang landfill (Jakarta). The power generation capacity of a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant based on a mathematical modeling was investigated. This article critically evaluated the production of electricity and potential income from its sale in the market. The project's environmental impact assessment and its socio-economic and environmental benefits in terms of quantitative and qualitative aspects were discussed. It was found that the emitted CH4 from the landfill could be reduced by 25,000 Mt annually, while its electricity generation could reach one million kW â‹…h annually, savings on equivalent electricity charge worth US$ 112 million/year (based on US' 8/kW ⋅ h). An equivalent CO2 mitigation of 3.4 × 106 Mt/year was obtained. The income from its power sale were US$ 1.2 ×106 in the 1st year and 7.7 ×107US$ in the 15th year, respectively, based on the projected CH4 and power generation. The modeling study on the Bantargebang landfill using the LFG extraction data indicated that the LFG production ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 m3 per kg of the landfilled MSW. The LFG could generate electricity as low as US' 8 per kW ⋅ h. With respect to the implications of this study, the revenue not only defrays the cost of landfill's operations and maintenance (O&M), but also provides an incentive and means to further improve its design and operations. Overall, this work not only leads to a diversification of primary energy, but also improves environmental protection and the living standard of the people surrounding the plant.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eliminação de Resíduos , Eletricidade , Humanos , Indonésia , Metano/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
9.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132116, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492419

RESUMO

Biochar application as a soil amendment has attracted worldwide attention. Nevertheless, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed during biochar production might enter into ecosystems and threaten human health after application to soil. Continuous pyrolysis systems tend to cause an accumulation of PAHs in biochar owing to short residence time and rapid cooling. This study conducted a comprehensive assessment regarding potential risk of PAHs in biochars produced by a continuous pyrolysis system based on bioavailability, leaching behavior, toxic equivalent quantity, health risk and phytotoxicity of PAHs. Results showed that the concentrations of total PAHs in biochars were in the range of 93.40-172.40 mg/kg, exceeding the European Biochar Certificate standard. 3-rings PAHs were the predominant groups. The percentages of total freely dissolved and leachable PAHs were lower than 1%. RH contained the least bioavailable and leachable PAHs concentration and phytotoxicity compared with CS and PS, which might attribute to the characteristic of three biochars. CS and PS were acidic and exhibited high levels of DOC and VFAs, while RH was strongly alkaline and presented greater aromaticity and higher surface area, which might have resulted in high adsorptive capacity and decreased bioavailability of PAHs. When the biochar application rate was higher than 0.6 t/ha, the incremental lifetime cancer risk value for human exposure to biochar-borne PAHs through the biochar-amended soil was over 10-6, suggesting carcinogenic risks. Germination index values of biochars ranged from 25.66 to 88.95%. Phytotoxicity mainly was caused by bioavailable PAHs and dissolved organic compounds. Overall, these findings highlighted that although the percentage of bioavailable PAHs was low, the potential health risk and phytotoxicity of PAHs in biochars produced by a continuous pyrolysis system was of a great concern. High biochar application rates should be avoided without processing both for soil safety and human health.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carvão Vegetal , Ecossistema , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Pirólise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132130, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517237

RESUMO

Pb(II) ions is an inorganic pollutant that is present in the environment. Its presence affects both human health and ecosystem. Economically, amongst many wastewater treatment approaches, adsorption is both cheap and environmentally friendly for removing Pb(II) ion from contaminated water. In this state of the art review, about 227 research and review based publications on adsorption-based studies between 1989 and 2021, which have used various materials as adsorbents of Pb (II) ions, were selected and reviewed for more evaluation. A number of adsorbents which have been reported in these literatures for the adsorption of Pb(II) ion are agrobased, modified agrobased, clay minerals, modified/nanocomposite clay minerals, silica-based, zeolite-based and chitosan-based adsorbents, respectively. The adsorption potential of the adsorbents is exhibited under optimum experimental conditions. The unmodified and modified agro based adsorbents were shown to exhibit the greatest Pb(II) adsorption capacity, with great potential for further exploration, compared to the others afore-listed. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose and reaction time are discussed. Furthermore, in order to comprehend the nature of adsorption process between the adsorbent and contaminant (Pb(II)), thermodynamic analyses of adsorption systems are intensively described. All these discussions revealed the applicability of adsorption process for toxic Pb(II) ions removal with respect to wastewater treatment techniques. The review concludes by commenting on the various adsorbents' adsorption capacity and proposes some studies that should also be considered in future works.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Ecossistema , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Cinética , Chumbo , Águas Residuárias , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132243, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537453

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the most prevalent causing agents of food- and water-borne illnesses, posing an ongoing public health threat. These food-poisoning bacteria contaminate the resources at different stages such as production, aggregation, processing, distribution, as well as marketing. According to the high incidence of salmonellosis, effective strategies for early-stage detection are required at the highest priority. Since traditional culture-dependent methods and polymerase chain reaction are labor-intensive and time-taking, identification of early and accurate detection of Salmonella in food and water samples can prevent significant health economic burden and lessen the costs. The immense potentiality of biosensors in diagnosis, such as simplicity in operation, the ability of multiplex analysis, high sensitivity, and specificity, have driven research in the evolution of nanotechnology, innovating newer biosensors. Carbon nanomaterials enhance the detection sensitivity of biosensors while obtaining low levels of detection limits due to their possibility to immobilize huge amounts of bioreceptor units at insignificant volume. Moreover, conjugation and functionalization of carbon nanomaterials with metallic nanoparticles or organic molecules enables surface functional groups. According to these remarkable properties, carbon nanomaterials are widely exploited in the development of novel biosensors. To be specific, carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes function as transducers in the analyte recognition process or surface immobilizers for biomolecules. Herein the potential application of carbon nanomaterials in the development of novel Salmonella biosensors platforms is reviewed comprehensively. In addition, the current problems and critical analyses of the future perspectives of Salmonella biosensors are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Nanoestruturas , Nanotubos de Carbono , Humanos , Salmonella , Solo , Água
12.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132043, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543905

RESUMO

With the prevalence of stroke rising due to both aging societies and more people getting strokes at a younger age, a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between urban characteristics and age-specific stroke mortality for the development of a healthy built environment is necessary. Specifically, assessment of various dimensions of urban characteristics (e.g. short-term environmental change, long-term environmental conditions) is needed for healthy built environment designs and protocols. A multifactorial assessment was conducted to evaluate associations between environmental and sociodemographic characteristics with age-stroke mortality in Hong Kong. We found that short-term (and temporally varying) daily PM10, older age and being female were more strongly associated with all types of stroke deaths compared to all-cause deaths in general. Colder days, being employed and being married were more strongly associated with hemorrhagic stroke deaths in general. Long-term (and spatially varying) regional-level air pollution were more strongly associated with non-hemorrhagic stroke deaths in general. These associations varied by age. Employment (manual workers) and low education were risk factors for stroke mortality at younger ages (age <65). Greenness and open space did not have a significant association with stroke mortality. Since a significant connection was expected, this leads to questions about the health-inducing efficacy of Hong Kong's compact open spaces (natural greenery being limited to steep slopes, and extensive impervious surfaces on public open spaces). In conclusion, urban plans and designs for stroke mortality prevention should implement age-specific health care to neighborhoods with particular population segments.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambiente Construído , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132270, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560497

RESUMO

Emerging contaminants (ECs), a class of contaminants with low concentrations but significant harm, have received a lot of attention in recent times. ECs comprises of various chemicals that enter the environment every day. In today's modern lifestyle, we use many chemical-based products. These persist in wastewater and ultimately enter the water bodies, causing serious problems to the human and aquatic ecosystem. This is because the conventional wastewater treatment methods are inefficient in identifying and removing such contaminants. Aiming for a long-term, effective solution to this issue, Adsorption was proposed. Although several adsorbents are already present in the market, which have proved beneficial in removing such ECs, not all are affordable. This article reviews replacing costly adsorbents with agriculture-based biomass that are abundant, inexpensive, and biodegradable and possess excellent adsorption capacity. The objectives of this article is to look at adsorption as a viable treatment option for emerging pollutants, as well as sophisticated and cost-effective emerging contaminants treatment options.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Humanos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132323, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563776

RESUMO

This study investigated the concentration of radon (222Rn) in hot springs water. For this purpose, 222Rn concentration was measured using the RAD7 (Durridge Company, USA) in the water of hot springs located in Tata Pani, Gilgit (n = 4), and Garam Chashma, Chitral (n = 6), northern Pakistan. Water samples from the springs (background, n = 3) were also collected and analyzed for 222Rn concentration 40-50 km away from the hot springs in Gilgit and Chitral, northern Pakistan, to be used as background/reference concentration. The determined 222Rn in hot springs water surpassed the threshold of maximum contamination level (MCL, 11.1 Bq/L) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) in 100% samples collected from Tata Pani, Gilgit, and Garam Chashma, Chitral sites. Soil 222Rn along with the hot springs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance. 222Rn concentration in hot springs water was used to calculate the exposure doses of human health through ingestion and inhalation pathways. The total effective dose for human (EWT) of 222Rn contaminated water consumption was 626 µSv/a in the Tata Pani, Gilgit and 34.7 µSv/a in the Garam Chashma, Chitral. Results revealed that hot springs water in the Tata Pani, Gilgit had surpassed the threshold limit (100 µSv/a) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study concluded that hot springs water should be avoided for drinking and other domestic uses.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fontes Termais , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Ingestão de Líquidos , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Radônio/análise , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
15.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118021, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654571

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Accelerating evidence of endocrine-related morbidity has raised alarm about the ubiquitous use of phthalates in the human environment, but studies have not directly evaluated mortality in relation to these exposures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of phthalate exposure with mortality, and quantify attributable mortality and lost economic productivity in 2013-4 among 55-64 year olds. DESIGN: This nationally representative cohort study included 5303 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010 and provided urine samples for phthalate metabolite measurements. Participants were linked to mortality data from survey date through December 31, 2015. Data analyses were conducted in July 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. RESULTS: Multivariable models identified increased mortality in relation to high-molecular weight (HMW) phthalate metabolites, especially those of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Hazard ratios (HR) for continuous HMW and DEHP metabolites were 1.14 (95% CI 1.06-1.23) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.03-1.19), respectively, with consistently higher mortality in the third tertile (1.48, 95% CI 1.19-1.86; and 1.42, 95% CI 1.13-1.78). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased in relation to a prominent DEHP metabolite, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate. Extrapolating to the population of 55-64 year old Americans, we identified 90,761-107,283 attributable deaths and $39.9-47.1 billion in lost economic productivity. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample, phthalate exposures were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, with societal costs approximating $39 billion/year or more. While further studies are needed to corroborate observations and identify mechanisms, regulatory action is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Custos e Análise de Custo , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 97-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661472

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal which is abundant in the environment and known to cause neurotoxicity in children even at minute concentration. However, the trace elements calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential to children due to its protective effect on neurodevelopment. The primary objective of this study was to assess the role of Pb and trace elements in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among preschool children. A total of 81 ASD children and 74 typically developed (TD) children aged between 3 and 6 years participated in the study. Self-administered online questionnaires were completed by the parents. A first-morning urine sample was collected in a sterile polyethene urine container and assayed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparisons between groups revealed that the urinary Pb, Mg, Zn and Fe levels in ASD children were significantly lower than TD children. The odds of ASD reduced significantly by 5.0% and 23.0% with an increment of every 1.0 µg/dL urinary Zn and Fe, respectively. Post interaction analysis showed that the odds of ASD reduced significantly by 11.0% and 0.1% with an increment of every 1.0 µg/dL urinary Zn and Pb, respectively. A significantly lower urinary Pb level in ASD children than TD children may be due to their poor detoxifying mechanism. Also, the significantly lower urinary Zn and Fe levels in ASD children may augment the neurotoxic effect of Pb.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Oligoelementos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Chumbo , Malásia , Oligoelementos/análise
17.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 23-29, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672836

RESUMO

The impact of public health measures on the coronavirus-2019 pandemic was analyzed by comparing mandatory versus voluntary nonpharmaceutical interventions between 2 comparable European countries and among 3 U.S. states. Using an ecological retrospective cohort study design, we examine differences in mortality, economic impact, and equity. Compared to voluntary policies, mandatory shelter-in-place policies were associated with a 3- to 5-fold lower population-adjusted mortality in the U.S. model and between 11- to 12-fold lower in the European one. Voluntary shelter-in-place measures were associated with overall increased mortality cost, as measured by value of a statistical life; somewhat greater decreases in gross domestic product; and substantial negative impacts on minority communities, who experienced markedly increased mortality rates (the percentage of minority deaths was 2.3 and 4 times greater in the U.S. model and 14.5 times higher in the European one) and mortality cost (2.7- and 4.5-fold higher in the U.S. model and 11.1-fold higher in the European one). We conclude that voluntary policies are less effective than mandatory ones, based on historical precedent and the current analysis. Negative effects on health equity mirrored the increased mortality outcomes of voluntary policies, and there was no apparent economic benefit associated with voluntary measures.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150026, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500277

RESUMO

Pesticides are extensively used to control pests, diseases, and weeds in order to increase agricultural production. Usage of indiscriminate doses and persistent pesticides has not only caused resistance issues in insect pests but has also had deleterious effects on non-target organisms (beneficial insects, fish, and wildlife) and caused environmental contamination (soil, water, and air) through leaching, overflow, and insecticide spray drift. Exposure from eating food and drinking water contaminated to pesticide residues is also affecting human health. This study was conducted to obtain information to reduce pesticide resistance and environmental pollution. A cotton dusky bug (Oxycarenus hyalinipennis) population was collected from a farmer's field and exposed to fipronil for 18 generations. In comparison to an unselected strain (XYZ-FS) and a field population (Field-Popn), the fipronil-selected strain of O. hyalinipennis (XYZ-FR) developed a 2631.50-fold level of resistance and a 202.42-fold resistance level respectively. Significantly higher fecundity was observed in the XYZ-FS (24.93) compared to that of Hybrid2 (XYZ-FR ♀ XYZ-FS ♂) (17.60), Hybrid1 (XYZ-FR ♂ × XYZ-FS ♀) (17.13), and XYZ-FR (12.6). The intrinsic rate of natural increase, relative fitness and biotic potential were highest in XYZ-FS, followed by Hybrid2, Hybrid1, and XYZ-FR. The XYZ-FR strain of O. hyalinipennis had very low cross-resistance to profenofos (1.15-2.83-fold), and emamectin benzoate (1.09-2.86-fold) and moderate resistance to bifenthrin (5.49-24.54-fold) when selection progressed from G4 to G19. The proper use of this pesticide, along with rotation and a high-dose strategy may helpful to reduce the risk of resistance development and also its negative impacts on the environment and humans.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis , Medição de Risco
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150016, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525731

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in outdated electronic and electrical products. In the present study, dust samples from houses, kindergartens, and roads were collected in Guiyu, where informal e-waste recycling activities have been sustained since the 1980s. Haojiang was chosen as a reference site without e-waste pollution. A total of 20 PBDE congeners and 18 PCB congeners was measured. Concentrations of total PBDEs and PCBs in dust samples from Guiyu were significantly higher than those from Haojiang. In Guiyu, kindergarten dust had the highest concentration of PCBs in these three typical environments, whereas the concentration of PBDEs showed no significant difference. Concentrations of PBDEs in Haojiang house dust were found significantly higher than other two environmental dusts. According to the questionnaires, we found that factors such as shoe cabinets, electrical products, and potted plants might affect PBDE and PCB concentrations in house dust. Daily intake of PBDEs and PCBs via dust ingestion was estimated after correction by their house, kindergarten, and road dust concentrations. The mean estimated daily intake (EDI) of PBDEs for Guiyu children was far lower than the oral reference dose recommended by the environmental protection agency (EPA). The Guiyu children seem to have a higher trend of daily intakes of PCBs although their EDIs not being calculated accurately due to the low detection rate. Child exposure to PBDEs via dust ingestion in Guiyu was 36 times higher than those in Haojiang. This indicates that children from e-waste-polluted areas stay in surroundings with heavy burdens of PBDEs, even PCBs. The risk to their health from contaminants is a severe concern.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Bifenilos Policlorados , Criança , Poeira/análise , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131821, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388869

RESUMO

Acute exposure to trace metals (TMs) in water is hazardous to human health. The average concentrations (Cavg.) and carcinogenic (CAR) and non-carcinogenic (non-CAR) risks of eight TMs to World Health Organization's (WHO) guidelines and national standard limits (NSLs)were determined. The Cavg. and (the range) of As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, and Zn were measured as 4.29 ± 0.57 µg L-1 (1.12-10.27 µg L-1), 0.22 ± 0.10 µg L-1 (ND-1.05 µg L-1), 0.31 ± 0.18 µg L-1 (ND-1.80 µg L-1), 4.66 ± 0.32 µg L-1 (0.10-14.22 µg L-1), 24.61 ± 4.65 µg L-1 (3.11-67.25 µg L-1), 16.86 ± 5.54 µg L-1 (5.12-34.61 µg L-1), 14.07 ± 4.37 µg L-1 (3.79-31.39 µg L-1), and 268.42 ± 75.82 (87.29-561.22 µg L-1), respectively. The Cavg. of Co and Hg exceeded the WHO and NSLs. The non-CAR risk assessment was used to order the TMs according to the total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) As > Pb > Cr > Co > Zn > Hg > Ni > Cd. None of the investigated age groups are at risk As there is a low Cavg of all trace metals (i.e., the THQ is > 1). The age groups were ranked based on THQ and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) As < 1 year, >1-10 years, > 11-19 years, and > + 20 years. The ILCR of As for all the age groups was >10-4, whereas for Pb it was <10-6. Cumulative carcinogenic risk (CCR) for As and Pb was at a safe threshold risk (>10-4) for all the age groups.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Lactente , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
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