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1.
Physiol Meas ; 45(5)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604189

RESUMO

Objective. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a popular technique for the assessment of body composition in children and adults but has not found extensive use in babies and infants. This due primarily to technical difficulties of measurement in these groups. Although improvements in data modelling have, in part, mitigated this issue, the problem continues to yield unacceptably high rates of poor quality data. This study investigated an alternative data modelling procedure obviating issues associated with BIS measurements in babies and infants.Approach.BIS data are conventionally analysed according to the Cole model describing the impedance response of body tissues to an appliedACcurrent. This approach is susceptible to errors due to capacitive leakage errors of measurement at high frequency. The alternative is to model BIS data based on the resistance-frequency spectrum rather than the reactance-resistance Cole model thereby avoiding capacitive error impacts upon reactance measurements.Main results.The resistance-frequency approach allowed analysis of 100% of data files obtained from BIS measurements in 72 babies compared to 87% successful analyses with the Cole model. Resistance-frequency modelling error (percentage standard error of the estimate) was half that of the Cole method. Estimated resistances at zero and infinite frequency were used to predict body composition. Resistance-based prediction of fat-free mass (FFM) exhibited a 30% improvement in the two-standard deviation limits of agreement with reference FFM measured by air displacement plethysmography when compared to Cole model-based predictions.Significance.This study has demonstrated improvement in the analysis of BIS data based on the resistance frequency response rather than conventional Cole modelling. This approach is recommended for use where BIS data are compromised by high frequency capacitive leakage errors such as those obtained in babies and infants.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Lactente , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Feminino
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 236, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, teenage pregnancy is among the most social problems, affecting 21 million adolescents aged 15-19. Due to the increased responsibility of prenatal and postnatal care for their infants without support, pregnant and parenting teenagers, tend to experience mental health problems. Factors contributing to these problems among pregnant and parenting teenagers in rural African settings have hardly received scholarly attention and, therefore, are less understood. The purpose of the study was to explore mental health and challenges among pregnant and parenting teenagers,. METHOD(S): The study adopted a qualitative descriptive, exploratory, and phenomenological design. Purposive sampling was used to select 22 pregnant and parenting teenagers 18 years or older. Data were collected in ten selected clinics within the Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS) of DIMAMO and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The findings reveal that pregnant and parenting teenagers in rural areas experience various mental challenges such as depression. These challenges are caused by social problems such as stigmatisation, lack of support from families and friends, as well as parenting demands that contribute to poor progress at school or dropouts. Pregnant teens expressed concerns about the lack of spousal support resulting from abandoning their partners. CONCLUSIONS: Stress and depression were self-reported as mental problems among participants with various psychosocial implications, such as school dropout and miscarriage. There are various contributing factors to the mental health problems identified among pregnant and parenting teenagers, including inadequate family and spousal support. Access to integrated reproductive, psychosocial, and mental health services could be essential for these pregnant and parenting teenagers, to improve their mental well-being and improve the support system.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Saúde Mental , Feminino , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Adolescente , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Poder Familiar , População Negra
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged population groups represents an extreme manifestation of health inequity. This study examines the extent, time trends, and mitigation potentials of area-level socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Germany. METHODS: Nationwide data from official cause-of-death statistics were linked at the district level with official population data and the German Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (GISD). Age-standardized mortality rates before the age of 75 were calculated stratified by sex and deprivation quintile. A what-if analysis with counterfactual scenarios was applied to calculate how much lower premature mortality would be overall if socioeconomic mortality inequalities were reduced. RESULTS: Men and women in the highest deprivation quintile had a 43% and 33% higher risk of premature death, respectively, than those in the lowest deprivation quintile of the same age. Higher mortality rates with increasing deprivation were found for cardiovascular and cancer mortality, but also for other causes of death. Socioeconomic mortality inequalities had started to increase before the COVID-19 pandemic and further exacerbated in the first years of the pandemic. If all regions had the same mortality rate as those in the lowest deprivation quintile, premature mortality would be 13% lower overall. DISCUSSION: The widening gap in premature mortality between deprived and affluent regions emphasizes that creating equivalent living conditions across Germany is also an important field of action for reducing health inequity.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Popul Health Metr ; 22(1): 8, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To forecast the annual burden of type 2 diabetes and related socio-demographic disparities in Belgium until 2030. METHODS: This study utilized a discrete-event transition microsimulation model. A synthetic population was created using 2018 national register data of the Belgian population aged 0-80 years, along with the national representative prevalence of diabetes risk factors obtained from the latest (2018) Belgian Health Interview and Examination Surveys using Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE) as inputs to the Simulation of Synthetic Complex Data (simPop) model. Mortality information was obtained from the Belgian vital statistics and used to calculate annual death probabilities. From 2018 to 2030, synthetic individuals transitioned annually from health to death, with or without developing type 2 diabetes, as predicted by the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, and risk factors were updated via strata-specific transition probabilities. RESULTS: A total of 6722 [95% UI 3421, 11,583] new cases of type 2 diabetes per 100,000 inhabitants are expected between 2018 and 2030 in Belgium, representing a 32.8% and 19.3% increase in T2D prevalence rate and DALYs rate, respectively. While T2D burden remained highest for lower-education subgroups across all three Belgian regions, the highest increases in incidence and prevalence rates by 2030 are observed for women in general, and particularly among Flemish women reporting higher-education levels with a 114.5% and 44.6% increase in prevalence and DALYs rates, respectively. Existing age- and education-related inequalities will remain apparent in 2030 across all three regions. CONCLUSIONS: The projected increase in the burden of T2D in Belgium highlights the urgent need for primary and secondary preventive strategies. While emphasis should be placed on the lower-education groups, it is also crucial to reinforce strategies for people of higher socioeconomic status as the burden of T2D is expected to increase significantly in this population segment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Recém-Nascido , Incidência , Previsões , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Simulação por Computador
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 43, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of validated "fit-for-purpose" rapid assessment tools to measure 24-hour movement behaviours in children aged 0-5 years is a research priority. This study evaluated the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the open-ended and closed-ended versions of the Movement Behaviour Questionnaire for baby (MBQ-B) and child (MBQ-C). METHODS: 300 parent-child dyads completed the 10-day study protocol (MBQ-B: N = 85; MBQ-C: N = 215). To assess validity, children wore an accelerometer on the non-dominant wrist (ActiGraph GT3X+) for 7 days and parents completed 2 × 24-hour time use diaries (TUDs) recording screen time and sleep on two separate days. For babies (i.e., not yet walking), parents completed 2 × 24-hour TUDs recording tummy time, active play, restrained time, screen time, and sleep on days 2 and 5 of the 7-day monitoring period. To assess test-retest reliability, parents were randomised to complete either the open- or closed-ended versions of the MBQ on day 7 and on day 10. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC's) were calculated using generalized linear mixed models and validity was assessed via Spearman correlations. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability for the MBQ-B was good to excellent with ICC's ranging from 0.80 to 0.94 and 0.71-0.93 for the open- and closed-ended versions, respectively. For both versions, significant positive correlations were observed between 24-hour diary and MBQ-B reported tummy time, active play, restrained time, screen time, and sleep (rho = 0.39-0.87). Test-retest reliability for the MBQ-C was moderate to excellent with ICC's ranging from 0.68 to 0.98 and 0.44-0.97 for the open- and closed-ended versions, respectively. For both the open- and closed-ended versions, significant positive correlations were observed between 24-hour diary and MBQ-C reported screen time and sleep (rho = 0.44-0.86); and between MBQ-C reported and device-measured time in total activity and energetic play (rho = 0.27-0.42). CONCLUSIONS: The MBQ-B and MBQ-C are valid and reliable rapid assessment tools for assessing 24-hour movement behaviours in infants, toddlers, and pre-schoolers. Both the open- and closed-ended versions of the MBQ are suitable for research conducted for policy and practice purposes, including the evaluation of scaled-up early obesity prevention programs.


Assuntos
Pais , Sono , Humanos , Lactente , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Sono/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Comportamento Infantil , Tempo de Tela , Movimento , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Sedentário , Exercício Físico
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 418, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641577

RESUMO

AIM: Palivizumab has proven effective in reducing hospitalizations, preventing severe illness, improving health outcomes, and reducing healthcare costs for infants at risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We aim to assess the value of palivizumab in preventing RSV infection in high-risk infants in Colombia, where RSV poses a significant threat, causing severe respiratory illness and hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted a decision tree analysis to compare five doses of palivizumab with no palivizumab. The study considered three population groups: preterm neonates (≤ 35 weeks gestational age), infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and infants with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (CHD). We obtained clinical efficacy data from IMpact-RSV and Cardiac Synagis trials, while we derived neonatal hospitalization risks from the SENTINEL-1 study. We based hospitalization and recurrent wheezing management costs on Colombian analyses and validated them by experts. We estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and performed 1,000 Monte Carlo simulations for probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Palivizumab is a dominant strategy for preventing RSV infection in preterm neonates and infants with BPD and CHD. Its high efficacy (78% in preventing RSV in preterm infants), the substantial risk of illness and hospitalization, and the high costs associated with hospitalization, particularly in neonatal intensive care settings, support this finding. The scatter plots and willingness-to-pay curves align with these results. CONCLUSION: Palivizumab is a cost-saving strategy in Colombia, effectively preventing RSV infection in preterm neonates and infants with BPD and CHD by reducing hospitalizations and lowering healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Palivizumab/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização
7.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(5): 264, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe maxillofacial space infection (MSI) as an end stage of dentoalveolar diseases or complication of sialadenitis is a potentially life-threatening disease accompanied by complications including airway obstruction, jugular vein thrombosis, descending mediastinitis, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and time trends of severe MSI and potentially influencing factors in the German healthcare system over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nationwide data regarding the national diagnosis-related-group (DRG) inpatient billing system was received from the German Federal Statistical Office. A retrospective analysis of incidence and time trends of MSI-associated procedures classified with the Operation and Procedure Classification System (OPS), were statistically evaluated using Poisson regression analysis between 2005 and 2022 and were associated with different epidemiological factors. RESULTS: The total standardized incidence rate of MSI-associated procedures in the observational period 2005-2022 was 9.8 (♀8.2; ♂11.4) per 100,000 person years. For all age groups a significant increase of 46.1% in severe MSI - related surgical interventions was registered within the observational period. The largest increase (120.5%) was found in elderly patients over 80 years. There were significant differences of the incidences of MSI-associated surgeries between the different federal states in Germany. CONCLUSIONS: Severe MSI are a growing challenge in German health care especially among elderly patients over 80 years. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Severe MSI is a promising target for prevention. There should be more focus in primary dental and medical care especially in groups depending on social support.


Assuntos
Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados , Humanos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Incidência , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente
8.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 28, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discontinuation of "Mother-Baby Friendly" accreditation, coupled with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, has contributed to reduced breastfeeding rates observed in parts of South Africa. Consequently, the Child, Youth and School Health cluster of the National Department of Health, with support from the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, organised a Mother-Baby Friendly initiative revitalisation workshop. METHODS: Held in Johannesburg, South Africa, on June 29-30, 2022, the workshop brought together local and international breastfeeding promotion experts to engage on issues related to the revitalisation of the Mother-Baby Friendly Initiative. The workshop included presentations and group sessions aimed at setting expectations, evaluating the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, and developing actionable revitalisation strategies. RESULTS: Inadequate monitoring of the Mother-Baby Friendly Initiative implementation and adherence to the Ten Steps was identified as a major implementation bottleneck. Participants identified steps ten (coordinating discharge so that parents and their infants have timely access to ongoing support and care), five (supporting mothers to initiate and maintain breastfeeding and manage common difficulties), and two (ensuring that staff have sufficient knowledge, competence, and skills to support breastfeeding) of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative as the most difficult to implement. Step seven (enabling mothers and their infants to remain together and to practise rooming-in 24 h a day) was the least difficult to implement. Workshop participants identified the following proposed solutions to revitalise breastfeeding promotion: strengthening capacity building and mentorship, improving monitoring and accountability measures, and certification of facilities meeting the initiative's standards. CONCLUSION: Current breastfeeding policies and practices must be evaluated by the National Department of Health in collaboration with provincial and private representatives of the initiative to effectively revitalise the Mother-Baby Friendly Initiative. Moreover, an integrative monitoring framework must be developed through stakeholder engagement, role clarification, and ownership. While collaboration between the private and public sectors is required to promote training and communication within healthcare facilities and communities.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , África do Sul , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia
9.
Eur Respir Rev ; 33(172)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599675

RESUMO

Respiratory symptoms are ubiquitous in children and, even though they may be the harbinger of poor long-term outcomes, are often trivialised. Adverse exposures pre-conception, antenatally and in early childhood have lifetime impacts on respiratory health. For the most part, lung function tracks from the pre-school years at least into late middle age, and airflow obstruction is associated not merely with poor respiratory outcomes but also early all-cause morbidity and mortality. Much would be preventable if social determinants of adverse outcomes were to be addressed. This review presents the perspectives of paediatricians from many different contexts, both high and low income, including Europe, the Americas, Australasia, India, Africa and China. It should be noted that there are islands of poverty within even the highest income settings and, conversely, opulent areas in even the most deprived countries. The heaviest burden of any adverse effects falls on those of the lowest socioeconomic status. Themes include passive exposure to tobacco smoke and indoor and outdoor pollution, across the entire developmental course, and lack of access even to simple affordable medications, let alone the new biologicals. Commonly, disease outcomes are worse in resource-poor areas. Both within and between countries there are avoidable gross disparities in outcomes. Climate change is also bearing down hardest on the poorest children. This review highlights the need for vigorous advocacy for children to improve lifelong health. It also highlights that there are ongoing culturally sensitive interventions to address social determinants of disease which are already benefiting children.


Assuntos
Transtornos Respiratórios , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , China , Europa (Continente) , Morbidade , Pobreza , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
10.
Thromb Res ; 237: 196-202, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The most notable challenge facing hemophilia A treatment is the development of inhibitors against factor VIII, resulting in increased clinical and socioeconomic burdens due to the need for expensive bypassing agents (BPAs). Although immune tolerance induction (ITI) is currently the primary approach for inhibiting and reducing the inhibitors, the lengthy duration of ITI necessitates the continued use of BPA to manage bleeding episodes. In this study, we aimed to obtain real-world evidence on the clinical and economic aspects and associated burdens experienced by patients with hemophilia A with inhibitors undergoing ITI in Korea. METHODS: Claims data from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2020, were used in this study. The study cohort comprised patients with hemophilia A undergoing ITI, who were categorized into three groups: successful, failed, or continuation of ITI. We evaluated clinical and economic burdens, including monthly healthcare visits, medication costs, and total medical expenses. RESULTS: The study involved 33 cases of ITI across 32 patients. Excluding seven continuation cases where success could not be determined at the observation point, the estimated success rate of ITI was 80.8 %. The median duration of ITI for all patients was 25.7 months. While no significant disparities were noted in the ITI duration between successful and unsuccessful cases (24.51 vs. 25.66 months), substantial discrepancies were observed in the duration of BPA usage (11.10 vs. 25.66 months) and the number of prescribed BPAs (1.79 vs. 2.97). CONCLUSION: Successful ITI reduced both clinical and economic burdens, resulting in decreased monthly medication expenses and overall medical costs.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A , Tolerância Imunológica , Humanos , Hemofilia A/economia , Hemofilia A/imunologia , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , República da Coreia , Masculino , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Fator VIII/uso terapêutico , Fator VIII/imunologia , Fator VIII/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Lactente , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
11.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(4): e13282, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622776

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent causes of respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age, but its socioeconomic impact and burden in primary care settings is still little studied. METHODS: During the 2022/2023 winter season, 55 pediatricians from five Italian regions participated in our community-based study. They collected a nasal swab for RSV molecular test from 650 patients under the age of 5 with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and performed a baseline questionnaire. The clinical and socioeconomic burden of RSV disease in primary care was evaluated by two follow-up questionnaires completed by the parents of positive children on Days 14 and 30. RESULTS: RSV laboratory-confirmed cases were 37.8% of the total recruited ARI cases, with RSV subtype B accounting for the majority (65.4%) of RSV-positive swabs. RSV-positive children were younger than RSV-negative ones (median 12.5 vs. 16.5 months). The mean duration of symptoms for all children infected by RSV was 11.47 ± 6.27 days. We did not observe substantial differences in clinical severity between the two RSV subtypes, but RSV-A positive patients required more additional pediatric examinations than RSV-B cases. The socioeconomic impact of RSV infection was considerable, causing 53% of children to be absent from school, 46% of parents to lose working days, and 25% of families to incur extra costs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings describe a baseline of the RSV disease burden in primary care in Italy before the introduction of upcoming immunization strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Itália/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298927, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dyadic care, which is the concurrent provision of care for a birthing person and their infant, is an approach that may improve disparities in postnatal health outcomes, but no synthesis of existing dyadic care studies has been conducted. This scoping review seeks to identify and summarize: 1) dyadic care studies globally, in which the birthing person-infant dyad are cared for together, 2) postnatal health outcomes that have been evaluated following dyadic care interventions, and 3) research and practice gaps in the implementation, dissemination, and effectiveness of dyadic care to reduce healthcare disparities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible studies will (1) include dyadic care instances for the birthing person and infant, and 2) report clinical outcomes for at least one member of the dyad or intervention outcomes. Studies will be excluded if they pertain to routine obstetric care, do not present original data, and/or are not available in English or Spanish. We will search CINAHL, Ovid (both Embase and Medline), Scopus, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google Scholar, Global Health, Web of Science Core Collection, gray literature, and WHO regional databases. Screening will be conducted via Covidence and data will be extracted to capture the study design, dyad characteristics, clinical outcomes, and implementation outcomes. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tool. A narrative synthesis of the study findings will be presented. DISCUSSION: This scoping review will summarize birthing person-infant dyadic care interventions that have been studied and the evidence for their effectiveness. This aggregation of existing data can be used by healthcare systems working to improve healthcare delivery to their patients with the aim of reducing postnatal morbidity and mortality. Areas for future research will also be highlighted. TRAIL REGISTRATION: This review has been registered at Open Science Framework (OSF, https://osf.io/5fs6e/).


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Lactente , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Biblioteca Gênica , Cuidado do Lactente , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1144, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measurement of nutritional status, which is a vital pre-condition for good health. The prevalence of childhood malnutrition and the potential long-term health risks associated with obesity in Ethiopia have recently increased globally. The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the quantiles of under-five children's BMI in Ethiopia. METHODS: Data on 5,323 children, aged between 0-59 months from March 21, 2019, to June 28, 2019, were obtained from the Ethiopian Mini Demographic Health Survey (EMDHS, 2019), based on the standards set by the World Health Organization. The study used a Bayesian quantile regression model to investigate the association of factors with the quantiles of under-five children's body mass index. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with Gibbs sampling was used to estimate the country-specific marginal posterior distribution estimates of model parameters, using the Brq R package. RESULTS: Out of a total of 5323 children included in this study, 5.09% were underweight (less than 12.92 BMI), 10.05% were overweight (BMI: 17.06 - 18.27), and 5.02% were obese (greater than or equal to 18.27 BMI) children's. The result of the Bayesian quantile regression model, including marginal posterior credible intervals (CIs), showed that for the prediction of the 0.05 quantile of BMI, the current age of children [ ß = -0.007, 95% CI :(-0.01, -0.004)], the region Afar [ ß = - 0.32, 95% CI: (-0.57, -0.08)] and Somalia[ ß = -0.72, 95% CI: (-0.96, -0.49)] were negatively associated with body mass index while maternal age [ ß = 0.01, 95% CI: (0.005, 0.02)], mothers primary education [ ß = 0.19, 95% CI: (0.08, 0.29)], secondary and above [ ß = 0.44, 95% CI: (0.29, 0.58)], and family follows protestant [ ß = 0.22, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.37)] were positively associated with body mass index. In the prediction of the 0.95 (or 0.85?) quantile of BMI, in the upper quantile, still breastfeeding [ ß = -0.25, 95% CI: (-0.41, -0.10)], being female [ ß = -0.13, 95% CI: (-0.23, -0.03)] were negatively related while wealth index [ ß = 0.436, 95% CI: (0.25, 0.62)] was positively associated with under-five children's BMI. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the research findings indicate that the percentage of lower and higher BMI for under-five children in Ethiopia is high. Factors such as the current age of children, sex of children, maternal age, religion of the family, region and wealth index were found to have a significant impact on the BMI of under-five children both at lower and upper quantile levels. Thus, these findings highlight the need for administrators and policymakers to devise and implement strategies aimed at enhancing the normal or healthy weight status among under-five children in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Método de Monte Carlo , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
14.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 18(1): 67-77, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using community-engaged research may result in interventions that reduce infant oral health disparities in underserved populations. OBJECTIVE: Develop community partnerships to create a sustainable infant oral health program that meets specific community-identified needs and provides an interprofessional education experience. METHODS: Partnering with the Homewood Community Engagement Center, researchers engaged and surveyed key community partners to assess the need for an infant oral health invention. LESSONS LEARNED: Community-identified organizing principles and barriers became the framework for, "Healthy Teeth, Healthy Me," a community-driven infant oral health program. Barriers, like access to care, were addressed with community-specific solutions like agreements with local dental clinical for referrals. CONCLUSIONS: Community partnerships can be leveraged to develop oral health programs that fit specific community needs and provide resources to families at greatest risk for child dental caries. Community engagement can be used to modify the intervention to meet oral health needs of other vulnerable communities.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Saúde Bucal , Humanos , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/organização & administração , Lactente , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Relações Comunidade-Instituição
15.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(1): 79-93, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661861

RESUMO

Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (EPSDT) services is a Medicaid benefit for children that addresses their health problems before they become advanced, debilitating, and expensive. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pediatric beneficiaries (newborn to younger than 21 years) enrolled in a Medicaid managed care organization to examine the factors associated with EPSDT screening services completion. We obtained 2018 administrative claims data for beneficiaries continuously enrolled for a minimum of 90 days (n=156,108). Completion of EPSDT screening services among our Medicaid managed care beneficiaries was low. Those having more emergency department visits and hospitalizations, having family medicine practitioners as primary care physicians, belonging to the racial/ethnic group Asian/Pacific Islander/Hawaiian/Alaskan Native/Native American, and 18 to younger than 21 years age group were less likely than others to complete EPSDT services. Our results provide information on segments of pediatric beneficiaries that can be targeted to increase EPSDT screening services completion.


Assuntos
Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Medicaid , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/organização & administração , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299395, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reliable methods for identifying prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are crucial to ending preventable deaths in newborns. This study explored healthcare providers' (HCPs) knowledge, practice, perceived barriers in assessing gestational age and birth weight and their referral methods for preterm and LBW infants. The study additionally assessed the potential of using a mobile app for the identification and referral decision of preterm and LBW. METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study was conducted in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan. Participants, including doctors, nurses, lady health visitors, and midwives, were purposefully selected from a district headquarter hospital, and private providers in the catchment area of Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry (MNHR). Interviews were conducted using an interview guide after obtaining written informed consent. Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using NVIVO® software with an inductive approach. RESULTS: The HCPs had extensive knowledge about antenatal and postnatal methods for assessing gestational age. They expressed a preference for antenatal ultrasound due to the perceived accuracy, though accept practical barriers including workload, machine malfunctions, and cost. Postnatal assessment using the Ballard score was only undertaken sparingly due to insufficient training and subjectivity. All HCPs preferred electronic weighing scales for birth weight Barriers encountered included weighing scale calibration and battery issues. There was variation in the definition of prematurity and LBW, leading to delays in referral. Limited resources, inadequate education, and negative parent past experiences were barriers to referral. Foot length measurements were not currently being used. While mobile apps are felt to have potential, unreliable electricity supply and internet connectivity are barriers. CONCLUSION: The HCPs in this study were knowledgeable in terms of potential tools, but acknowledged the logistical and parental barriers to implementation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Aplicativos Móveis , Médicos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Paquistão , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso
17.
J Mother Child ; 28(1): 14-22, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing bone turnover in paediatric populations is crucial for understanding the physiological changes occurring during skeletal development and identifying potential abnormalities. The objective of this study was to assess osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) levels reflecting bone formation and resorption for age and sex in Polish healthy children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 355 healthy normal-weight children and adolescents (46.5% girls) aged 1-18 years old were recruited. Total body less head (TBLH) and spine L1-L4 were used in children to assess bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone marker concentrations were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. RESULTS: Bone marker levels in girls and boys started with higher values in the first year of life and subsequently decreased until reaching a nadir during the prepubertal period. The pubertal peak values of bone markers were reached at 11-13 years old in boys and at 9-11 years old in girls. After puberty, the adolescents showed a gradual decline in bone marker concentrations to the values observed in adults. We found positive correlations between OC level and TBLH-BMD (r = 0.329, p = 0.002), TBLH-BMD Z-score (r = 0.245, p = 0.023), and L1-L4 BMD (r = 0.280, p = 0.009) in the prepubertal group. CONCLUSIONS: We showed serum levels of bone turnover markers-BALP, OC, and CTX-I-in relation to age and sex in healthy Polish children and adolescents. The age intervals of these markers for girls and boys aged 1-18 years old may be clinically useful in the assessment of bone metabolism in individuals with skeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Polônia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Fosfatase Alcalina
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e247125, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635270

RESUMO

Importance: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) resurgences have been noted following the COVID-19 pandemic in many countries. Recent findings suggest that the 2021 and 2022 RSV seasons were more severe than in past seasons, and age distribution may have shifted toward older children in the younger than 5 years age group. Objectives: To estimate age-specific changes in RSV hospital-based burden of disease before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare incidence by Medicaid use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included children younger than 5 years diagnosed with RSV and bronchiolitis at 50 US children's hospitals in 10 US geographic regions. The included participants had an encounter in intensive care, inpatient, emergency, or observational units, between June 1, 2015, and March 31, 2023. Exposures: Diagnosis of RSV, bronchiolitis, or both at encounter. Main Outcome and Measures: Incidence rate ratio of hospital use within each care unit before vs after the COVID-19 pandemic. It was hypothesized a priori that incidence of hospital use would increase overall in 2021 and 2022 compared with 2015 to 2019 and that the increase would be greater among children 12 months and older. Results: Of 924 061 study participants (median [IQR] age, 8 (5-16) months; 535 619 [58.0%] male), 348 077 (37.7%) were diagnosed with RSV. Of these, 187 850 (54.0%) were hospitalized. Incidence rate ratios of hospitalization increased for all ages in 2021 and 2022 compared with 2015 to 2019. Children aged 24 to 59 months were 4.86 (95% CI, 4.75-4.98) times as likely to be hospitalized in 2022 compared with 2015 to 2019, whereas infants aged 0 to 5 months were 1.77 (95% CI, 1.74-1.80) times as likely. Medicaid patients were more likely to be hospitalized than non-Medicaid patients regardless of year. Conclusions and Relevance: Hospitalizations for RSV and bronchiolitis demonstrated atypical seasonality in 2021 and 2022, with an overall increase in RSV encounters. Postpandemic RSV hospitalization increased for all ages, but especially among older children, whereas bronchiolitis hospitalization was decreased or unchanged compared with earlier seasons. These findings suggest some of the observed increase in RSV hospital use may be due to increased testing.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite , COVID-19 , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hospitais Pediátricos , Pandemias , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 42(1): 9-14, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616421

RESUMO

CONTEXT: One of the essential components for successful caries management is caries risk assessment (CRA). Among CRA tools (CRATs) published in the literature: Caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) 123 and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) CRATs are specifically designed for infants and toddlers. AIMS: The aim of this study is to compare readily available internationally accepted CRAT for infants and toddlers and check the usability of these tools in assigning caries risk among the Indian population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted at Baby Oral Health Promotion Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Tertiary Care Hospital using a cross-sectional study design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were collected using CAMBRA 123 and AAPD CRATs from 379 children aged 0-6 years. The caries risk of the children was recorded with each CRAT and a comparison was made between the two tools used. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The percentage of agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient were used to know the agreement between the CAMBRA 123 and AAPD CRATs using the SPSS statistical tool. The significance level was set at 5% (α = 0.05). RESULTS: For children aged <2 years, the study showed slight agreement between the CAMBRA 123 and AAPD, whereas, for children more than 2 years, there was a fair agreement between the two methods which was statistically significant. This indicates that the agreement between the two methods is still not perfectly established, and AAPD CRA assigns a higher risk category than CAMBRA 123. CONCLUSIONS: CAMBRA 123 is a promising user-friendly quantitative method for CRA in clinical practice. Since there is ambiguity in assessing the caries risk in children <2 years, there is a need to establish a CRAT that can be used exclusively for children below 2 years.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Cárie Dentária , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Medição de Risco , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Odontopediatria
20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 12(5): e744-e755, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanding universal health coverage (UHC) might not be inherently beneficial to poorer populations without the explicit targeting and prioritising of low-income populations. This study examines whether the expansion of UHC between 2000 and 2019 is associated with reduced socioeconomic inequalities in infant mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of birth data compiled from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs). We analysed all births between 2000 and 2019 from all DHSs available for this period. The primary outcome was infant mortality, defined as death within 1 year of birth. Logistic regression models with country and year fixed effects assessed associations between country-level progress to UHC (using WHO's UHC service coverage index) and infant mortality (overall and by wealth quintile), adjusting for infant-level, mother-level, and country-level variables. FINDINGS: A total of 4 065 868 births to 1 833 011 mothers were analysed from 177 DHSs covering 60 LMICs between 2000 and 2019. A one unit increase in the UHC index was associated with a 1·2% reduction in the risk of infant death (AOR 0·988, 95% CI 0·981-0·995; absolute measure of association, 0·57 deaths per 1000 livebirths). An estimated 15·5 million infant deaths were averted between 2000 and 2019 because of increases in UHC. However, richer wealth quintiles had larger associated reductions in infant mortality from UHC (quintile 5 AOR 0·983, 95% CI 0·973-0·993) than poorer quintiles (quintile 1 0·991, 0·985-0·998). In the early stages of UHC, UHC expansion was generally beneficial to poorer populations (ie, larger reductions in infant mortality for poorer households [infant deaths per 1000 per one unit increase in UHC coverage: quintile 1 0·84 vs quintile 5 0·59]), but became less so as overall coverage increased (quintile 1 0·64 vs quintile 5 0·57). INTERPRETATION: Since UHC expansion in LMICs appears to become less beneficial to poorer populations as coverage increases, UHC policies should be explicitly designed to ensure lower income groups continue to benefit as coverage expands. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health and Care Research.


Assuntos
Carboplatina/análogos & derivados , Países em Desenvolvimento , Succinatos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Lactente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade Infantil , Morte do Lactente , Política de Saúde
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