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1.
Yale J Biol Med ; 97(1): 99-106, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559458

RESUMO

Pregnant individuals and infants in the US are experiencing rising morbidity and mortality rates. Breastfeeding is a cost-effective intervention associated with a lower risk of health conditions driving dyadic morbidity and mortality, including cardiometabolic disease and sudden infant death. Pregnant individuals and infants from racial/ethnic subgroups facing the highest risk of mortality also have the lowest breastfeeding rates, likely reflective of generational socioeconomic marginalization and its impact on health outcomes. Promoting breastfeeding among groups with the lowest rates could improve the health of dyads with the greatest health risk and facilitate more equitable, person-centered lactation outcomes. Multiple barriers to lactation initiation and duration exist for families who have been socioeconomically marginalized by health and public systems. These include the lack of paid parental leave, increased access to subsidized human milk substitutes, and reduced access to professional and lay breastfeeding expertise. Breast pumps have the potential to mitigate these barriers, making breastfeeding more accessible to all interested dyads. In 2012, The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) greatly expanded access to pumps through the preventative services mandate, with a single pump now available to most US families. Despite their near ubiquitous use among lactating individuals, little research has been conducted on how and when to use pumps appropriately to optimize breastfeeding outcomes. There is a timely and critical need for policy, scholarship, and education around pump use given their widespread provision and potential to promote equity for those families facing the greatest barriers to achieving their personal breastfeeding goals.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Lactente , Feminino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
2.
Cancer Med ; 13(7): e7054, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening rates remain suboptimal, particularly among low-income populations. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of Medicaid expansion on colorectal cancer screening. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 354,384 individuals aged 50-64 with an income below 400% of the federal poverty level (FPL), who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System from 2010 to 2018. A difference-in-difference analysis was employed to estimate the effect of Medicaid expansion on colorectal cancer screening. Subgroup analyses were conducted for individuals with income up to 138% of the FPL and those with income between 139% and 400% of the FPL. The effect of Medicaid expansion on colorectal cancer screening was examined during the early, mid, and late expansion periods. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the likelihood of receiving colorectal cancer screening for low-income adults aged 50-64. RESULTS: Medicaid expansion was associated with a significant 1.7 percentage point increase in colorectal cancer screening rates among adults aged 50-64 with income below 400% of the FPL (p < 0.05). A significant 2.9 percentage point increase in colorectal cancer screening was observed for those with income up to 138% the FPL (p < 0.05), while a 1.5 percentage point increase occurred for individuals with income between 139% and 400% of the FPL. The impact of Medicaid expansion on colorectal cancer screening varied based on income levels and displayed a time lag for newly eligible beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid expansion was found to be associated with increased colorectal cancer screening rates among low-income individuals aged 50-64. The observed variations in impact based on income levels and the time lag for newly eligible beneficiaries receiving colorectal cancer screening highlight the need for further research and precision public health strategies to maximize the benefits of Medicaid expansion on colorectal cancer screening rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Medicaid , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estudos Transversais , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Cobertura do Seguro
3.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 28(4): 434-441, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicaid expansion (ME) has contributed to transforming the United States healthcare system. However, its effect on palliative care of primary liver cancers remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the association between ME and the receipt of palliative treatment in advanced-stage liver cancer. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with stage IV hepatocellular carcinoma or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were identified from the National Cancer Database and divided into pre-expansion (2010-2013) and postexpansion (2015-2019) cohorts. Logistic regression identified predictors of palliative treatment. Difference-in-difference (DID) analysis assessed changes in palliative care use between patients living in ME states and patients living in non-ME states. RESULTS: Among 12,516 patients, 4582 (36.6%) were diagnosed before expansion, and 7934 (63.6%) were diagnosed after expansion. Overall, rates of palliative treatment increased after ME (18.1% [pre-expansion] vs 22.3% [postexpansion]; P < .001) and are more pronounced among ME states. Before expansion, only cancer type and education attainment were associated with the receipt of palliative treatment. Conversely, after expansion, race, insurance, location, cancer type, and ME status (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.44; P = .018) were all associated with palliative care. Interestingly, the odds were higher if treatment involved receipt of pain management (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.23-2.43; P = .006). Adjusted DID analysis confirmed increased rates of palliative treatment among patients living in ME states relative to non-ME states (DID, 4.4%; 95% CI, 1.2-7.7; P = .008); however, racial disparities persist (White, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.4-9.8; P = .009; minority, 2.6; 95% CI, -2.5 to 7.6; P = .333). CONCLUSION: The implementation of ME contributed to increased rates of palliative treatment for patients residing in ME states after expansion. However, racial disparities persist even after ME, resulting in inequitable access to palliative care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Medicaid , Cuidados Paliativos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Cobertura do Seguro , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos
4.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 165(2): 519-525, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) aims to broaden health care access and significantly impacts obstetric practices. Yet, its effect on maternal and neonatal outcomes among women with gestational diabetes across diverse demographics is underexplored. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of the implementation of the ACA on maternal and neonatal health in Maryland with ACA implementation and Georgia without ACA implementation. METHODOLOGY: We used data from the Maryland State Inpatient Database and US Vital Statistics System to assess the ACA's influence on maternal and neonatal outcomes in Maryland, with Georgia serving as a nonexpansion control state. Outcomes compared include cesarean section (CS) rates, low Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions, and assisted ventilation 7 h postdelivery. We adjusted for factors including women's age, race, insurance type, preexisting conditions, prior CS, prepregnancy obesity, weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, labor events, and antenatal practices. RESULTS: The study included 52 479 women: 55.8% from Georgia and 44.2% from Maryland. Post-ACA, CS rates were 45.1% in Maryland versus 48.2% in Georgia (P = 0.000). Maryland demonstrated better outcomes, including lower rates of low Agar scores (odds ratio [OR], 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.86]), assisted ventilation (OR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.71-0.82]), and NICU admissions (OR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.71-0.82]), but no significant change in CS rates (OR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.01]). CONCLUSION: After ACA implementation, Maryland showed improved maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with Georgia, a nonexpansion state.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Medicaid , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Cesárea
5.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 22(3)2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Medicaid expansion on breast cancer treatment and survival among Medicaid-insured women in Ohio, accounting for the timing of enrollment in Medicaid relative to their cancer diagnosis and post-expansion heterogeneous Medicaid eligibility criteria, thus addressing important limitations in previous studies. METHODS: Using 2011-2017 Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System data linked with Medicaid claims data, we identified women aged 18 to 64 years diagnosed with local-stage or regional-stage breast cancer (n=876 and n=1,957 pre-expansion and post-expansion, respectively). We accounted for women's timing of enrollment in Medicaid relative to their cancer diagnosis, and flagged women post-expansion as Affordable Care Act (ACA) versus non-ACA, based on their income eligibility threshold. Study outcomes included standard treatment based on cancer stage and receipt of lumpectomy, mastectomy, chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal treatment, and/or treatment for HER2-positive tumors; time to treatment initiation (TTI); and overall survival. We conducted multivariable robust Poisson and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to evaluate the independent associations between Medicaid expansion and our outcomes of interest, adjusting for patient-level and area-level characteristics. RESULTS: Receipt of standard treatment increased from 52.6% pre-expansion to 61.0% post-expansion (63.0% and 59.9% post-expansion in the ACA and non-ACA groups, respectively). Adjusting for potential confounders, including timing of enrollment in Medicaid, being diagnosed in the post-expansion period was associated with a higher probability of receiving standard treatment (adjusted risk ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.06-1.22]) and shorter TTI (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.04-1.24]), but not with survival benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00 [0.80-1.26]). CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid expansion in Ohio was associated with improvements in receipt of standard treatment of breast cancer and shorter TTI but not with improved survival outcomes. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms at play.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Medicaid , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Mastectomia , Ohio , Cobertura do Seguro
6.
J Healthc Manag ; 69(2): 140-155, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467027

RESUMO

GOAL: To address healthcare spending growth, coordinate care, and improve primary care utilization, a majority of states in the United States have adopted value-based care coordination programs. The objective of this study was to identify changes in national healthcare utilization for children with developmental disabilities (DDs), a high-cost and high-need population, following the broad adoption of value-based care coordination policies. METHODS: This retrospective study included 9,109 children with DDs and used data from 2002-2018 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We applied an interrupted time series design approach to compare pre- and post-Affordable Care Act (ACA) care coordination policies concerning healthcare utilization outcomes, including outpatient visits, home provider days, emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient discharge, and inpatient nights of stay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found statistically significant increases in low-cost care post-ACA, including outpatient visits (5% higher, p < .001) and home provider days (11% higher, p < .001). The study findings also showed a statistically significant increase in inpatient nights of stay post-ACA (4% higher, p = .001). There were no changes in the number of ED and inpatient visits. Overall, broad implementation of care coordination programs was associated with increased utilization of low-cost care without increases in the number of high-cost ED and inpatient visits for children with DDs. Our study also found changes in population composition among children with DDs post-ACA, including increases in Hispanic (16.9% post-ACA vs. 13.4% pre-ACA, p = .006) and non-Hispanic multiracial children (9.1% post-ACA vs. 5.5% pre-ACA, p = .001), a decrease in non-Hispanic Whites (60.2% post-ACA vs. 68.6% pre-ACA, p = .001), more public-only insurance (44.3% post-ACA vs. 35.7% pre-ACA, p = .001), fewer children with DDs from middle-income families (27.4% post-ACA vs. 32.8% pre-ACA, p < .001), and more children with DDs from poor families (28.2% post-ACA vs. 25.1% pre-ACA, p = .043). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: These findings highlight the importance of continued support for broad care coordination programs for U.S. children with DDs and potentially others with complex chronic conditions. Policymakers and healthcare leaders might consider improving care transitions from inpatient to community or home settings by overcoming barriers such as payment models and the lack of home care nurses who can manage complex chronic conditions. Healthcare leaders also need to understand and consider the changing population composition when implementing care coordination-related policies. This study provides data regarding trends in hospital and home care utilization and evidence of the effectiveness of care coordination policies before the COVID-19 interruption. These findings apply to current healthcare management because COVID-19 has incentivized home care, which may have a strong potential to minimize high-cost care for people with complex chronic conditions. More research is warranted to continue monitoring care coordination changes over a longer period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Atenção à Saúde , Políticas , Doença Crônica , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
7.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 37(1): 137-146, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many adolescents do not receive basic preventive care such as influenza vaccinations. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) temporarily increased Medicaid reimbursements for primary care services, including vaccine administration, in 2013 to 2014. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of reimbursement increases on influenza vaccination rates among adolescents with Medicaid. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study used a difference-in-difference approach to compare changes in annual influenza vaccination rates for 20,884 adolescents 13 to 17 years old covered by Medicaid with adequate provider-reported data in 18 states with larger extended (>$5, 2013 to 2019) versus larger temporary (2013 to 2014 only) versus smaller reimbursement changes. We used linear probability models with individual-level random effects, adjusting for state and individual characteristics and annual time trends to assess the impact of a Medicaid vaccine administration reimbursement increase on annual influenza vaccination. RESULTS: Mean Medicaid reimbursements for vaccine administration doubled from 2011 to 2013 to 2014 (eg, from $11 to $22 for CPT 90460). States with smaller reimbursement changes had higher mean reimbursements and higher adjusted vaccination rates at baseline (2011) compared with states with larger temporary and extended reimbursement changes. The reimbursement change was not associated with increases in influenza vaccination rates. DISCUSSION: Influenza vaccination rates were low among adolescents with Medicaid throughout the study period, particularly in states with lower Medicaid reimbursement levels before the ACA. CONCLUSION: That reimbursement increases were not associated with higher vaccination rates suggests additional efforts are needed to improve influenza vaccination rates in this population.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Vacinas , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Humanos , Medicaid , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estudos Transversais , Vacinação , Imunização
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(3): 398-407, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437604

RESUMO

Sixteen states have used Section 1332 waivers to implement reinsurance programs that aim to reduce premiums and increase enrollment in the Affordable Care Act's health insurance Marketplaces. Although reinsurance programs have successfully reduced premiums for unsubsidized enrollees, little is known about how reinsurance affects Marketplace premiums, minimum cost of coverage, and enrollment for the large majority of Marketplace enrollees who receive premium subsidies. Using a difference-in-differences analysis of matched counties straddling Georgia's borders to examine Georgia's 2022 implementation of its reinsurance program, we found that reinsurance increased the minimum cost of enrolling in subsidized Marketplace coverage by approximately 30 percent and decreased enrollment by roughly a third for Marketplace enrollees with incomes of 251-400 percent of the federal poverty level. Marketplace reinsurance programs may have the unintended consequences of increasing the minimum cost of subsidized coverage and reducing enrollment. These outcomes are especially relevant in the present policy context of enhanced subsidies, which have substantially reduced the number of unsubsidized enrollees who would benefit most from reinsurance.


Assuntos
Trocas de Seguro de Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Georgia , Renda , Políticas
9.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(3): 344-353, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437603

RESUMO

American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women experience distinct political and health care environments and possess unique health risks and resources. We tested whether state Medicaid expansions under the Affordable Care Act were associated with health insurance, prenatal care, health conditions, and birth outcomes among AI/AN women. Using data from the 2010-19 American Community Survey and 2010-19 US birth certificates, we used a difference-in-differences study design to compare outcomes among AI/AN women before and after Medicaid expansions. Medicaid expansions increased the proportion of AI/AN women reporting health care coverage from both Medicaid and the Indian Health Service (IHS), with larger effects among women living in areas with relatively high percentages of reservation land. Consistent with prior research on the broader population of women, Medicaid expansions had no effects on first-trimester prenatal care usage or birthweight among AI/AN women. We found mixed evidence of increased rates of prepregnancy chronic conditions after the expansions. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Medicaid, the IHS, and tribal health systems as sources of health care coverage for AI/AN women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Estados Unidos , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Indígena Americano ou Nativo do Alasca , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Cuidado Pré-Natal
10.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 40(2): 357-366, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521605

RESUMO

Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) + discrimination is widespread, harming the health of LGBTQ + people and constituting a barrier to care. This contributes to higher rates of poverty among LGBTQ + people, especially among people of color, and lower insurance coverage rates. The Affordable Care Act's expansion of insurance access has reduced uninsurance rates among LGBT people and people living with human immunodeficienc virus (HIV). Systemic improvements in culturally responsive health care have occurred over the past decade, including increased collection and use of sexual orientation and gender identity data to improve quality of care. As older LGBTQ + people enter elder service systems, reforms are needed to ensure equitable access.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Identidade de Gênero , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Comportamento Sexual , Políticas
11.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(3): e240324, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551588

RESUMO

Importance: While the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) helped make health insurance premiums more affordable with premium tax credits, ACA marketplace enrollees continue to face barriers to care. Objective: To investigate the effect of informational emails on plan switching and health care utilization. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted during the 2021 special enrollment period in California's Affordable Care Act marketplace among households that reported receiving unemployment insurance and were enrolled in non-silver-tier plans. The trial targeted 42 470 households that became temporarily eligible for cost-sharing reduction (CSR) silver plans that covered 94% of medical costs (CSR silver 94 plans) as a result of the 2021 American Rescue Plan Act. Intervention: Households were randomized to either a no-email control group or to a treatment group receiving 2 informational emails encouraging households to switch to CSR plans. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the switch rate to a CSR silver plan by July 31, 2021. Secondary outcomes include various measures of health care utilization in the second half of 2021 (July 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021). Health care utilization was measured by rates of practitioner visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and prescription fills. Results: Of the 42 470 households (head of household mean [SD], age, 41.4 [13.3] years; 51.7% male), 10 650 (25.1%) were in the control group and 31 820 (74.9%) were in the treatment group. The emails led to a statistically significant 3.1-percentage point (95% CI, 2.6-3.6 percentage points) increase in CSR silver 94 enrollment (a 74.8% relative increase) by July 31, 2021, and a 1.3-percentage point (95% CI, 0.2-2.4 percentage points) increase (a 2.3% relative increase) in practitioner visits by December 31, 2021. The emails had no detectable effect on prescription fills, emergency department visits, or hospitalizations. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this randomized clinical trial provide experimental evidence that, with access to more affordable health care, individuals are more likely to visit practitioners. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05891418.


Assuntos
Trocas de Seguro de Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 345: 116686, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368662

RESUMO

Administrative burdens are the costs associated with receiving a service or accessing a program. Based on the Herd & Moynihan framework, they occur in three subcategories: learning costs, compliance costs, and psychological costs. Administrative burdens manifest inequitably, more significantly impacting vulnerable populations. Administrative burdens may impact the health of those trying to access services, and in some cases block access to health-promoting services entirely. This scoping review examined studies focused on the impact on patients of administrative burden administrative burden in health care settings in the U.S. following the passage of the Affordable Care Act. We queried databases for empirical literature capturing patient administrative burden, retrieving 1578 records, with 31 articles ultimately eligible for inclusion. Of the 31 included studies, 18 used quantitative methods, nine used qualitative methods, three used mixed methods, and one was a case study. In terms of administrative burden subcategories, most patient outcomes reported were learning (22 studies) and compliance costs (26 studies). Psychological costs were the most rarely reported; all four studies describing psychological costs were qualitative in nature. Only twelve studies connected patient demographic data with administrative burden data, despite previous research suggesting an inequitable burden impact. Additionally, twenty-eight studies assessed administrative burden and only three attempted to reduce it via an intervention, resulting in a lack of data on intervention design and efficacy.


Assuntos
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Pacientes , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Instalações de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde
13.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 54(1): 3-7, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390676

RESUMO

State prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) use proprietary, predictive software platforms that deploy algorithms to determine whether a patient is at risk for drug misuse, drug diversion, doctor shopping, or substance use disorder (SUD). Clinical overreliance on PDMP algorithm-generated information and risk scores motivates clinicians to refuse to treat-or to inappropriately treat-vulnerable people based on actual, perceived, or past SUDs, chronic pain conditions, or other disabilities. This essay provides a framework for challenging PDMP algorithmic discrimination as disability discrimination under federal antidiscrimination laws, including a new proposed rule interpreting section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act.


Assuntos
Morfolinas , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Capacitismo , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Algoritmos
14.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 8(2)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young adult cancer survivors face medical financial hardships that may lead to delaying or forgoing medical care. This study describes the medical financial difficulties young adult cancer survivors in the United States experience in the post-Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act period. METHOD: We identified 1009 cancer survivors aged 18 to 39 years from the National Health Interview Survey (2015-2022) and matched 963 (95%) cancer survivors to 2733 control individuals using nearest-neighbor matching. We used conditional logistic regression to examine the association between cancer history and medical financial hardship and to assess whether this association varied by age, sex, race and ethnicity, and region of residence. RESULTS: Compared with those who did not have a history of cancer, young adult cancer survivors were more likely to report material financial hardship (22.8% vs 15.2%; odds ratio = 1.65, 95% confidence interval = 1.50 to 1.81) and behavior-related financial hardship (34.3% vs 24.4%; odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 1.76) but not psychological financial hardship (52.6% vs 50.9%; odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 0.99 to 1.16). Young adult cancer survivors who were Hispanic or lived in the Midwest and South were more likely to report psychological financial hardship than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: We found that young adult cancer survivors were more likely to experience material and behavior-related financial hardship than young adults without a history of cancer. We also identified specific subgroups of young adult cancer survivors that may benefit from targeted policies and interventions to alleviate medical financial hardship.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estresse Financeiro , Neoplasias , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Etnicidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto
15.
JAMA ; 331(8): 687-695, 2024 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411645

RESUMO

Importance: The extent to which changes in health sector finances impact economic outcomes among health care workers, especially lower-income workers, is not well known. Objective: To assess the association between state adoption of the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion-which led to substantial improvements in health care organization finances-and health care workers' annual incomes and benefits, and whether these associations varied across low- and high-wage occupations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Difference-in-differences analysis to assess differential changes in health care workers' economic outcomes before and after Medicaid expansion among workers in 30 states that expanded Medicaid relative to workers in 16 states that did not, by examining US individuals aged 18 through 65 years employed in the health care industry surveyed in the 2010-2019 American Community Surveys. Exposure: Time-varying state-level adoption of Medicaid expansion. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was annual earned income; secondary outcomes included receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, Medicaid, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. Results: The sample included 1 322 263 health care workers from 2010-2019. Health care workers in expansion states were similar to those in nonexpansion states in age, sex, and educational attainment, but those in expansion states were less likely to identify as non-Hispanic Black. Medicaid expansion was associated with a 2.16% increase in annual incomes (95% CI, 0.66%-3.65%; P = .005). This effect was driven by significant increases in annual incomes among the top 2 highest-earning quintiles (ß coefficient, 2.91%-3.72%), which includes registered nurses, physicians, and executives. Health care workers in lower-earning quintiles did not experience any significant changes. Medicaid expansion was associated with a 3.15 percentage point increase in the likelihood that a health care worker received Medicaid benefits (95% CI, 2.46 to 3.84; P < .001), with the largest increases among the 2 lowest-earning quintiles, which includes health aides, orderlies, and sanitation workers. There were significant decreases in employer-sponsored health insurance and increases in SNAP following Medicaid expansion. Conclusion and Relevance: Medicaid expansion was associated with increases in compensation for health care workers, but only among the highest earners. These findings suggest that improvements in health care sector finances may increase economic inequality among health care workers, with implications for worker health and well-being.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Renda , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Humanos , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/economia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Status Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Econômicos
16.
Demography ; 61(2): 283-306, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386492

RESUMO

We evaluate the performance of a widely used technique for imputing the legal immigration status of U.S. immigrants in survey data-the logical imputation method. We validate this technique by implementing it in a nationally representative survey of U.S. farmworkers that includes a well-regarded measure of legal status. When using this measure as a benchmark, the imputation algorithm correctly identifies the legal status of 78% of farmworkers. Of all the variables included in the algorithm, we find that Medicaid participation poses the greatest challenge for accuracy. Using the American Community Survey, we show that increased Medicaid enrollments stemming from the implementation of the Affordable Care Act in 2014 led to sizable changes in the share of immigrants imputed as legal over time and across space. We explore the implications of these changes for two previous studies and conclude that including Medicaid criteria in the imputation algorithm can significantly impact research findings. We also provide tools to gauge the sensitivity of results.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Emigração e Imigração , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs ; 53(2): 106-119, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367961

RESUMO

More than a decade has passed since the Affordable Care Act (ACA) required screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) and related counseling with no co-payment and eliminated insurers' ability to deny coverage based on preexisting conditions, including IPV. While screening for IPV and coverage of services became more feasible after implementation of the ACA, in theory, gaps remain. Nearly half of women in the United States report that they have experienced IPV in their lifetime, but the true number is likely even higher. In this column, I review screening recommendations for IPV and related policies, gaps in research on groups at higher risk, systems-level approaches to increase screening, and recommendations from professional organizations on screening and supporting IPV survivors.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Programas de Rastreamento , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Aconselhamento
19.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 31(5): 2925-2931, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medicaid expansion (ME) impacted patients when assessed at a national level. However, of the 32 states in which Medicaid expansion occurred, only 3 were Southern states. Whether results apply to Southern states that share similar geopolitical perspectives remains elusive. We aimed to assess the impact of ME on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) treatment in eight Southern states in the USA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified uninsured or Medicaid patients (age 40-64 years) diagnosed with PDAC between 2011 and 2018 in Southern states from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries-Cancer in North America (NAACCR-CiNA) research dataset. Medicaid-expanded states (MES; Louisiana, Kentucky, and Arkansas) were compared with non-MES (NMES; Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Oklahoma) using multivariate logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among 3036 patients, MES significantly increased odds of Medicaid insurance by 36%, and increased proportions of insured Black patients by 3.7%, rural patients by 3.8%, and impoverished patients by 18.4%. After adjusting for age, race, rural-urban status, poverty status, and summary stage, the odds of receiving radiation therapy decreased by 26% for each year of expansion in expanded states (P = 0.01). Last, ME did not result in a significant difference between MES and NMES in diagnosing early stage disease (P = 0.98) nor in receipt of chemotherapy or surgery (P = 0.23 and P = 0.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ME in Southern states increased insurance access to traditionally underserved groups. Interestingly, ME decreased the odds of receiving radiation therapy yearly and had no significant impact on receipt of chemotherapy or surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Cobertura do Seguro , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia
20.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 8(2)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer treatment and survivorship entails a complex and expensive continuum of subspecialty care. Our objectives were to assess catastrophic health expenditures, insurance churn, and non-employment among women younger than 65 years who reported a diagnosis of breast cancer. We also evaluated changes in these outcomes related to implementation of the Affordable Care Act. METHODS: The data source for this study was the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2005-2019), which is a national annual cross-sectional survey of families, providers, and insurers in the United States. To assess the impact of breast cancer, comparisons were made with a matched cohort of women without cancer. We estimated predicted marginal probabilities to quantify the effects of covariates in models for catastrophic health expenditures, insurance churn, and non-employment. RESULTS: We identified 1490 respondents younger than 65 years who received care related to breast cancer during the study period, representing a weight-adjusted annual mean of 1 062 129 patients. Approximately 31.8% of women with breast cancer reported health expenditures in excess of 10% of their annual income. In models, the proportion of women with breast cancer who experienced catastrophic health expenditures and non-employment was inversely related to increasing income. During Affordable Care Act implementation, mean number of months of uninsurance decreased and expenditures increased among breast cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underscores the impact of breast cancer on financial security and opportunities for patients and their families. A multilevel understanding of these issues is needed to design effective and equitable strategies to improve quality of life and survivorship.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais
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