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1.
Nervenarzt ; 95(1): 18-27, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany different offers of social support are available for families that are provided by different sectors, e.g., the youth welfare and the healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: Documentation of the utilized help, child-related factors that are associated with the utilization and the parental desires for support. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 160 parents undergoing (partial) inpatient treatment in psychiatric hospitals via an oral interview using standardized and semi-standardized instruments. RESULTS: The results show that nonprofessional help by family and friends as well as support offers provided by the healthcare system are used most frequently. Families that perceived their children as more burdened receive more help than families with children judged as being less burdened. There are regional differences especially in the utilization of high-threshold help by the healthcare system. DISCUSSION: Support offers seem to reach families with mental illnesses, especially those that are particularly burdened; however, there are regional differences regarding the utilization of support as well as the wishes for specific support offers.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Adolescente , Humanos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Família , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia
3.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(3): 802-807, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749756

RESUMO

Students with preexisting mental health conditions or disabilities may fair worse due to virus mitigation strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to understand the experiences of students with preexisting mental health conditions or disabilities at a public university during COVID-19. We examined disruptions in the management of preexisting mental health conditions or disabilities and its impact on psychological well-being. Students were surveyed about their health care experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic between June and September 2020. Linear regressions and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between disruption to care, mental health self-efficacy, and four psychological well-being outcomes (stress, anxiety, depression, and overall distress). Of the total (N = 1,082) study participants, 258 (24%) reported having a preexisting mental health condition(s) or disabilities (81% female; Mage = 23.47). Of those, 155 (61%) reported that COVID-19 disrupted health care delivery and management of their conditions or disabilities. Of those who reported this disruption, 51% (n = 109) of participants reported a disruption in their ability to see a health care professional and 58% (n = 69) reported either that they lost care or that the quality of the new telemedicine care was not sufficient. A series of linear regressions revealed significant relationships between disruption to care and the four psychological outcomes. Mediation analyses revealed that depression, stress, anxiety, and overall distress were mediated by self-efficacy in managing mental health. University administrators and health care providers should evaluate the scope of mental health care and telemedicine services for students to help long-term psychological effects of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Autoeficácia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341983

RESUMO

El objetivo de este artículo consiste en dar a conocer un perfil social, económico y demográfico de la población registrada con SISBÉN en el Hospital Departamental Psiquiátrico Universitario del Valle (HDPUV) entre el 2009 y el 2018, cuyo diagnóstico se encuentra dentro del grupo de los trastornos del humor (correspondiente al espectro de códigos del CIE-10 que va desde F30 a F39, episodio maníaco, trastorno bipolar, episodio depresivo, trastorno depresivo recurrente, trastorno del humor persistente, otros trastornos del humor, trastorno del humor sin especificación). Se optó por un trabajo en el que se complementó la información entre las bases de datos del SISBÉN de Cali y la del HDPUV para profundizar en datos sobre pobreza y vulnerabilidad de las personas que son potenciales beneficiarios de programas sociales estatales. Se identificaron 5.280 pacientes diagnosticados con trastornos del humor, en su mayoría mujeres (70,4 %) en condiciones de vulnerabilidad económicas, sociales y de acceso a servicios de salud, que representan otro factor más de riesgo para su salud mental.


The aim of this article is to provide a social, economic and demographic profile of the population registered with SISBÉN at the Hospital Departamental Psiquiátrico Universitario del Valle (HDPUV) between 2009 and 2018, whose diagnosis is within the group of mood disorders, (corresponding to the spectrum of ICD- 10 codes ranging from F30 to F39, manic episode, bipolar disorder, depressive episode, recurrent depressive disorder, persistent mood disorder, other mood disorders, mood disorder without specification). We opted for a study in which we complemented the information between the Cali SISBÉN and HDPUV databases to deepen in data on poverty and vulnerability of people who are potential beneficiaries of state social programs. We identified 5,280 patients diagnosed with mood disorders, mostly women (70.4%) in conditions of economic, social and access to health services vulnerability, which represent yet another risk factor for their mental health.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Saúde Mental
5.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 18(2): 147-153, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172460

RESUMO

The first objective of this paper is to expound the particular challenge posed by the occurrence of inconsistency in the expression of preferences by mental health patients to both economists and policy makers. Since this difficulty cannot be resolved, the second aim of the paper is to identify agents who may be counted upon to identify the true patient preferences. A decision rule is developed to help identify these agents who may be family members or judges in court, who have the ability and incentive to make these decisions. No single agent is found to dominate with respect to the five dimensions of preference distinguished, constituting a major challenge to policy makers.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente , Tomada de Decisões , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Modelos Estatísticos
6.
Soc Work ; 64(1): 29-40, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364977

RESUMO

Epistemic injustice occurs when therapists implicitly and explicitly impose professional and institutional power onto clients. When clients have a diagnosis of schizophrenia, this very fact further complicates and highlights the power disparity within the helping relationship. Inspired by the work of critical philosopher Miranda Fricker on epistemic injustice, and using critical theories of language and knowledge, this article analyzes audiotaped session transcripts between a client with a history of psychosis and a social worker in an outpatient mental health agency. Findings illustrate two main discursive interactional patterns in everyday clinical social work encounters: (1) how the therapist's utterances claim disciplinary power and construct the client's testimony in alignment with an institutional agenda, while pre-empting the client's lived experience; and (2) how the client, though actively resisting, is managed to perform the identity of being a mentally ill person. The authors close with suggestions of how to avoid these mishaps and work toward epistemic justice in mental health practice.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente/ética , Justiça Social , Serviço Social/ética , Humanos
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 43(7): 790-796, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the differences, causes and countermeasures for mental patients' life quality between developed and developing regions.
 Methods: Based on the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Psychiatric Patients (QOL-P) and adopting convenient random sampling method, a total of 340 mental patients in Shanghai and Guangxi were investigated, and the data were analyzed by methods of Paired Design Crosstabulation Data hypothesis test, multivariate logistic regression, and independent sample Kruskal-Wallis test. The differences in patients' life quality in the 2 regions and the influential factors were evaluated.
 Results: There were high consistency and correlation in the total scores of self-evaluation items G (self overall evaluation of life quality by patient) between the 2 regions. Region and gender significantly affected mental patients' life quality in the basic demography characteristics in the 2 regions. The differences between total scores of 4 independent samples grouped by region and sex were significant (P<0.01). The male and femal patients in Guangxi in the dimensions of physiology, psychology, society and symptom were better than those in Shanghai (P<0.01). There was certain homoplasy between the patients from Shanghai and those from Guangxi in terms of the most prominent matters that affect the mental patients' life quality, with the former being affected more seriously than the latter.
 Conclusion: To a certain extent, the mental patients' life quality in the developing region (Guangxi) is better than that in the developed region (Shanghai).


Assuntos
Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , China , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Qual Life Res ; 27(11): 2965-2974, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Quality of life (QoL) is a broad outcome that is often used to assess the impact of treatment and care interventions in mental health services. QoL, however, is known to be influenced by individual values and preferences. To investigate this heterogeneity on the individual level, this study aimed to distinguish classes with distinct QoL profiles in a broad group of people with severe mental health problems and to identify the QoL domains that are most strongly related to the classes. METHODS: QoL data of seven studies that used the Lancashire quality of life profile (LQoLP) were used in a latent class analysis. Sociodemographic variables, health-related variables, and measures of well-being were used to characterise the classes. Additionally, univariate entropy scores were used to assess the strength of the association between the ten LQoLP domains and the latent classes. RESULTS: Two of the three indices of fit pointed towards a three-class model. The three classes differed significantly on all of the LQoLP domains, on well-being, and on 'being in an intimate relationship'. No differences were found for the majority of the health-related and sociodemographic variables. The LQoLP domains 'family relations', 'positive self-esteem', and 'negative self-esteem' were most strongly related to the latent classes. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of three distinct classes of QoL scores re-emphasises the heterogenic nature of QoL. The lack of differences in sociodemographic or health-related characteristics between the three classes suggests that QoL is primarily determined by subjective, personal evaluations, rather than by objective characteristics and circumstances.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Qual Life Res ; 27(11): 2945-2952, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study validated the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire with 3400 respondents living in Singapore. METHODS: The ethnic composition was 76.1% Chinese, 12.3% Malay, 9.6% Indian, and 2% Others. The sample included adults with disabilities (28.9%), adults recovering from mental health issues (14%), and adults from the general population (57.1%). Questionnaires about health-related conditions, the effects of disability on everyday functioning (WHODAS 2.0), the WHOQOL-BREF, and add-on modules of QOL of people with disabilities (WHOQOL-DIS) and QOL of elders (WHOQOL-OLD) were administrated. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis supported a construct of QOL made of four domains, revealing good construct validity. The four domains predicted overall QOL and health satisfaction. Good internal consistency was evidenced by high alpha coefficients for the physical (.79), psychological (.82), social relationships (.81), and environment (.83) domains. Convergent validity was shown by moderate correlations between the different questionnaires measuring QOL (WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-DIS, and WHOQOL-OLD), and discriminant validity by a lower correlation between the WHOQOL-BREF and disability. Convergent and divergent validity were also indicated by higher correlations between similar constructs across the different measures, and lower correlations between dissimilar constructs across measures, respectively. Concurrent validity was supported by showing that individuals with chronic medical conditions had lower QOL than individuals without chronic medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the WHOQOL-BREF has sound psychometric properties and can be used to measure QOL in Singapore.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Exame Físico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(14): 4677-4693, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806530

RESUMO

This research describes the development of a targeted service delivery approach that tailors the delivery of interventions that target criminogenic needs to the specific learning and treatment needs of justice-involved people with serious mental illnesses (SMI). This targeted service delivery approach includes five service delivery strategies: repetition and summarizing, amplification, coaching, low-demand practice, and maximizing participation. Examples of how to apply each strategy in session are provided, as well as recommendations on when to use each strategy during the delivery of interventions that target criminogenic needs. This targeted service delivery approach makes an important contribution to the development of interventions for justice-involved people with SMI by increasing the chances that people with SMI can participate fully in and benefit from these interventions that target criminogenic needs. These developments come at a critical time in the field as the next generation of services for justice-involved people with SMI are being developed.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Criminosos/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Direito Penal , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Eur Psychiatry ; 51: 58-73, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571072

RESUMO

Forensic psychiatry in Europe is a specialty primarily concerned with individuals who have either offended or present a risk of doing so, and who also suffer from a psychiatric condition. These mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) are often cared for in secure psychiatric environments or prisons. In this guidance paper we first present an overview of the field of forensic psychiatry from a European perspective. We then present a review of the literature summarising the evidence on the assessment and treatment of MDOs under the following headings: The forensic psychiatrist as expert witness, risk, treatment settings for mentally disordered offenders, and what works for MDOs. We undertook a rapid review of the literature with search terms related to: forensic psychiatry, review articles, randomised controlled trials and best practice. We searched the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane library databases from 2000 onwards for adult groups only. We scrutinised publications for additional relevant literature, and searched the websites of relevant professional organisations for policies, statements or guidance of interest. We present the findings of the scientific literature as well as recommendations for best practice drawing additionally from the guidance documents identified. We found that the evidence base for forensic-psychiatric practice is weak though there is some evidence to suggest that psychiatric care produces better outcomes than criminal justice detention only. Practitioners need to follow general psychiatric guidance as well as that for offenders, adapted for the complex needs of this patient group, paying particular attention to long-term detention and ethical issues.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Psiquiatria Legal , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito Penal/métodos , Direito Penal/organização & administração , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/psicologia , Europa (Continente) , Prova Pericial , Psiquiatria Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Prisões
13.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 64(4): 335-343, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the need to protect human rights in psychiatry. Within the last years, considerable effort has been made to reduce restrictive measures in mental health settings. Reducing restrictive measures within mental health care has also moved increasingly into the focus of public debate. This study aims, for the first time in a Southeast Asian sample, to explore whether socio-demographic factors affect public attitudes toward restrictions on mentally ill people in Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A general population-based survey (self-report questionnaire) was carried out in 2013 in the greater Hanoi area. The survey sample ( N = 813) was recruited according to the latest published census (2009) and micro-census (2013) in Vietnam and Hanoi with regard to the socio-demographic factors gender, age, urbanity, household size and marital status. Multinomial logistic regressions for odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to examine the influence of epidemiological variables, like gender and age, on the public attitude toward restrictions imposed on mentally ill people in Vietnam. RESULTS: This study found, for the first time in a large Vietnamese sample, that gender and age were associated with public attitudes toward restrictions on mentally ill people. In detail, significantly fewer men endorsed compulsory admission to a hospital and abortion than Vietnamese women. In addition, endorsement of abortion was significantly higher in older people. CONCLUSION: The results offer some insight into roles of women in the Vietnamese society and might reflect the traditional gender expectations in Vietnamese families. Moreover, the results emphasize the need for supporting female psychiatric patients and their families within their communities and in the Vietnamese society.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Participação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 8(2): e021273, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental ill-health is prevalent across all groups of health professionals and this is of great concern in many countries. In the UK, the mental health of the National Health Service (NHS) workforce is a major healthcare issue, leading to presenteeism, absenteeism and loss of staff from the workforce. Most interventions targeting doctors aim to increase their 'productivity' and 'resilience', placing responsibility for good mental health with doctors themselves and neglecting the organisational and structural contexts that may have a detrimental effect on doctors' well-being. There is a need for approaches that are sensitive to the contextual complexities of mental ill-health in doctors, and that do not treat doctors as a uniform body, but allow distinctions to account for particular characteristics, such as specialty, career stage and different working environments. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our project aims to understand how, why and in what contexts support interventions can be designed to minimise the incidence of doctors' mental ill-health. We will conduct a realist review-a form of theory-driven interpretative systematic review-of interventions, drawing on diverse literature sources. The review will iteratively progress through five steps: (1) locate existing theories; (2) search for evidence; (3) select articles; (4) extract and organise data and (5) synthesise evidence and draw conclusions. The analysis will summarise how, why and in what circumstances doctors' mental ill-health is likely to develop and what can remediate the situation. Throughout the project, we will also engage iteratively with diverse stakeholders in order to produce actionable theory. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for our review. Our dissemination strategy will be participatory. Tailored outputs will be targeted to: policy makers; NHS employers and healthcare leaders; team leaders; support organisations; doctors experiencing mental ill-health, their families and colleagues. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017069870.


Assuntos
Corpo Clínico , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Inabilitação do Médico , Médicos , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Inabilitação do Médico/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Reino Unido , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 32: 40-43, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202428

RESUMO

Serious concerns have arisen in recent years regarding the unethical and illegal practices resorted to during clinical trials. Clinical trials in psychiatry are further complicated by issues such as 'validity of consent' and 'decision making capacity' of patients. This study was planned to explore the factors determining patient participation in clinical trials. A random sample of 123 consenting psychiatry inpatients were provided the information and consent-form of a hypothetical clinical drug trial. They were interviewed regarding their decision, the decision maker and factors that led to the decision. Family members tended to be the decision makers when patients were females, had low-income, were from rural background or had severe illnesses. Anticipated side effects and not wanting to interfere with existing treatment were the common reasons for refusal to participate while hope of betterment of the patient and benefit to humanity were cited for consent. The educated, urban, affluent class had more awareness regarding unethical trials and tended to be mistrustful of the medical community leading to higher rates of non-participation. Those who were adherent with ongoing treatment were also unwilling to participate. The lesser educated, low-income patients and rural domicile patients on the other hand had lesser awareness regarding clinical trials, trusted doctors and were more likely to participate. A good doctor-patient relationship, detailed explanations and clarification regarding the study and its conduct, and building awareness regarding clinical trials among vulnerable groups is necessary to ensure a valid consent involving no coercion, removal of prejudices, and ethical conduct of trials.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Participação do Paciente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 21(4): 171-180, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beginning in late 2010, private health insurance plans were required to allow dependents up to age 26 to remain on a parent's plan. Known as the dependent coverage or young adult mandate, this provision increased coverage substantially within the group of 19-25 year-olds affected by the policy change. Subsequent work evaluating whether increased coverage had a positive effect on mental health found mild improvements in self-reported mental health. This work focused exclusively on average effects among young adults in the years after the policy change, leaving open the question of how young adults fared depending on where they reside in terms of the distribution of risk for mental health issues. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We assess the effects of the dependent coverage mandate on young adult mental well-being focusing on the distribution of mental health issues. We seek to understand how potential improvements (or degradations) differ across the entire risk profile. Gains among individuals who are at low risk for severe mental health issues may send a far different signal than gains among those with higher risks. METHODS: Using MEPS data from 2006 through 2013, we use quantile regression within a difference-in-differences design to compare pre/post outcomes across the distribution of risk for young adults ages 23-25 affected by the mandate to 27-29 year-olds not affected by the mandate. Further, we evaluate differences in the effect of the mandate by sex, given well-known disparities in incidence and prevalence of mental illness between men and women. To gauge the effects of the mandate on mental health, we use the Mental Component Score measure within the MEPS, ideal for our quantile regression given the broad range of scores. The key premise in our evaluation is that individuals with higher risks for mental health problems due to biological or socioeconomics factors are more likely to rank at locations of the mental health score distribution indicating worse outcomes. RESULTS: We find significant improvements in self-reported mental health in the 23-25 year-old group following the mandate. However, the gains were not equal across the risk distribution. For individuals at the 0.1 quantile (worse self-reported mental health), the improvement in MCS scores was significant, a 6.1% increase compared to the pre-mandate baseline at that quantile. Effects were smaller but still significant at the median but there was no apparent effect for those that were at higher levels of self-reported mental health. Our results also suggest improvements for women (+9% relative to baseline at the 0.1 quantile, e.g.) but limited evidence of an effect for men. IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: The finding that increased insurance coverage led to improved self-reported mental health foremost for young adults with the highest risk of mental health problems is encouraging. However, the mechanism for this effect is unclear and in need of further study. Whether improvements in the mental health status of the population depend more on increased access to services or derive primarily from improved financial security is an important research area.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Benefícios do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Can J Psychiatry ; 62(10): 697-701, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) designation remains widely misunderstood by the public. Such misunderstandings may also be reflected in the media. As such, the aim of this study is to conduct a preliminary examination of the tone and content of recent Canadian newspaper articles where NCRMD is a major theme, comparing these to generic articles about mental illness. METHODS: Articles about mental illness were gathered from major Canadian newspapers. These were then divided into two categories: 1) articles where NCRMD was a major theme and 2) articles where NCRMD was not a major theme. Articles were then coded for the presence or absence of 1) a negative tone, 2) stigmatising tone/content, 3) recovery/rehabilitation as a theme, and 4) shortage of resources/poor quality of care as a theme. RESULTS: The retrieval strategy resulted in 940 articles. Fourteen percent ( n = 131) of all articles had NCRMD as a major theme. In comparison to generic articles about mental illness, articles with NCRMD as a major theme were significantly more likely to have a negative tone ( P < 0.001) and stigmatising tone/content ( P < 0.001) and significantly less likely to have recovery/rehabilitation ( P < 0.001) or shortage of resources/poor quality of care as a theme ( P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Articles with NCRMD as a theme were overwhelmingly negative and almost never focused on recovery or rehabilitation, in stark comparison to generic articles about mental illness.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Mental , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Estigma Social , Canadá , Humanos , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Ment Health ; 26(4): 359-365, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper argues that the decline in the availability of long-term, intensive mental health services, particularly through state mental health hospital systems, has had negative impacts on firearm-related deaths and possibly on the incidence of mass shooting events. AIMS: Establish the effect of reduced availability of long-term, intensive mental health treatment on firearm-related violence in the United States. METHOD: Ordinary least squares regressions on cross-sectional data of US states. RESULTS: Mass shooting perpetrators had significantly higher rates of mental illness than the general population. In addition, using simple regressions, this paper's results demonstrate that increasing the number of state psychiatric hospital beds is associated with lower rates of homicide. CONCLUSIONS: The shrinking number of intensive, long-term mental health facilities in US states has had many negative consequences, including higher rates of firearm homicide.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 63(6): 525-531, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A significant number of homeless mentally ill (HMI) patients without any personal, family or other identification details represent a unique problem in the psychiatric services of developing countries like India in the context of legal, humanitarian and treatment issues. These patients pose challenge to the mental health professional in diagnosis and management. AIMS: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profiles of HMI patients admitted under psychiatry. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 'HMI' patients from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2015, who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India. Sociodemographic and clinical profiles of the patients were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Mean age of the sample was 34.6 years (±12.21 years), 42 (53.8%) were females, 74 (94.9%) were registered as Medico Legal Case and 53 (80.8%) were admitted under reception order issued by a magistrate. HMI patients brought by police were 32 (41.0%), by the public were 32 (41.0%) and 14 (18.0%) by nongovernmental organization /ambulance/social worker. In total, 51 (65.4%) of them had schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, 24 (30.8%) had mental retardation and 23 (29.5%) had a comorbid substance use disorder. The mean Clinical Global Impression severity at admission was 5.07 (±1.7), and the mean duration of inpatient care was 15 weeks. Anemia and malnutrition were found in 34 (43.6%) and 25 (32.1%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study shows that schizophrenia, comorbid mental retardation and substance use disorder are common causes of admission of HMI patients in psychiatry. It is an emerging problem, which needs urgent interventions, and there is a need for an efficient system, guidelines and collaboration with government and nongovernmental agencies.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Mal Alojadas/psicologia , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoas Mal Alojadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Índia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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