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3.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 3): 108, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the evidence supporting the effectiveness of community health worker (CHW) programmes is substantial, there is also considerable evidence that many of these programmes have notable weaknesses that need to be addressed in order for them to reach their full potential. Thus, considerations about CHW programme performance and its assessment must be taken into account as the importance of these programmes is becoming more widely appreciated. In this paper, the tenth in our 11-paper series, "Community health workers at the dawn of a new era", we address CHW programme performance and how it is assessed from a systems perspective. METHODS: The paper builds on the 2014 CHW Reference Guide, a compendium of case studies of 29 national CHW programmes, the 2018 WHO guideline on health policy and system support to optimize CHW programmes, and scientific studies on CHW programme performance published in the past 5 years. RESULTS: The paper provides an overview of existing frameworks that are useful for assessing the performance of CHW programmes, with a specific focus on how individual CHW performance and community-level outcomes can be measured. The paper also reviews approaches that have been taken to assess CHW programme performance, from programme monitoring using the routine health information system to national assessments using quantitative and/or qualitative study designs and assessment checklists. The paper also discusses contextual factors that influence CHW programme performance, and reflects upon gaps and needs for the future with regard to assessment of CHW programme performance. CONCLUSION: Assessments of CHW programme performance can have various approaches and foci according to the programme and its context. Given the fact that CHW programmes are complex entities and part of health systems, their assessment ideally needs to be based on data derived from a mix of reliable sources. Assessments should be focused not only on effectiveness (what works) but also on contextual factors and enablers (how, for whom, under what circumstances). Investment in performance assessment is instrumental for continually innovating, upgrading, and improving CHW programmes at scale. Now is the time for new efforts in implementation research for strengthening CHW programming.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1047, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Actively involving patients and communities in health decisions can improve both peoples' health and the health system. One key strategy is Patient-Public Engagement (PPE). This scoping review aims to identify and describe PPE research in Sub-Saharan Africa; systematically map research to theories of PPE; and identify knowledge gaps to inform future research and PPE development. METHODS: The review followed guidelines for conducting and reporting scoping reviews. A systematic search of peer-reviewed English language literature published between January 1999 and December 2019 was conducted on Scopus, Medline (Ovid), CINAHL and Embase databases. Independent full text screening by three reviewers followed title and abstract screening. Using a thematic framework synthesis, eligible studies were mapped onto an engagement continuum and health system level matrix to assess the current focus of PPE in Sub-Saharan Africa. RESULTS: Initially 1948 articles were identified, but 18 from 10 Sub-Saharan African countries were eligible for the final synthesis. Five PPE strategies implemented were: 1) traditional leadership support, 2) community advisory boards, 3) community education and sensitisation, 4) community health volunteers/workers, and 5) embedding PPE within existing community structures. PPE initiatives were located at either the 'involvement' or 'consultation' stages of the engagement continuum, rather than higher-level engagement. Most PPE studies were at the 'service design' level of the health system or were focused on engagement in health research. No identified studies reported investigating PPE at the 'individual treatment' or 'macro policy/strategic' level. CONCLUSION: This review has successfully identified and evaluated key PPE strategies and their focus on improving health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. PPE in Sub-Saharan Africa was characterised by tokenism rather than participation. PPE implementation activities are currently concentrated at the 'service design' or health research levels. Investigation of PPE at all the health system levels is required, including prioritising patient/community preferences for health system improvement.


Assuntos
Assistência Médica , Participação do Paciente , África ao Sul do Saara , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00235120, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468563

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the forms of professional work and proposed actions to achieve the human right to adequate food (HRAF) in the context of primary healthcare (PHC). Using a qualitative approach, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews (from May 2013 to July 2014) with healthcare workers that conducted educational groups on food and nutrition in PHC in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was performed to identify the proposed actions on food, with HRAF as the theoretical basis. We identified three categories of professional work based on the proposed actions for food and nutrition. The first approaches food as a biomedical dimension. The second focuses on access and availability of foods in the territory. The third approaches users' local food reality, centered on the team's work. The proposed actions feature those conducted by individuals with obligations towards HRAF (healthcare workers in PHC) and those performed by rights-holder (users of PHC in the Brazilian Unified National Health System). Food in contexts of poverty is treated as a problem with no solution. This study allowed approximations between "what to do" and "how to act" based on ways of grasping food through the definitions, professional work, and proposed actions to achieve HRAF in PHC. It also allowed elucidating the need to understand food as a human right and strengthening the responsibility of healthcare workers in PHC as duty-bearers towards HRAF in the context of social policies.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Programas Governamentais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 908, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hypertension represents a substantial and growing burden in Guatemala and other low and middle-income countries. As a part of the formative phase of an implementation research study, we conducted a needs assessment to define short- and long-term needs and opportunities for hypertension services within the public health system. METHODS: We conducted a multi-method, multi-level assessment of needs related to hypertension within Guatemala's public system using the World Health Organization's health system building blocks framework. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at national (n = 17), departmental (n = 7), district (n = 25), and community (n = 30) levels and focus groups with patients (3) and frontline auxiliary nurses (3). We visited and captured data about infrastructure, accessibility, human resources, reporting, medications and supplies at 124 health posts and 53 health centers in five departments of Guatemala. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews and focus group discussions supported by matrix analysis. We summarized quantitative data observed during visits to health posts and centers. RESULTS: Major challenges for hypertension service delivery included: gaps in infrastructure, insufficient staffing and high turnover, limited training, inconsistent supply of medications, lack of reporting, low prioritization of hypertension, and a low level of funding in the public health system overall. Key opportunities included: prior experience caring for patients with chronic conditions, eagerness from providers to learn, and interest from patients to be involved in managing their health. The 5 departments differ in population served per health facility, accessibility, and staffing. All but 7 health posts had basic infrastructure in place. Enalapril was available in 74% of health posts whereas hydrochlorothiazide was available in only 1 of the 124 health posts. With the exception of one department, over 90% of health posts had a blood pressure monitor. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-level multi-method needs assessment using the building blocks framework highlights contextual factors in Guatemala's public health system that have been important in informing the implementation of a hypertension control trial. Long-term needs that are not addressed within the scope of this study will be important to address to enable sustained implementation and scale-up of the hypertension control approach.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Programas Governamentais , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 196, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achievement of successful health outcomes depends on evidence-based programming and implementation of effective health interventions. Routine Health Management Information System is one of the most valuable data sets to support evidence-based programming, however, evidence on systemic use of routine monitoring data for problem-solving and improving health outcomes remain negligible. We attempt to understand the effects of systematic evidence-based review mechanism on improving health outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India. METHODS: Data comes from decision-tracking system and routine health management information system for period Nov-2017 to Mar-2019 covering 6963 health facilities across 25 high-priority districts of the state. Decision-tracking data captured pattern of decisions taken, actions planned and completed, while the latter one provided information on service coverage outcomes over time. Three service coverage indicators, namely, pregnant women receiving 4 or more times ANC and haemoglobin testing during pregnancy, delivered at the health facility, and receive post-partum care within 48 h of delivery were used as outcomes. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Total 412 decisions were taken during the study reference period and a majority were related to ante-natal care services (31%) followed by delivery (16%) and post-natal services (16%). About 21% decisions-taken were focused on improving data quality. By 1 year, 67% of actions planned based on these decisions were completed, 26% were in progress, and the remaining 7% were not completed. We found that, over a year, districts witnessing > 20 percentage-point increase in outcomes were also the districts with significantly higher action completion rates (> 80%) compared to the districts with < 10 percentage-point increase in outcomes having completion of action plans around 50-70%. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed a significantly higher improvement in coverage outcomes among the districts which used routine health management data to conduct monthly review meetings and had high actions completion rates. A data-based review-mechanisms could specifically identify programmatic gaps in service delivery leading to strategic decision making by district authorities to bridge the programmatic gaps. Going forward, establishing systematic evidence-based review platforms can be an important strategy to improve health outcomes and promote the use of routine health monitoring system data in any setting.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Administrativa , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Índia , Assistência Médica , Gravidez
9.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 70(4): 1-21, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499632

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, approximately 400,000 persons were exposed to toxic contaminants and other factors that increased their risk for certain physical and mental health conditions. Shortly thereafter, both federal and nonfederal funds were provided to support various postdisaster activities, including medical monitoring and treatment. In 2011, as authorized by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, the CDC World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program began providing medical screening, monitoring, and treatment of 9/11-related health conditions for WTC responders (i.e., persons who were involved in rescue, response, recovery, cleanup, and related support activities after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks) and affected WTC survivors (i.e., persons who were present in the dust or dust cloud on 9/11 or who worked, lived, or attended school, child care centers, or adult day care centers in the New York City disaster area). REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2012-2020. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services WTC Health Program is administered by the director of CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The WTC Health Program uses a multilayer administrative claims system to process members' authorized program health benefits. Administrative claims data are primarily generated by clinical providers in New York and New Jersey at the Clinical Centers of Excellence and outside those states by clinical providers in the Nationwide Provider Network. This report describes WTC Health Program trends for selected indicators during 2012-2020. RESULTS: In 2020, a total of 104,223 members were enrolled in the WTC Health Program, of which 73.4% (n = 76,543) were responders and 26.6% (n = 27,680) were survivors. WTC Health Program members are predominantly male (78.5%). The median age of members was 51 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 44-57) in 2012 and 59 years (IQR: 52-66) in 2020. During 2012-2020, enrollment and number of certifications of WTC-related health conditions increased among members, with the greatest changes observed among survivors. Overall, at enrollment, most WTC Health Program members lived in New York (71.7%), New Jersey (9.3%), and Florida (5.7%). In 2020, the total numbers of cancer and noncancer WTC-related certifications among members were 20,612 and 50,611, respectively. Skin cancer, male genital system cancers, and in situ neoplasms (e.g., skin and breast) are the most common WTC-related certified cancer conditions. The most commonly certified noncancer conditions are in the aerodigestive and mental health categories. The average number of WTC-related certified conditions per certified member is 2.7. In 2020, a total of 40,666 WTC Health Program members received annual monitoring and screening examinations (with an annual average per calendar year of 35,245). In 2020, the total number of WTC Health Program members who received treatment was 41,387 (with an annual average per calendar year of 32,458). INTERPRETATION: Since 2011, the WTC Health Program has provided health care for a limited number of 9/11-related health conditions both for responders and survivors of the terrorist attacks. Over the study period, program enrollment and WTC certification increased, particularly among survivors. As the members age, increased use of health services and costs within the WTC Health Program are expected; chronic diseases, comorbidities, and other health-related conditions unrelated to WTC exposures are more common in older populations, which might complicate the clinical management of WTC-related health conditions. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Analysis of administrative claims data in the context of WTC research findings can better clarify the health care use patterns of WTC Health Program members. This information guides programmatic decision-making and might also help guide future disaster preparedness and response health care efforts. Strengthening the WTC Health Program health informatics infrastructure is warranted for timely programmatic and research decision-making.


Assuntos
Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Programas Governamentais , Promoção da Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3781-3786, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468671

RESUMO

Since 2017, the Brazilian health system is facing a wave of counter-reforms in policies that have expanded coverage and access and intended to change the care model. Primary Health Care (PHC) has been substantially modified by synergistic and complementary federal official acts. The creation of federal autonomous social service for the provision of doctors; public consultation to institute basket of consumption in healthcare; the flexibility of the weekly workload of doctors and nurses, who may integrate more than one team; the non-setting of a minimum number of community health workers per team form the context in which the Previne Brasil Program was launched to be in force by 2020. The government's argument is to increase: flexibility and local autonomy to organize services, greater efficiency and valorization. of performance. Criticism from sanitarians, some state councils of municipal authorities and the National Health Council points to the privatizing, marketing, selective and focused character of the proposal that is moving towards universal health coverage. This paper analyzes the Previne Brazil Program which, among other things, alters funding and suggests increasing resources for PHC in a context of freezing social spending. Contradictions and alternatives are identified to minimize potential damage to existing policies.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
11.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1956752, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is international consensus on the need for countries to work towards achieving universal health coverage (UHC) whereby the population is given access to all appropriate promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services at affordable cost. The World Health Organisation (2013) urges all countries to undertake research to customise UHC within national development agendas. OBJECTIVE: To describe the process used to prioritise UHC within the health systems research and development agenda in Uganda. METHODS: Two national consultative workshops were convened in May and August 2015 to develop a UHC research agenda in Uganda. The participants included multisector representatives from local, national, and international organisations. A participatory approach with structured deliberations and multi-voting techniques was used. Stakeholders' views were analysed thematically according to health systems building blocks, and multi-voting was used to assign priorities across themes and sub-themes. The priorities were further validated and disseminated at national health sector meetings. RESULTS: Of the 80 invited stakeholders, 57 (71.3%) attended. The expressed priorities were: 1) health workforce; 2) governance; 3) financing; 4) service delivery, and 5) community health. The participants also recommended crosscutting research themes to address the social determinants of health, multisectoral collaboration, and health system resilience to protect against external shocks and disease epidemics. CONCLUSION: Discussions that capture the diverse perspectives of stakeholders provide a way of exploring UHC within health policy and systems development. In Uganda, attention should be paid to the principal challenges of mobilising financial and technical capabilities for research and strengthening the link between evidence generation and policy actions to achieve UHC.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Uganda
12.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 2): 48, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For evidence-based decision-making, there is a need for quality, timely, relevant and accessible information at each level of the health system. Limited use of local data at each level of the health system is reported to be a main challenge for evidence-based decision-making in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is available on the timeliness and quality of local data, we know little about how it is used for decision-making at different levels of the health system. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level of data use and its effect on data quality and shared accountability at different levels of the health system. METHODS: An implementation science study was conducted using key informants and document reviews between January and September 2017. A total of 21 key informants were selected from community representatives, data producers, data users and decision-makers from the community to the regional level. Reviewed documents include facility reports, district reports, zonal reports and feedback in supervision from the district. Thematic content analysis was performed for the qualitative data. RESULTS: Respondents reported that routine data use for routine decision-making was low. All health facilities and health offices have a performance monitoring team, but these were not always functional. Awareness gaps, lack of motivating incentives, irregularity of supportive supervision, lack of community engagement in health report verification as well as poor technical capacity of health professionals were found to be the major barriers to data use. The study also revealed that there are no institutional or national-level regulations or policies on the accountability mechanisms related to health data. The community-level Health Development Army programme was found to be a strong community engagement approach that can be leveraged for data verification at the source of community data. CONCLUSION: The culture of using routine data for decision-making at the local level was found to be low. Strengthening the capacity of health workers and performance monitoring teams, introducing incentive mechanisms for data use, engaging the community in data verification and introducing accountability mechanisms for health data are essential to improve data use and quality.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Etiópia , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Imunização
13.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(3): 1181-1187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421023

RESUMO

Safety-net health systems serve primarily low-income, racially/ethnically diverse patients who bear a disproportionate burden of disease and high social needs. Many safety-net institutions are publicly funded and are under-resourced to deliver high-quality and timely care. Further, little clinical and translational research includes safety-net populations due to lack of funding, structure to support research, and low prioritization. However, we argue that US health care as a whole will lose key insights across all levels of translational medicine-T1-T4 research, if safety-net health systems do not participate in research. Solutions such as targeted funds for safety-net research, consortium arrangements for research infrastructure, and increasing ways for clinician-researchers to have their primary home in safety-net settings are suggested to fill this gap. Achieving health equity in the U.S. is contingent upon safety-net inclusion in research to advance knowledge and develop, test, and evaluate innovations applicable across all patient populations.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Assistência Médica , Pobreza , Provedores de Redes de Segurança
14.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445006

RESUMO

Evidence for effective government policies to reduce exposure to alcohol's carcinogenic and hepatoxic effects has strengthened in recent decades. Policies with the strongest evidence involve reducing the affordability, availability and cultural acceptability of alcohol. However, policies that reduce population consumption compete with powerful commercial vested interests. This paper draws on the Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation (CAPE), a formal assessment of effective government action on alcohol across Canadian jurisdictions. It also draws on alcohol policy case studies elsewhere involving attempts to introduce minimum unit pricing and cancer warning labels on alcohol containers. Canadian governments collectively received a failing grade (F) for alcohol policy implementation during the most recent CAPE assessment in 2017. However, had the best practices observed in any one jurisdiction been implemented consistently, Canada would have received an A grade. Resistance to effective alcohol policies is due to (1) lack of public awareness of both need and effectiveness, (2) a lack of government regulatory mechanisms to implement effective policies, (3) alcohol industry lobbying, and (4) a failure from the public health community to promote specific and feasible actions as opposed to general principles, e.g., 'increased prices' or 'reduced affordability'. There is enormous untapped potential in most countries for the implementation of proven strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. While alcohol policies have weakened in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, societies may now also be more accepting of public health-inspired policies with proven effectiveness and potential economic benefits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá , Comércio/economia , Comércio/normas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Programas Governamentais , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Pandemias , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
16.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(3): 1-8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287200

RESUMO

With the recent Black Lives Matter movement, existing racial inequalities in various sectors of the United States have regained prominence. Due to the pandemic, statistics on racial disparities in the health sector have been aggravated. On a related note, while the #Black Lives Matter movement received substantial support from India's online community, deeply entrenched inequalities in terms of caste, community and gender in India's health sector need to be critically evaluated as well. This paper is an attempt to understand how the awareness generated by the Black Lives Matter movement could be an opportunity to address structural inequalities in India's own public health system.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Identidade de Gênero , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 674, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal, need-based, and equitable allocation of financial resources is one of the most important concerns of health systems worldwide. Fulfilling this goal requires considering various criteria when allocating resources. The present study was conducted to identify the need indicators used to allocate health resources in different countries worldwide. METHODS: A systematic review conducted on all published articles and reports on the need-based allocation of health financial resources in the English language from 1990 to 2020 in databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus as well as those in Persian language databases, including magiran, SID, and Google and Google scholar search engines. After performing different stages of screening, appropriate studies were identified and their information were extracted independently by two people, which were then controlled by a third person. The extracted data were finally analyzed by content analysis method using MAXQDA 10 software. RESULT: This search yielded 823 studies, of which 29 were included for the final review. The findings indicated that many need-based resource allocation formulas attempt to deal with health care needs using some weighting methods for individuals. In this regard, the most commonly used indicators were found as follows: age, gender, socio-economic status or deprivation, ethnicity, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), the modified health indicators (disease consequences, self-assessed health, and disability), geographical area / place of residence (geographical) (rural versus urban), cross-boundary flows, cost of services, and donations. CONCLUSION: The indicators used in allocating the health systems' financial resources in each country should be designed in order to be simple and transparent and in accordance with the moral norms of that society. Moreover, these should be a good representative of the health needs of people in different geographical areas of that country. In addition, their related data should be available to an acceptable extent.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Alocação de Recursos , Programas Governamentais , Recursos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203770

RESUMO

Despite the implementation of social and health policies that positively affected the health of the populations in Brazil, since 2009 the country has experienced a slower decline of infant mortality. After an economic and political crisis, Brazil witnessed increases in infant mortality that raised questions about what are the determinants of infant mortality after the implementation of such policies. We conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize those determinants with searches in three databases: LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. We included studies published between 2010 and 2020. We selected 23 papers: 83% associated infant mortality with public policies; 78% related infant mortality with the use of the health system and socioeconomic and living conditions; and 27% related to individual characteristics to infant mortality. Inequalities in the access to healthcare seem to have important implications in reducing infant mortality. Socioeconomic conditions and health-related factors such as income, education, fertility, housing, and the Bolsa Família. Program coverage was pointed out as the main determinants of infant mortality. Likewise, recent changes in infant mortality in Brazil are likely related to these factors. We also identified a gap in terms of studies on a possible association between employment and infant mortality.


Assuntos
Renda , Mortalidade Infantil , Brasil/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(Suppl 5)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: India has become a lighthouse for large-scale digital innovation in the health sector, particularly for front-line health workers (FLHWs). However, among scaled digital health solutions, ensuring sustainability remains elusive. This study explores the factors underpinning scale-up of digital health solutions for FLHWs in India, and the potential implications of these factors for sustainability. METHODS: We assessed five FLHW digital tools scaled at the national and/or state level in India. We conducted in-depth interviews with implementers, technology and technical partners (n=11); senior government stakeholders (n=5); funders (n=1) and evaluators/academics (n=3). Emergent themes were grouped according to a broader framework that considered the (1) digital solution; (2) actors; (3) processes and (4) context. RESULTS: The scale-up of digital solutions was facilitated by their perceived value, bounded adaptability, support from government champions, cultivation of networks, sustained leadership and formative research to support fit with the context and population. However, once scaled, embedding digital health solutions into the fabric of the health system was hampered by challenges related to transitioning management and ownership to government partners; overcoming government procurement hurdles; and establishing committed funding streams in government budgets. Strong data governance, continued engagement with FLHWs and building a robust evidence base, while identified in the literature as critical for sustainability, did not feature strongly among respondents. Sustainability may be less elusive once there is more consensus around the roles played between national and state government actors, implementing and technical partners and donors. CONCLUSION: The use of digital tools by FLHWs offers much promise for improving service delivery and health outcomes in India. However, the pathway to sustainability is bespoke to each programme and should be planned from the outset by investing in people, relationships and service delivery adjustments to navigate the challenges involved given the dynamic nature of digital tools in complex health systems.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , Política , Programas Governamentais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia
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