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1.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2967, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572780

RESUMO

Transdiagnostic models of psychopathology address many of the shortcomings common to categorical diagnostic systems. These empirically derived models conceptualize psychopathology as a few broad interrelated and hierarchically arranged dimensions, with an overarching general psychopathology dimension, the p-factor, at the apex. While transdiagnostic models are gaining prominence in mental health research, the lack of available tools has limited their clinical translation. The present study explored the potential of creating transdiagnostic scales from the joint factor structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory, Alternative Model of Personality Disorder trait scales (AMPD), and the clinical scales of the SPECTRA: Indices of Psychopathology (SPECTRA). Exploratory factor analysis in a clinical sample (n = 212) identified five factors corresponding to the Negative Affect/Internalizing, Detachment, Antagonism/Externalizing, Disinhibition/Externalizing, and Thought Disorder transdiagnostic dimensions. Goldberg's "Bass-Ackward" method supported a hierarchical structure. Five composite transdiagnostic scales were created by summing each factor's highest loading PAI and SPECTRA scales. A global psychopathology scale was created by summing the five composite scales. All the composite scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Correlations between the composite scales and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 provide initial validity evidence for four composite and global scales. The composite thought disorder scale had no conceptually corresponding NEO domain. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115862, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554493

RESUMO

Large-scale studies and burdened clinical settings require precise, efficient measures that assess multiple domains of psychopathology. Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) can reduce administration time without compromising data quality. We examined feasibility and validity of an adaptive psychopathology measure, GOASSESS, in a clinical community-based sample (N = 315; ages 18-35) comprising three groups: healthy controls, psychosis, mood/anxiety disorders. Assessment duration was compared between the Full and CAT GOASSESS. External validity was tested by comparing how the CAT and Full versions related to demographic variables, study group, and socioeconomic status. The relationships between scale scores and criteria were statistically compared within a mixed-model framework to account for dependency between relationships. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing scores of the CAT and the Full GOASSESS using Pearson correlations. The CAT GOASSESS reduced interview duration by more than 90 % across study groups and preserved relationships to external criteria and demographic variables as the Full GOASSESS. All CAT GOASSESS scales could replace those of the Full instrument. Overall, the CAT GOASSESS showed acceptable psychometric properties and demonstrated feasibility by markedly reducing assessment time compared to the Full GOASSESS. The adaptive version could be used in large-scale studies or clinical settings for intake screening.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Ansiedade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Psychol Sci ; 35(4): 376-389, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446868

RESUMO

Inhibitory control is central to many theories of cognitive and brain development, and impairments in inhibitory control are posited to underlie developmental psychopathology. In this study, we tested the possibility of shared versus unique associations between inhibitory control and three common symptom dimensions in youth psychopathology: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and irritability. We quantified inhibitory control using four different experimental tasks to estimate a latent variable in 246 youth (8-18 years old) with varying symptom types and levels. Participants were recruited from the Washington, D.C., metro region. Results of structural equation modeling integrating a bifactor model of psychopathology revealed that inhibitory control predicted a shared or general psychopathology dimension, but not ADHD-specific, anxiety-specific, or irritability-specific dimensions. Inhibitory control also showed a significant, selective association with global efficiency in a frontoparietal control network delineated during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. These results support performance-based inhibitory control linked to resting-state brain function as an important predictor of comorbidity in youth psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Ansiedade/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
4.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 68(4): 369-376, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive functioning is an integral phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome relating to severity of psychopathology and outcomes. A neurocognitive battery that could be administered remotely to assess multiple cognitive domains would be especially beneficial to research on rare genetic variants, where in-person assessment can be unavailable or burdensome. The current study compares in-person and remote assessments of the Penn computerised neurocognitive battery (CNB). METHODS: Participants (mean age = 17.82, SD = 6.94 years; 48% female) completed the CNB either in-person at a laboratory (n = 222) or remotely (n = 162). RESULTS: Results show that accuracy of CNB performance was equivalent across the two testing locations, while slight differences in speed were detected in 3 of the 11 tasks. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the CNB can be used in remote settings to assess multiple neurocognitive domains.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Síndrome de DiGeorge/psicologia , Cognição , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicopatologia , Fenótipo
5.
Assessment ; 31(2): 502-517, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37042304

RESUMO

Data aggregation in mental health is complicated by using different questionnaires, and little is known about the impact of item harmonization strategies on measurement precision. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of various item harmonization strategies for a target and proxy questionnaire using correlated and bifactor models. Data were obtained from the Brazilian High-Risk Study for Mental Conditions (BHRCS) and the Healthy Brain Network (HBN; N = 6,140, ages 5-22 years, 39.6% females). We tested six item-wise harmonization strategies and compared them based on several indices. The one-by-one (1:1) expert-based semantic item harmonization presented the best strategy as it was the only that resulted in scalar-invariant models for both samples and factor models. The between-questionnaires factor correlation, reliability, and factor score difference in using a proxy instead of a target measure improved little when all other harmonization strategies were compared with a completely at-random strategy. However, for bifactor models, between-questionnaire specific factor correlation increased from 0.05-0.19 (random item harmonization) to 0.43-0.60 (expert-based 1:1 semantic harmonization) in BHRCS and HBN samples, respectively. Therefore, item harmonization strategies are relevant for specific factors from bifactor models and had little impact on p-factors and first-order correlated factors when the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) were harmonized.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria , Saúde Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
6.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 91: 103837, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) was developed in response to the need for a standard and reliable tool for assessing preschool-age psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to translate PAPA into the Turkish language and evaluate the validity and reliability. METHODS: The researchers translated the original PAPA to Turkish, and the Turkish version of PAPA was translated back into its original language by professional translators. After the psychiatric assessment of the 300 patients by child psychiatrist, the PAPA interview was implemented with the parents. The sociodemographic data form and the PAPA short forms were filled out by the clinician conducting the interview. The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1½-5) was completed by parents. RESULTS: The rate of detecting true positives and true negatives in all subscales when comparing PAPA with CBCL in children under 60 months ranged from 65% to 88%. The AUC values were above 50%, ranging from 0.56 to 0.72, indicating that PAPA performed reasonably well in detecting true positives and true negatives compared to CBCL. According to DC: 0-5, it was found that the adjustment was good for total psychopathologies, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and depression (κ = 0.67-0.79), and excellent for GAD and PTSD (κ = 0.81-1.00) CONCLUSION: The validity and reliability obtained from this study are valuable in our country for the objective identification of preschool children showing problematic symptom levels and for distinguishing them from children showing typical characteristics.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escolaridade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicometria
7.
Assessment ; 31(1): 110-125, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37081793

RESUMO

This article selectively reviews the key issues and measures for the assessment of depressive disorders and symptoms in youth and adults. The first portion of the article addresses the nature and conceptualization of depression and some key issues that must be considered in its assessment. Next, the diagnostic interview and clinician- and self-administered rating scales that are most widely used to diagnose, screen for, and assess the severity of depression in adults and youth are selectively reviewed. In addition, the assessment of three transdiagnostic clinical features (anhedonia, irritability, and suicidality) that are frequently associated with both depression and other forms of psychopathology is discussed. The article concludes with some broad recommendations for assessing depression in research and clinical practice and suggestions for future research.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Depressão , Humanos , Adulto , Adolescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Ideação Suicida
8.
Assessment ; 31(1): 199-215, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37706296

RESUMO

Researchers and clinicians working within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition, Text Rev (DSM-5-TR) framework face a difficult question: what does it mean to have an evidence-based assessment of a nonevidence-based diagnostic construct? Alternative nosological approaches conceptualize psychopathology as (a) hierarchical, allowing researchers to move between levels of description and (b) dimensional, eliminating artificial dichotomies between disorders and the dichotomy between mental illness and mental well-being. In this article, we provide an overview of ongoing efforts to develop validated measures of transdiagnostic nosologies (i.e., the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology; HiTOP) with applications for measurement-based care. However, descriptive models like HiTOP, which summarize patterns of covariation among psychopathology symptoms, do not address dynamic processes underlying the problems associated with psychopathology. Ambulatory assessment, well-suited to examine such dynamic processes, has also developed rapidly in recent decades. Thus, the goal of the current article is twofold. First, we provide a brief overview of developments in constructing valid measures of the HiTOP model as well as developments in ambulatory assessment practices. Second, we outline how these parallel developments can be integrated to advance measurement-based treatment. We end with a discussion of some major challenges for future research to address to integrate advances more fully in transdiagnostic and ambulatory assessment practices.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicopatologia , Saúde Mental , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Bem-Estar Psicológico
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(12): e2348439, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117496

RESUMO

Importance: Psychiatric conditions in parents are associated with many psychiatric and nonpsychiatric outcomes in offspring. However, it remains unknown whether this intergenerational transmission is attributable to broader psychopathology comorbidity or to specific conditions. Objective: To estimate associations between general and specific psychopathology factors in parents and a wide range of register-based outcomes in their offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: This Swedish national register-based cohort study included 2 947 703 individuals born between 1970 and 2000 and followed up with participants through December 31, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed from October 2022 to October 2023. Exposures: Hierarchical factor model consisting of 1 general and 3 specific psychopathology factors fit to 9 parental psychiatric diagnoses and violent criminal court convictions. Main Outcomes and Measures: A total of 31 outcomes were measured in offspring and sorted into 6 broad clusters: psychotic-like outcomes, neurodevelopmental outcomes, internalizing outcomes, externalizing outcomes, behavior and accidents, and psychosocial outcomes. Results: Of 2 947 703 individuals, 1 518 252 (51.5%) were male, and the mean (SD) age at the end of follow-up was 28.7 (8.9) years. The general psychopathology factor in parents was significantly associated with all 31 offspring outcomes (range: odds ratio [OR] for accidents, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.07-1.08] to OR for social welfare recipiency, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.39-1.40]), which means that children whose parents scored 1 SD above the mean on the general psychopathology factor had an 8% to 40% higher odds of different studied outcomes. The specific psychotic factor in parents was primarily associated with all 5 psychotic-like outcomes (range: OR for prescription of antiepileptics, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.04-1.06] to OR for schizophrenia, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.23-1.28]) and the specific internalizing factor in parents was primarily associated with all 6 internalizing outcomes (range: OR for prescription of anxiolytics, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.09-1.10] to OR for depression, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.12-1.13]) and all 6 neurodevelopmental outcomes (range: OR for intellectual disability, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01-1.03] to OR for autism spectrum disorder, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.09-1.11]) in offspring. The specific externalizing factor in parents was associated with all 6 externalizing outcomes (range: OR for violent crimes, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.19-1.23] to OR for oppositional defiant disorder, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.32-1.33]) and all 6 internalizing outcomes (range: OR for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1.01 [95% CI, 1.00-1.02] to OR for posttraumatic stress disorder, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.12-1.13]) in offspring. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study of the Swedish population suggests that the intergenerational transmission of psychiatric conditions across different types of spectra may largely be attributable to a parental general psychopathology factor, whereas specific factors appeared to be primarily responsible for within-spectrum associations between parents and their offspring. Professionals who work with children (eg, child psychologists, psychiatrists, teachers, and social workers) might benefit from taking the total number of parental psychiatric conditions into account, regardless of type, when forecasting child mental health and social functions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Psicopatologia
10.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 132(7): 808-819, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37843539

RESUMO

A complex systems approach to psychopathology proposes that general principles lie in the dynamic patterns of psychopathology, which are not restricted to specific psychological processes like symptoms or affect. Hence, it must be possible to find general change profiles in time series data of fully personalized questionnaires. In the current study, we examined general change profiles in personalized self-ratings and related these to four measures of treatment outcome (International Symptom Rating, 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, daily symptom severity, and self-reflective capacity). We analyzed data of 404 patients with mood and/or anxiety disorders who completed daily self-ratings on personalized questionnaires during psychotherapy. For each patient, a principal component analysis was applied to the multivariate time series in order to retrieve an univariate person-specific time series. Then, using classification and regression methods, we examined these time series for the presence of general change profiles. The change profile classification yielded the following distribution of patients: no-shift (n = 55; 14%), gradual-change (n = 52; 13%), one-shift (n = 233; 58%), reversed-shift (n = 39; 10%) and multiple-shifts (n = 25; 6%). The multiple-shift group had better treatment outcome than the no-shift group on all outcome measures. The one-shift and gradual-change groups had better treatment outcome than the no-shift group on two and three outcome measures, respectively. Overall, this study illustrates that person-specific (idiographic) and general (nomothetic) aspects of psychopathology can be integrated in a complex systems approach to psychopathology, which may combine "the best of both worlds." (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Afeto , Psicoterapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
11.
Nervenarzt ; 94(9): 835-841, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37428239

RESUMO

Historical authors (e.g., Ludwig Binswanger and Eugène Minkowski) postulated that the experience of patients with schizophrenia is characterized by time fragmentation. From a clinical perspective, patients with schizophrenia also suffer from difficulties in spatial perception (e.g., abnormalities in the experience of interpersonal distance and spatial orientation). Although these changes can lead to a serious detachment from reality, to considerable suffering of the affected persons and to difficulties in the therapeutic process, the abnormal experience of space and time in psychotic disorders has not yet been sufficiently investigated. One possible reason is the lack of appropriate and standardized instruments that quantify the experience of space and time in patients with psychotic disorders. Based on an innovative concept, the so-called spatiotemporal psychopathology (STPP), a clinical rating scale for the systematic-quantitative assessment of spatial and temporal experience in patients with psychotic disorders was developed. This article presents the German version of the Scale for Space and Time Experience in Psychosis (STEP). The original English version of the STEP measures different spatial (14 phenomena) and temporal (11 phenomena) phenomena in 25 items. The STEP shows both a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) and a significant correlation with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS; p < 0.001). In summary, the German version of the STEP scale presented here represents an important instrument in the German-speaking countries for the assessment of spatial and temporal experience in patients with psychotic disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicopatologia , Psicometria , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico
12.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 51(9): 1289-1301, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37284898

RESUMO

Recent research highlights the use of artificial boundaries between distinct types of adverse experiences, including forms of maltreatment. Commonly-utilized methods that isolate the impact of one maltreatment subtype over others and fail to consider the often co-occurring nature of maltreatment may not adequately capture the complex heterogeneous nature of maltreatment and may obscure understanding of developmental pathways. Moreover, childhood maltreatment is associated with the development of maladaptive peer relationships and psychopathology, with negative conceptions of relationships identified as a risk pathway. The current study utilizes structural equation modeling to examine the impact of an adapted threat versus deprivation framework for conceptualizing maltreatment via children's negative conceptions of relationships, which have not been previously tested as mechanisms in the context of this conceptual framework. Participants included 680 socioeconomically disadvantaged children who attended a week-long summer camp. Multi-informant methods were used to assess children's symptomatology and interpersonal functioning. Results did not support differences between threatening versus depriving maltreatment experiences, but indicated that all groups of children who experienced maltreatment, including those enduring both threatening and depriving experiences, showed more maladaptive functioning and more negative conceptions of relationships relative to non-maltreated peers. Results of the current study support the mediating role of children's appraisals of the self and peers in the effect of maltreatment on children's internalizing and externalizing symptomatology.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Humanos , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Grupo Associado , Psicopatologia
13.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 132(3): 330-339, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37126064

RESUMO

This invited commentary evaluates eight target articles that offer ambitious theoretical frameworks intended to advance psychopathology research. We discuss their consideration of the perspectives and priorities of treatment-seekers, including respect for and promotion of individuals' agency and self-determination; their positioning of individuals within dynamic social systems and their consideration of interventions beyond the individual level; their assumptions and proposals about the relationship between psychological and biological concepts and phenomena, relative to the reductionism that has been dominant but unsuccessful in the psychopathology literature in recent decades; and their implications for clinical care and for individual and community health. Despite some overlapping features, the articles cover very different ground and offer different challenges to the status quo, which has seen strikingly slow progress for decades. None of the proposed theories is comprehensive, but each has unique appeals; each has limitations, and each warrants consideration and development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Justiça Social , Humanos
14.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(1): 31-36, mar. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437216

RESUMO

Asumiendo la metáfora de la encrucijada, propuesta por Santiago Levín, en la que estaría situada la psiquiatría en la actualidad, el presente artículo pretende reflexionar sobre algunos aspectos de una crisis paradigmática de la medicina mental que ha hecho a algunos temer por su futuro. Se abordan algunas cuestiones epistemológicas de cierto calado, como el régimen de "verdad" en el que supuestamente deben manejarse los expertos, así como los dilemas planteados en los dos elementos clave del encuentro clínico: el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. Finalmente, se insiste en la importancia de lo ético, lo social, y lo político a la hora de replantear saberes y prácticas. (AU)


On the understanding we accept where psychiatry would today be located in the metaphor of the crossroads, as proposed by Santiago Levín, the purpose of this article is to explore certain aspects of a paradigmatic crisis in mental medicine that has raised some concerns as to its future. Certain deep epistemological questions are addressed, such as the schema of "truth", where experts should supposedly manage themselves, and the dilemmas raised from the two key elements of a clinical session: diagnosis and treatment. Finally, the study emphasises the importance of the ethical, social, and political aspects of rethinking knowledge and practices. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psiquiatria/tendências , Psicopatologia/tendências , Psicotrópicos , Saúde Mental/tendências , Psiquiatria/ética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Revelação da Verdade , Modelos Biológicos
15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(4): 296-304, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36828009

RESUMO

Psychiatry has increasingly adopted explanations for psychopathology that are based on neurobiological reductionism. With the recognition of health disparities and the realisation that someone's postcode can be a better predictor of health outcomes than their genetic code, there are increasing efforts to ensure cultural and social-structural competence in psychiatric practice. Although neuroscientific and social-cultural approaches in psychiatry remain largely separate, they can be brought together in a multilevel explanatory framework to advance psychiatric theory, research, and practice. In this Personal View, we outline how a cultural-ecosocial systems approach to integrating neuroscience in psychiatry can promote social-contextual and systemic thinking for more clinically useful formulations and person-centred care.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Psicopatologia
17.
Assessment ; 30(8): 2417-2432, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658765

RESUMO

Building on the comparative nonpatient study of Pianowski et al., we examine data from the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) and Comprehensive System (CS) in 100 nonpatients and 100 patients, 50 of each per system. Replicating their results but now in a patient sample, R-PAS produced more patient protocols having an optimal number of responses (R) for interpretation and eliminated the need for readministration due to low R. The R-PAS protocols were also much less variable in R, despite having about 2.5 more responses. Extending their results, we document that the primary markers of psychopathology in each system validly differentiate patients from nonpatients. However, R-PAS produced stronger effects. Finally, Complexity added to the valid discrimination of patients from nonpatients just for R-PAS, with patients producing less complex and rich records. The more erratic variability in R for the CS produced larger Complexity standard deviations (SDs) that obscured these genuine differences in people. We discuss implications for research and applied practice, along with directions for future research.


Assuntos
Teste de Rorschach , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicopatologia , Pacientes
18.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279658, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638101

RESUMO

Avoidance-based emotion regulation plays a central role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders across the life span. However, measures for children that account for different avoidance strategies, are scarce. Derived from Gross' Process Model of Emotion Regulation, the Bochum Assessment of Avoidance-based Emotion Regulation for Children (BAER-C) was developed to assess avoidance strategies (cognitive avoidance, behavioural avoidance, verbal reassurance, and social reassurance) and reappraisal in anticipatory anxious situations. In the present study, the BAER-C was administered to 129 school children aged 8 to 14 and 199 children with anxiety disorders aged 8 to 16 and their parents, along with established measures on anxiety, psychopathology, and emotion regulation. Factor structure, internal consistency, convergent, divergent and construct validity were analysed. Results of the anxious sample showed a satisfactory internal consistency (McDonald's ω = .94) for all scales as well as positive correlations with anxiety symptoms (all rs > .17, all ps < .05). Factor analysis supported a five-factor model. This model was confirmed in the student sample. Children with an anxiety disorder scored higher on behavioural avoidance, verbal reassurance, and social reassurance than school children (F (5,304) = 12.63, p = .003, ηp2 = .17). Results for construct validity were ambiguous. Our analyses suggest that the BAER-C is a promising theory-based new instrument to reliably assess different avoidance strategies in children. More research is needed to further analyse construct validity with other emotion regulation questionnaires.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Humanos , Criança , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psychol Med ; 53(4): 1649-1657, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach proposes a novel psychiatric nosology using transdiagnostic dimensional mechanistic constructs. One candidate RDoC indicator is delay discounting (DD), a behavioral economic measure of impulsivity, based predominantly on studies examining DD and individual conditions. The current study sought to evaluate the transdiagnostic significance of DD in relation to several psychiatric conditions concurrently. METHODS: Participants were 1388 community adults (18-65) who completed an in-person assessment, including measures of DD, substance use, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relations between DD and psychopathology were examined with three strategies: first, examining differences by individual condition using clinical cut-offs; second, examining DD in relation to latent psychopathology variables via principal components analysis (PCA); and third, examining DD and all psychopathology simultaneously via structural equation modeling (SEM). RESULTS: Individual analyses revealed elevations in DD were present in participants screening positive for multiple substance use disorders (tobacco, cannabis, and drug use disorder), ADHD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and an anxiety disorder (ps < 0.05-0.001). The PCA produced two latent components (substance involvement v. the other mental health indicators) and DD was significantly associated with both (ps < 0.001). In the SEM, unique significant positive associations were observed between the DD latent variable and tobacco, cannabis, and MDD (ps < 0.05-0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide some support for DD as a transdiagnostic indicator, but also suggest that studies of individual syndromes may include confounding via comorbidities. Further systematic investigation of DD as an RDoC indicator is warranted.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo
20.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 51(2): 209-222, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779168

RESUMO

Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is a transdiagnostic factor involved in several psychological disorders. Adolescence is characterized by elevated uncertainty and psychopathological vulnerability, but insufficient attention has been paid to IU at this age. This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised (IUS-R) in Italian preadolescents and adolescents. 862 Italian students (57.3% girls) aged 11-17 (M = 14.8 ± 1.91) completed the IUS-R and measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and psychological well-being. To test the factor structure of the IUS-R, one-factor, two-factor, and bifactor models were compared; measurement invariance, reliability, and validity were also addressed. Results showed that the bifactor model outperformed alternative factor models, and a general factor was needed to model the IUS-R. Bifactor model indices supported using the total score to assess IU reliably. Configural and metric invariance by age and sex were fully supported, while the IUS-R achieved partial scalar invariance. Significant correlations emerged for the IUS-R total score with psychopathological constructs, while no relationships with psychological well-being were found. Compared to adult normative data, higher total IUS-R scores were detected, suggesting that IU may be a phase-specific characteristic of adolescence. Our findings support using the IUS-R to measure IU across the lifespan. The recommended use of the total score and its associations with psychopathological dimensions highlight the transdiagnostic nature of IU in adolescence. Therefore, including IU when implementing interventions to prevent maladaptive outcomes in teenagers would be beneficial.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Psicopatologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Incerteza , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Psicometria
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