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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297352, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564590

RESUMO

The competition in the world has shifted from natural resources and capital resources to human resources. The human resources have become the real power source of the economic growth. Firstly, the price of human resources in China is calculated. Secondly, in order to measure the human resources quality adjustment index, the indicators system is constructed. Third, the Hedonic method is used to calculate the human resources "pure price" of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) in China. The "pure price" has no the factor of human resources quality. Lastly, comparing the price of human resources before and after quality adjustment. The results show that: first, the number of human resources in China increased continuously during 1995-2015 and decreased during 2016-2020. Second, the price of nominal human resources in China keeps rising. In 2020, the nominal price is 39,087 yuan per person which is 15.44 times as many as in 1995. Thirdly, after the quality adjustment, the price of human resources has decreased significantly. The multiple between the actual and nominal price of human resources is between 1.75 and 2.12. Fourthly, the province with high human resource quality adjustment index generally have high quality human resource level or quantity. Fifth, the top five provinces of actual human resource prices are Shanghai, Beijing, Guangdong, Tianjin, Zhejiang, the bottom five provinces are Guizhou, Yunnan, Henan, Xizang, Gansu. Finally, the paper puts forward some policy recommendations: Improving the data collection mechanism of human resources accounting to provide a basic guarantee for the accurate accounting of human resources. Improving the price of human resources in the central and western regions to attract the talents to transfer to the central and western regions. Enhancing the skills training of human resources to improve the quality of human resources in the western region.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , China , Recursos Humanos , Pequim , Cidades
3.
Nurs Adm Q ; 48(2): 165-179, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564727

RESUMO

Poor well-being and burnout among the nursing workforce were heightened by the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to deliver, spread, and sustain an evidence-based wellness program, Workforce Engagement for Compassionate Advocacy, Resilience, and Empowerment (WE CARE), for nurse leaders, staff registered nurses (RNs), and patient care technicians (PCTs) to ameliorate or prevent burnout, promote resilience, and improve the work environment. The program included Community Resiliency Model (CRM) training provided by a certified 6-member wellness team. A baseline and 6-month follow-up survey included measures of well-being, moral distress, burnout, resilience, perceived organizational support (POS), job satisfaction, intent to leave (ITL), and work environment. A total of 4900 inpatient RNs, PCTs, and leaders of a 1207-bed academic medical center in the southeastern United States were analyzed. From baseline (n = 1533) to 6-month follow-up (n = 1457), well-being, moral distress, burnout, job satisfaction, and work environment improved; however, resilience, POS, and ITL did not. Although we have seen some improvements in well-being and mental health indicators, it is still early in the intervention period to have reached a critical mass with the training and other interventions. The mental health and work environment issues among nurses are so complex, no one-size-fits-all intervention can resolve.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Pandemias , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Recursos Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Promoção da Saúde
4.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(4): 103, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485858

RESUMO

While time spent practicing inpatient dermatology has decreased since the 1990s, less is known about the current state of inpatient dermatology. We describe the distribution and frequency of inpatient dermatology encounters servicing the United States Medicare population between 2013 and 2019. Cross-sectional analysis of publicly available inpatient Medicare Part B claims data from 2013 to 2019 was conducted. Main outcomes and measures were characteristics and trends of dermatologists performing inpatient encounters. Categorical variables were compared using χ2 analysis. Trends were analyzed for linearity using Pearson correlation coefficient. 782 physicians met inclusion criteria for inclusion. Dermatologists were more often male (56.5%), possessing allopathic Medical Doctorate (MD) (86.3%), and in metropolitan settings (98.2%). However, proportion of female inpatient dermatologists increased significantly (37.9% to 46.2%). Across rural and metropolitan practices, number of inpatient physicians (2013: 356; 2019: 281) and number of medical centers in which dermatology encounters occurred (2013: 239; 2019: 157) decreased, more significantly in non-residency-associated institutions. Spatial analysis revealed wide regions lacking dermatologists meeting defined criteria. Limitations included the need for ten Medicare inpatient encounters for inclusion, counties without reported data. In conclusion, the number of dermatologists performing > 10 inpatient encounters per year is decreasing, and large variations exist in the number of U.S. inpatient dermatology visits.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Medicare , Estudos Transversais , Pacientes Internados , Recursos Humanos
5.
S Afr Med J ; 114(3): e1608, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local and international research has identified rural origin as an important reason why healthcare professionals (HCPs) work in rural areas, and in South Africa (SA) considerable effort has gone into recruiting and training rural-origin students. However, there is little information in the SA literature on where graduates supported by these initiatives work, and whether they contribute to the rural workforce long term. OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of years that rural-origin Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF)-supported graduates of different disciplines worked at rural public healthcare facilities (PHCFs). METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study reviewed work record data of 405 UYDF graduates, to calculate the number of years they worked at a rural PHCF. Data were analysed descriptively and presented in tables with totals and percentages. RESULTS: Ninety percent (363/405) of UYDF-supported graduates returned to work at a rural PHCF. High percentages of social workers (85%), optometrists (80%), speech therapists, nurses (72%) and dental therapists (70%) worked for ≥5 years at a rural PHCF, while only 13% of audiologists, 14% of doctors, 29% of pharmacists, and 28% of dentists and occupational therapists worked at a rural PHCF for ≥5 years. Ten percent (42/405) of graduates did not work at a rural PHCF at all. A total of 110/124 (89%) of doctors supported by UYDF had worked at a rural PHCF, with 32% (40/124) working at a rural PHCF for ≥3 years. Overall, 54% of UYDF-supported graduates (219/405) worked for ≥3 years at a rural PHCF, and 38.5% (157/405) worked for ≥5 years at rural PHCFs. The majority of UYDF graduates had contributed towards long-term staffing of rural PHCFs. Lack of professional development opportunities at rural PHCFs as well as the reduced number of funded posts at rural PHCFs reduced the effectiveness of the UYDF initiative. CONCLUSION: The UYDF Scholarship Scheme has shown that investment in rural students through a bonded scholarship can contribute to staffing rural PHCFs, as >90% of graduates worked at rural PHCFs, and for some disciplines >70% of graduates worked for ≥5 years at a rural PHCF. Allied HCPs worked on average for longer periods at rural PHCFs than doctors.


Assuntos
Bolsas de Estudo , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos
6.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 99, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having a sufficient and well-functioning health workforce is crucial for reducing the burden of disease and premature death. Health workforce development, focusing on availability, recruitment, retention, and education, is inseparable from acceptability, motivation, burnout, role and responsibility, and performance. Each aspect of workforce development may face several challenges, requiring specific strategies. However, there was little evidence on barriers and strategies towards comprehensive health workforce development. Therefore, this review explored barriers and strategies for health workforce development at the primary health care level around the world. METHODS: A scoping review of reviews was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews. The article search was performed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE. We used EndNote x9 for managing the collected articles, screening processes, and citation purpose. The scoping review included any kind of review articles on the application of health workforce development concepts, such as availability, recruitment, retention, role and responsibility, education and training, motivation, and burnout, with primary health care and published in English anywhere in the world. Based on the concepts above, barriers and strategies for health workforce development were identified. The findings were synthesized qualitatively based on the building blocks of the health system framework. The analysis involved specific activities such as familiarization, construction of the thematic framework, indexing, charting, and interpretation. The results were presented in texts, tables, and figures. RESULTS: The search strategies yielded 7,276 papers were found. Of which, 69 were included in the scoping review. The most frequently cited barriers were financial challenges and issues related to health care delivery, such as workloads. Barriers affecting healthcare providers directly, including lack of training and ineffective teamwork, were also prominent. Other health system and governance barriers include lack of support, unclear responsibility, and inequity. Another notable barrier was the shortage of health care technology, which pertains to both health care supplies and information technology. The most common cited effective strategies were ongoing support and supervision, engaging with communities, establishing appropriate primary care settings, financial incentives, fostering teamwork, and promoting autonomous health care practice. CONCLUSIONS: Effective leadership/governance, a robust health financing system, integration of health information and technology, such as mobile health and ensuring a consistent supply of adequate resources are also vital components of primary health care workforce development. The findings highlight the importance of continuous professional development, which includes training new cadres, implementing effective recruitment and retention mechanisms, optimising the skill mix, and promoting workplace wellness. These elements are essential in fostering a well-trained and resilient primary health care workforce.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Recursos Humanos , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 30(3): 354-366, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address gaps in understanding the public health nursing workforce regarding competencies recognized as critical during an emergency response. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional observational study using data with information on local health department staff- and organizational-level characteristics collected from across the United States in 2021. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between 2 binary nurse-specific predictors-(1) whether the staff person was a nurse and (2) whether the staff worked in a local health department that was "nurse-led" (directed by a nurse)-and reported proficiencies important to the COVID-19 response. Models controlled for relevant local health department and community characteristics. RESULTS: In the sample, 19% were nurses and 37% were at nurse-led health departments. Nurse versus nonnurse staff had higher odds of reporting proficiencies in skills related to Justice, Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion and in the skill "identifying/applying evidence-based approaches to address public health issues." However, nurses, compared with their nonnurse peers, had higher odds of reporting training needs in domains related to community engagement, policy engagement, and cross-sectoral collaboration. Conversely, staff at nurse-led health departments, compared with non-nurse-led staff, had higher odds of reporting proficiencies in many of these same areas, including "collaborating across the public health system" and "influencing policies external to the organization that affect community health." There were no areas in which nurse-led staff had lower odds of reporting proficiencies or higher odds of identifying training needs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study highlight areas of strength for public health nurses, particularly strengths related to diversity, equity, and inclusion, as well as areas where more training is needed. Such findings can help guide future public health nurse workforce development as well as underscore the value of public health nursing leadership and staff at local health departments for supporting community health.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Transversais , Recursos Humanos , Saúde Pública
8.
Semin Neurol ; 44(2): 105-118, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485125

RESUMO

Neurologic diseases represent a significant global health challenge, leading to disability and mortality worldwide. Healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries are disproportionally affected. In these resource-limited settings, numerous barriers hinder the effective delivery of emergency and inpatient neurologic care, including shortages of trained personnel, limited access to diagnostics and essential medications, inadequate facilities, and absence of rehabilitation services. Disparities in the neurology workforce, limited access to neuroimaging, and availability of acute interventions further exacerbate the problem. This article explores strategies to enhance global capacity for inpatient neurologic care, emphasizing the importance of workforce development, context-specific protocols, telehealth solutions, advocacy efforts, and collaborations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Região de Recursos Limitados , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Atenção à Saúde , Recursos Humanos
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 239, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of pancreatic cancer is rising. With improvements in knowledge for screening and early detection, earlier detection of pancreatic cancer will continue to be more common. To support workforce planning, our aim is to perform a model-based analysis that simulates the potential impact on the healthcare workforce, assuming an earlier diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We developed a simulation model to estimate the demand (i.e. new cases of pancreatic cancer) and supply (i.e. the healthcare workforce including general surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pain medicine physicians, and palliative care physicians) between 2023 and 2027 in Victoria, Australia. The model compares the current scenario to one in which pancreatic cancer is diagnosed at an earlier stage. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in Victoria, five-year survival rates, and Victoria's population size were obtained from Victorian Cancer Registry, Cancer Council NSW, and Australian Bureau of Statistics respectively. The healthcare workforce data were sourced from the Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care's Health Workforce Data. The model was constructed at the remoteness level. We analysed the new cases and the number of healthcare workforce by profession together to assess the impact on the healthcare workforce. RESULTS: In the status quo, over the next five years, there will be 198 to 220 stages I-II, 297 to 330 stage III, and 495 to 550 stage IV pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed annually, respectively. Assuming 20-70% of the shift towards pancreatic cancer's earlier diagnosis (shifting from stage IV to stages I-II pancreatic cancer within one year), the stages I-II cases could increase to 351 to 390 or 598 to 665 per year. The shift to early diagnosis led to substantial survival gains, translating into an additional 284 or 795 out of 5246 patients with pancreatic cancer remaining alive up to year 5 post-diagnosis. Workforce supply decreases significantly by the remoteness levels, and remote areas face a shortage of key medical professionals registered in delivering pancreatic cancer care, suggesting travel necessities by patients or clinicians. CONCLUSION: Improving the early detection and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is expected to bring significant survival benefits, although there are workforce distribution imbalances in Victoria that may affect the ability to achieve the anticipated survival gain.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Médicos , Humanos , Idoso , Vitória/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia
10.
J Clin Anesth ; 94: 111412, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic disparities exist in the delivery of regional anesthesia in the United States. Anesthesiologists have ethical and economic obligations to address existing disparities in regional anesthesia care. OBJECTIVES: Current evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in regional anesthesia utilization in adult patients in the United States is presented. Potential contributors and solutions to racial disparities are also discussed. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Literature search was performed for studies examining racial and ethnic disparities in utilization of regional anesthesia, including neuraxial anesthesia and/or peripheral nerve blocks. FINDINGS: While minoritized patients are generally less likely to receive regional anesthesia than white patients, the pattern of disparities for different racial/ethnic groups and for types of regional anesthetics can be complex and varied. Contributors to racial/ethnic disparities in regional anesthesia span hospital, provider, and patient-level factors. Potential solutions include standardization of regional anesthetic practices via Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways, increasing patient education, health literacy, language translation services, and improving diversity and cultural competency in the anesthesiology workforce. CONCLUSION: Racial and ethnic disparities in regional anesthesia exist. Contributors and solutions to these disparities are multifaceted. Much work remains within the subspecialty of regional anesthesia to identify and address such disparities.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Etnicidade , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Grupos Raciais , Anestesia Local , Recursos Humanos
11.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300010

RESUMO

Using multiple metrics, the diversity of the pediatric population in the United States is increasing. However, recent data suggest significant disparities in both the prevalence and management of child health conditions cared for by pediatric subspecialists. These inequities occur across multiple dimensions of diversity, including race and ethnicity, country of origin, socioeconomic status, sex and gender, and disability. Research also suggests that attending to diversity, equity, and inclusion in the medical workforce may positively affect health outcomes. High-quality pediatric subspecialty care thus requires knowledge of these data, attention to the effects of social drivers, including racism and discrimination, on health and wellbeing, and interventions to improve pediatric health equity through educational, practice, policy, and research innovations. In this article, we review data on the diversity of the pediatric population and pediatric subspecialty workforce, suggest potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of current diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives in academic pediatrics, and provide recommendations across 4 domains: education and training, practice, policy, and future research. The ultimate goal of pediatrics is to improve health equity for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults cared for in the United States by pediatric subspecialists.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Diversidade, Equidade, Inclusão , Adolescente , Lactente , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Criança , Escolaridade , Benchmarking , Recursos Humanos
12.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300015

RESUMO

Pediatric infectious diseases (PID) physicians prevent and treat childhood infections through clinical care, research, public health, education, antimicrobial stewardship, and infection prevention. This article is part of an American Board of Pediatrics Foundation-sponsored supplement investigating the future of the pediatric subspecialty workforce. The article offers context to findings from a modeling analysis estimating the supply of PID subspecialists in the United States between 2020 and 2040. It provides an overview of children cared for by PID subspecialists, reviews the current state of the PID workforce, and discusses the projected headcount and clinical workforce equivalents of PID subspecialists at the national, census region, and census division levels over this 2-decade period. The article concludes by discussing the education and training, clinical practice, policy, and research implications of the data presented. Adjusting for population growth, the PID workforce is projected to grow more slowly than most other pediatric subspecialties and geographic disparities in access to PID care are expected to worsen. In models considering alternative scenarios, decreases in the number of fellows and time spent in clinical care significantly affect the PID workforce. Notably, model assumptions may not adequately account for potential threats to the PID workforce, including a declining number of fellows entering training and the unknown impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and future emerging infections on workforce attrition. Changes to education and training, clinical care, and policy are needed to ensure the PID workforce can meet the future needs of US children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Criança , Pandemias , Escolaridade , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Recursos Humanos
13.
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(2): 117-122, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313146

RESUMO

A persistent challenge with health-worker migration is the inequities it creates. To minimize these inequities, systems of global governance of health-worker migration have arisen which include various global codes of practice, agreements and reporting requirements. Reporting that is rigorous, open and transparent, and subject to scrutiny from the public, researchers, civil society organizations and other interested stakeholders, is important. One element of these codes and agreements with perhaps the greatest potential to deal with the impact of health-worker migration is more robust planning of the health workforce to address the goal of self-sufficiency. Open platforms for data sharing enable engagement of the public and stakeholders with data on the distribution and national origin of health workers, and reveal policy strengths and weaknesses related to health-workforce planning. We explore recent policies directed at reducing the inequities from health-worker migration. While many of the examples used focus on nurses and doctors, the issues discussed are relevant to all cadres of internationally trained health workers.


La migration des professionnels de la santé constitue un problème persistant en raison des inégalités qu'elle engendre. Pour y remédier, des systèmes de gouvernance mondiale axés sur la migration des professionnels de la santé ont vu le jour. Ces systèmes comprennent différents codes de pratique, accords et exigences mondiaux en matière d'établissement de rapports. Il est essentiel que ces rapports soient rigoureux, ouverts et transparents et qu'ils fassent l'objet d'un examen minutieux de la part du public, des chercheurs, des organisations de la société civile et d'autres parties prenantes intéressées. L'un des éléments de ces codes de pratiques et accords qui induit peut-être le plus grand potentiel pour faire face à l'impact de la migration des professionnels de la santé est une planification plus soutenue des professionnels de la santé afin d'atteindre l'objectif d'autosuffisance. Des plateformes ouvertes de partage de données permettent au public et aux parties prenantes d'accéder aux données sur la répartition et l'origine nationale des professionnels de la santé et révèlent les forces et faiblesses des politiques liées à la planification du personnel de santé. Dans cette étude, nous explorons les politiques récentes visant à réduire les inégalités liées à la migration des professionnels de la santé. Bien que de nombreux exemples utilisés se concentrent sur le personnel infirmier et les médecins, les questions abordées concernent également tous les supérieurs des professionnels de la santé formés à l'étranger.


Uno de los desafíos persistentes de la migración de los profesionales sanitarios son las desigualdades que genera. Para minimizar estas desigualdades, han surgido sistemas de gobernanza mundial de la migración de los profesionales sanitarios que incluyen diversos códigos de prácticas, acuerdos y requisitos de presentación de informes a escala mundial. Es importante que los informes sean detallados, abiertos y transparentes, y que estén sujetos al escrutinio del público, los investigadores, las organizaciones de la sociedad civil y otras partes interesadas. Uno de los elementos de estos códigos y acuerdos con mayor potencial para hacer frente al impacto de la migración de los profesionales sanitarios es una planificación más sólida del personal sanitario para alcanzar el objetivo de la autosuficiencia. Las plataformas abiertas para el intercambio de datos permiten la participación del público y las partes interesadas con datos sobre la distribución y el origen nacional de los profesionales sanitarios y revelan las fortalezas y debilidades de las políticas relacionadas con la planificación del personal sanitario. Exploramos las políticas recientes dirigidas a reducir las desigualdades derivadas de la migración de los profesionales sanitarios. Aunque muchos de los ejemplos utilizados se centran en el personal de enfermería y los médicos, los temas tratados son relevantes para todos los tipos de profesionales sanitarios con formación internacional.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , Médicos , Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos , Políticas
14.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300000

RESUMO

The pediatric endocrinology (PE) workforce in the United States is struggling to sustain an adequate, let alone optimal, workforce capacity. This article, one of a series of articles in a supplement to Pediatrics, focuses on the pediatric subspecialty workforce and furthers previous evaluations of the US PE workforce to model the current and future clinical PE workforce and its geographic distribution. The article first discusses the children presenting to PE care teams, reviews the current state of the PE subspecialty workforce, and presents projected headcount and clinical workforce equivalents at the national, census region, and census division level on the basis of a subspecialty workforce supply model through 2040. It concludes by discussing the educational and training, clinical practice, policy, and future workforce research implications of the data presented. Data presented in this article are available from the American Board of Pediatrics, the National Resident Matching Program, and the subspecialty workforce supply model. Aging, part-time appointments, and unbalanced geographic distribution of providers diminish the PE workforce capacity. In addition, limited exposure, financial concerns, and lifestyle perceptions may impact trainees. Additional workforce challenges are the subspecialty's increasingly complex cases and breadth of conditions treated, reliance on international medical graduates to fill fellowship slots, and high relative proportion of research careers. The recent limitations on pediatric endocrinologists providing gender-affirming care may also impact the geographic distribution of the subspecialty's workforce. Deliberate actions need to be taken now to continue serving the needs of children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Pediatras , Humanos , Criança , Envelhecimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Recursos Humanos
15.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300001

RESUMO

Developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP) subspecialists care for children with complex neurodevelopmental and behavioral health conditions; additional roles include education and training, advocacy, and research. In 2023, there were 1.0 DBP subspecialists per 100 000 US children aged 0 to 17 years (range 0.0-3.8), with wide variability in DBP subspecialist distribution. Given the prevalence of DB conditions, the current workforce is markedly inadequate to meet the needs of patients and families. The American Board of Pediatrics Foundation led a modeling project to forecast the US pediatric subspecialty workforce from 2020 to 2040 using current trends in each subspecialty. The model predicts workforce supply at baseline and across alternative scenarios and reports results in headcount (HC) and HC adjusted for percent time spent in clinical care, termed "clinical workforce equivalent." For DBP, the baseline model predicts HC growth nationally (+45%, from 669 to 958), but these extremely low numbers translate to minimal patient care impact. Adjusting for population growth over time, projected HC increases from 0.8 to 1.0 and clinical workforce equivalent from 0.5 to 0.6 DBP subspecialists per 100 000 children aged 0 to 18 years by 2040. Even in the best-case scenario (+12.5% in fellows by 2030 and +7% in time in clinical care), the overall numbers would be minimally affected. These current and forecasted trends should be used to shape much-needed solutions in education, training, practice, policy, and workforce research to increase the DBP workforce and improve overall child health.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Criança , Escolaridade , Recursos Humanos
16.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300004

RESUMO

Pediatric nephrology is dedicated to caring for children with kidney disease, a unique blend of acute care and chronic longitudinal patient relationships. Though historically a small field, trainee interest has declined over the past 2 decades. This has led to growing alarm about the health of the pediatric nephrology workforce, although concerns have been hampered by a lack of available data to enable feasible projections. This article is part of a supplement that anticipates the future pediatric subspecialty workforce supply. It draws on existing literature, data from the American Board of Pediatrics, and findings from a model that estimates the future supply of pediatric subspecialists developed by the Carolina Health Workforce Research Center at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill's Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research and Strategic Modeling Analytics & Planning Ltd. The workforce projections from 2020 to 2040 incorporate population growth, clinical effort, and geographic trends and model alternate scenarios adjusting for changes in trainee interest, clinical efforts, and workforce attrition. The baseline model predicts growth of clinical work equivalents by 26% by 2040, but further widening geographic disparities worsen the existing mismatch between supply, clinical need, and market demand. The worst-case scenario projects 13% growth by 2040 which, at best, maintains the status quo of an already strained workforce. The models do not account for many factors expected to heighten demand over the coming decades. Urgent reforms are necessary now. Proposed solutions require multipronged changes in education and training pathways, remuneration, clinical practice models, and government policy.


Assuntos
Nefrologia , Humanos , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Recursos Humanos , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Escolaridade
17.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300005

RESUMO

Child abuse pediatrics (CAP) subspecialists evaluate, diagnose, and treat children when abuse or neglect is suspected. Despite the high rates of child maltreatment across the United States, CAP remains the smallest pediatric subspecialty. The CAP workforce faces numerous challenges, including few fellows entering the field, decreased financial compensation compared with other fields of medicine, and threats to workforce retention, including secondary trauma and harmful exposure in the media. A microsimulation model that estimates the future of the US CAP workforce over the next 20 years shows that, although the number of child abuse pediatricians in the field is expected to increase, the growth is smaller than that of every other pediatric subspecialty. In addition to the low overall CAP workforce in the United States, other workforce issues include the need to increase CAP subspecialists who are underrepresented in medicine and unequal geographic distribution across the country. To meet the medical needs of suspected victims of maltreatment, especially in CAP-underserved areas, many children are evaluated by providers who are not board-certified in CAP, such as general pediatricians, family medicine physicians, emergency medicine physicians, and advanced practice providers, whose CAP experience and training may vary. Current child abuse pediatricians should continue introducing the field to medical students and residents, especially those who identify as underrepresented in medicine or are from CAP-underserved areas, and offer mentorship, continuing education, and oversight to non-CAP physicians meeting this population's medical needs.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Medicina de Emergência , Humanos , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Recursos Humanos , Pediatras , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico
18.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300003

RESUMO

This article, focused on the current and future pediatric critical care medicine (PCCM) workforce, is part of a supplement in Pediatrics anticipating the future supply of the pediatric subspecialty workforce. It draws on information available in the literature, data from the American Board of Pediatrics, and findings from a model that estimates the future supply of pediatric subspecialists developed by the American Board of Pediatrics Foundation in collaboration with the Carolina Workforce Research Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research and Strategic Modeling and Analysis Ltd. A brief history of the field of PCCM is provided, followed by an in-depth examination of the current PCCM workforce and a subsequent evaluation of workforce forecasts from 2020 to 2040. Under baseline conditions, the PCCM workforce is expected to increase by 105% during the forecasted period, more than any other pediatric subspecialty. Forecasts are modeled under a variety of multifactorial conditions meant to simulate the effects of changes to the supply of PCCM subspecialists, with only modest changes observed. Future PCCM workforce demand is unclear, although some suggest an oversupply may exist and that market forces may correct this. The findings generate important questions regarding the future state of the PCCM workforce and should be used to guide trainees considering a PCCM career, subspecialty leaders responsible for hosting training programs, staffing ICUs, and governing bodies that oversee training program accreditation and subspecialist certification.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Saúde da Criança , Humanos , Criança , Certificação , Recursos Humanos , Cuidados Críticos
19.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300009

RESUMO

Adolescent medicine (AM) subspecialists provide primary, subspecialty, and consultative care to adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Given insufficient numbers of AM subspecialists to care for all AYAs, the workforce supports AYAs health care capacity through education, research, advocacy, and the development of policies and programs sensitive to their unique needs. A modeling project funded by the American Board of Pediatrics Foundation was developed to forecast the pediatric subspecialty workforce in the United States from 2020 to 2040 on the basis of current trends in each subspecialty. The model predicts workforce supply at baseline and across alternative scenarios, and reports results in headcount and headcount adjusted for percentage of time spent in clinical care, termed "clinical workforce equivalent." For the AM subspecialty, several scenarios were considered that modified the number of fellows and/or clinical time. The baseline model predicted low growth nationally (27% and 13% increase in total AM subspecialists and AM subspecialists per 100 000 children, respectively) and declines in AM workforce relative to population growth in census divisions with existing geographic workforce disparities. In the alternative scenarios, fellow number and clinical time changes did not significantly change predictions relative to the baseline model, but a 12.5% decrease in fellows predicted a 40% reduction in the workforce from baseline with a widening of geographic workforce disparities. On the basis of the expansive clinical and nonclinical roles of AM subspecialists and these forecasted workforce challenges, significant educational, practice, and policy changes will be necessary to bolster the supply of well-trained clinicians addressing the dynamic health care needs of AYAs.


Assuntos
Medicina do Adolescente , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Escolaridade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Recursos Humanos
20.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300011

RESUMO

Approximately 30 million ill and injured children annually visit emergency departments (EDs) in the United States. Data suggest that patients seen in pediatric EDs by board-certified pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians receive higher-quality care than those cared for by non-PEM physicians. These benefits, coupled with the continued growth in PEM since its inception in the early 1990s, have impacted child health broadly. This article is part of a Pediatrics supplement focused on predicting the future pediatric subspecialty workforce supply by drawing on the American Board of Pediatrics workforce data and a microsimulation model of the future pediatric subspecialty workforce. The article discusses the utilization of acute care services in EDs, reviews the current state of the PEM subspecialty workforce, and presents projected numbers of PEM subspecialists at the national, census region, and census division on the basis of this pediatric subspecialty workforce supply model through 2040. Implications of this model on education and training, clinical practice, policy, and future workforce research are discussed. Findings suggest that, if the current growth in the field of PEM continues on the basis of the increasing number and size of fellowship programs, even with a potential reduction in percentage of clinical time and attrition of senior physicians, the PEM workforce is anticipated to increase nationally. However, the maldistribution of PEM physicians is likely to be perpetuated with the highest concentration in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and "PEM deserts" in less populated areas.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica , Humanos , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Escolaridade , Certificação , Recursos Humanos
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