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1.
Healthc Q ; 24(3): 18-22, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792443

RESUMO

This article weighs three important moral and ethical considerations for leaders in healthcare: their obligations to society, their privilege as leaders and how value goes beyond a simple cost analysis. Leaders highly motivated by the bottom line have avoided the long overdue action on moral and ethical considerations critical to a more just and fairer society. Leaders are now being tasked to develop strategies for health equity, anti-oppression, anti-racism, social justice, diversity, equity and inclusiveness, community engagement, the social determinants of health and environmental accountability, and to demonstrate that their disruptive work adds more value to society than what can be measured in spreadsheet metrics.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Liderança , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social
2.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 273-278, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666963

RESUMO

This paper distils the key insights from thematic and inter-thematic deliberations of the Global Symposium on Citizenship, Governance and Accountability in Health. It describes the evolution of the symposium theme on linking accountability to citizenship and governance in health while providing an overview of the symposium. The paper further synthesises the key discussions of the core-themes, then lays out analytical reflections that have emerged from the deliberations that touch upon the issues of power and politics surrounding accountability, viz civil society, democracy, power, civic space and the role of private non-state actors that affect health rights of the marginalised.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Política , Responsabilidade Social
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 710743, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604155

RESUMO

This research described Chinese listed firms' COVID-19 Outbreak and financial performance using corporate culture (CC) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) evidence. The epidemic's impact on Chinese companies' profits was much less than the impact on their sales growth rates. Although the COVID-19 has had a more significant negative impact on the financial performance of Chinese listed companies in sectors that are more severely impacted, such as travel and entertainment, we believe that the financial performance of the medical industry has improved as a result of the outbreak. Meanwhile, Chinese listed companies in high-risk areas experience more significant financial losses during the epidemic, and the Hubei impact is hefty weight. Corporate social responsibility moderated the inverse relationship between this epidemic and Chinese firms' economic success. This research enhances the current literature on the effects of the COVID-19 on financial success and practical, realistic, and theoretical consequences in companies worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cultura Organizacional , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Responsabilidade Social
4.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 279-281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666964

RESUMO

This paper describes how the COPASAH Global Symposium treated the Theme of 'Community Action in Governance and Accountability for Health System Strengthening'. We first lay out COPASAH's understanding of Social Accountability in health systems as centre-staging the transformative potential of the power of the communities rather than seeing social accountability as merely a tokenistic participation of the community. Through case studies presented by practitioners from across the globe, the Theme positioned communities and civil society at large as central to the governance and accountability of health systems (both public and private). The important role of contextual analysis in defining the strategies and interventions for demanding accountability was discussed. Participants' experiences of demanding accountability brought out clearly the importance of linkages from the local action to global mobilisation. Further, the discussions reaffirmed COPASAH's principles of Social Accountability in Health that informed COPASAH Charter and Call to Action for Social Accountability for Health.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Responsabilidade Social , Programas Governamentais , Humanos
5.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 286-290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666966

RESUMO

Social accountability is fast being recognised as an important strategy for realisation of sexual and reproductive health rights. However, the predominant approach tends to focus on use of top-down monitoring and accountability tools that do not capture the complexity of politics surrounding this deeply contested terrain. This paper draws on discussions that took place at the COPASAH Global Symposium in October 2019 where grassroots practitioners shared their experiences of seeking accountability and reflected on the myriad challenges in this process. The paper calls for greater nuance and awareness of context in the design and implementation of social accountability interventions, which engage with power and politics between the forces that determine people's access to SRH rights.


Assuntos
Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Responsabilidade Social
6.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 281-285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666965

RESUMO

The thematic track on accountability of the private and corporate healthcare sectors during the COPASAH Global Symposium aimed to analyse the emergence of the global trend of commercialisation of health systems, and the transition of healthcare from being a public good to a marketable commodity, at the cost of publicly funded healthcare in developing countries. It examined the implications of the lack of state regulation and oversight which has enabled the profit driven private healthcare sector to exploit vulnerable people through overcharging, malpractices and violations of patient's rights. Finally, the session addressed challenges in advocacy of patients' rights and showcased effective campaign strategies used by health activists in different countries to promote accountability of the private healthcare sector. Putting together learnings and insights from this track will help in contributing towards a powerful global counter-narrative, while providing activists with the tools to create awareness and engage with this critical issue.


Assuntos
Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Setor Privado , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360089

RESUMO

Indigenous peoples' environments can be easily disrupted by foreign investments, and disputes have occasionally occurred over the past few years. The objective of this research article is to examine if current international investment law, especially its investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, could provide necessary protection to Indigenous rights. We searched all publicly available ISDS cases from 2000 to 2020, and selected 10 typical ones for comprehensive case study by using various research methods such as doctrinal legal research and comparative analysis. Our research revealed that Indigenous peoples' participation in the ISDS proceedings is legally restrained, time-consuming, and rarely favorably decided by the arbitral tribunals. Responsibility for such undesirable outcomes rests with all stakeholders involved in the process, while the consequences of post-arbitration tend to be "triple losing". These findings highlight the quest for a more sustainable international investment regime that promotes Indigenous peoples' wellbeing and environment protection. We argue that future reform could be promoted not only over ISDS procedural matters, but also by upgrading substantive rules in international investment agreements (IIAs), emphasizing free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC), and strengthening foreign investors' corporate social responsibilities (CSR).


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Povos Indígenas , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Grupos Populacionais , Responsabilidade Social
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360311

RESUMO

The rapid economic development has severely damaged the ecological environment and affected public health. Firms are the main source of pollution; thus, corporate environmental responsibility (CER) has attracted great attention from the government, shareholders and the public. This study used both the fixed effects model and the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) model to examine the relationship between environmental pollution, environmental regulations and CER for 30 provinces in China, over the period 2005 to 2015. This study drew the following results: first, mandatory CER disclosure policy can significantly decrease environmental pollution. Second, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and environmental pollution. Third, environmental pollution has a positive impact on CER. Fourth, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and CER. Therefore, it is necessary to find a balance between environmental regulations affecting environmental pollution and CER so that they can effectively reduce environmental pollution and increase the enthusiasm of firms to carry out environmental responsibility activities.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Responsabilidade Social , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Meio Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Políticas
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5241396, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368347

RESUMO

Ageing well has been associated with the responsibility to age actively, successfully, or healthily in public and research discourses. This connection of individual responsibility with ageing has been criticised in Social Gerontology for neglecting the access to social, economic, and health resources. This paper investigates (individual) responsibility, informal support, and public initiatives in discourses on older immigrants in Germany. The research framework employs a sociology of knowledge approach to discourse, which guided the discourse analysis of German policy reports, guidelines and handbooks on ageing and migration from 2000 to 2019 (43 documents in total). The results reveal that besides public initiatives concerning long-term care, health promotion, and social services, informal solutions through social networks are frequently emphasised in the data. The focus, thereby, is on long-term care, which is presented as a responsibility of the extended family. Thus, resources are situated in the family, social networks, and ethnic group, which should be opened and connected with public services; however, the focus is shifting from older immigrants towards local municipalities. This study provides a discourse perspective on the construction of resources and challenges for older immigrants concerning health, care, and social services and offers an assessment of the cultural and integrating/excluding qualities in active ageing discourses.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Assistência de Longa Duração , Responsabilidade Social , Seguridade Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos
15.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 113, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient advocacy organizations (PAOs) have an increasing influence on health policy and biomedical research, therefore, questions about the specific character of their responsibility arise: Can PAOs bear moral responsibility and, if so, to whom are they responsible, for what and on which normative basis? Although the concept of responsibility in healthcare is strongly discussed, PAOs particularly have rarely been systematically analyzed as morally responsible agents. The aim of the current paper is to analyze the character of PAOs' responsibility to provide guidance to themselves and to other stakeholders in healthcare. METHODS: Responsibility is presented as a concept with four reference points: (1) The subject, (2) the object, (3) the addressee and (4) the underlying normative standard. This four-point relationship is applied to PAOs and the dimensions of collectivity and prospectivity are analyzed in each reference point. RESULTS: Understood as collectives, PAOs are, in principle, capable of intentionality and able to act and, thus, fulfill one prerequisite for the attribution of moral responsibility. Given their common mission to represent those affected, PAOs can be seen as responsible for patients' representation and advocacy, primarily towards a certain group but secondarily in a broader social context. Various legal and political statements and the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence and empowerment can be used as a normative basis for attributing responsibility to PAOs. CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of responsibility as a four-point relation incorporating collective and forward-looking dimensions helps one to understand the PAOs' roles and responsibilities better. The analysis, thus, provides a basis for the debate about PAOs' contribution and cooperation in the healthcare sector.


Assuntos
Análise Ética , Defesa do Paciente , Beneficência , Humanos , Organizações , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social
17.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(1): 55-70, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194201

RESUMO

Violence against health care systems is an assault on health and human rights. Despite the evolution of global standards to protect health workers and ensure the delivery of health care in times of conflict, attacks against health systems have continued throughout the world-violating humanitarian law, undermining human rights, and threatening public health. The persistence of such violence against health care, especially in humanitarian crises related to armed conflict, has prompted global institutions to develop systematic monitoring mechanisms in an effort to alleviate these harms, seeking to protect health workers from being harmed for their healing efforts. This article examines the development and implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Surveillance System of Attacks on Healthcare (SSA) as a systematic mechanism to collect and disseminate data concerning attacks on health care systems. Although the SSA provides a foundation for monitoring attacks in conflict zones, this research considers whether the SSA has collected the necessary data, categorized these data appropriately, and disseminated sufficient information to facilitate human rights accountability, analyzing the political, methodological, and institutional challenges faced by WHO. The article concludes that refinements to this monitoring mechanism are needed to strengthen the political prioritization, research methodology, and institutional implementation necessary to ensure accountability for violations of health and human rights.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
18.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(1): 91-103, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194204

RESUMO

The pursuit and acknowledgment of the truth of past atrocities and human rights abuses are critical processes in transitional societies. While truth commissions have become a central part of achieving these goals, there has historically been minimal attention to the role of teachers and students in this work. Critical and thoughtful teaching about the past conflict, however, may help prevent the reoccurrence of atrocities, promote acknowledgment and accountability of the past (which, in turn, fosters psychosocial healing), and support the construction of a peaceful society. In this paper, I detail a research collaboration with Colombia's truth commission to aid its pedagogical efforts to develop effective resources and support Colombian educators' instruction about the truth of past atrocities. I first draw on the literature to demonstrate the potential for education-and, specifically, teachers-to support the goals of truth commissions. Then, I describe the Colombian context and this specific collaboration. Finally, I end by presenting preliminary findings from surveys of teachers across Colombia and detailing future directions.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Justiça Social , Colômbia , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social , Violência
19.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(1): 175-189, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194211

RESUMO

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has been identified as a milestone in human rights protection, offering people with psychosocial disabilities the opportunity to hold their governments accountable for the realization of their rights. To facilitate such accountability, the country reports produced under the CRPD reporting process should adequately reflect these persons' experiences and relevant positive or negative developments in the country. Our study used content analysis to review the extent and quality of reporting related to mental health and psychosocial disabilities in 19 country reports. The criteria used were based on provisions of the CRPD and on priorities identified by a steering committee of people with psychosocial disabilities. We found a wide variation in the quantity and quality of states' reporting, with an indication that this variation relates to countries' economic development. Increasing the participation of representative organizations of people with psychosocial disabilities is needed for state parties to fulfill their reporting obligations. While there has been progress in improving organizations of persons with disabilities capacity to be heard at the global level, our findings suggest low levels of participation in CRPD processes at the national level in many countries. State parties must actively include these groups to ensure implementation of the CRPD principles.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Responsabilidade Social , Nações Unidas
20.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(1): 259-271, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194218

RESUMO

This paper presents a case study of how colonial legacies in Uganda have affected the shape and breadth of community participation in health system governance. Using Habermas's theory of deliberative democracy and the right to health, we examine the key components required for decolonizing health governance in postcolonial countries. We argue that colonization distorts community participation, which is critical for building a strong state and a responsive health system. Participation processes grounded in the principles of democracy and the right to health increase public trust in health governance. The introduction and maintenance of British laws in Uganda, and their influence over local health governance, denies citizens the opportunity to participate in key decisions that affect them, which impacts public trust in the government. Postcolonial societies must tackle how imported legal frameworks exclude and limit community participation. Without meaningful participation, health policy implementation and accountability will remain elusive.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Direitos Humanos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social , Uganda
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