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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1161507, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37122740

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii, a specialized intracellular parasite, causes a widespread zoonotic disease and is a severe threat to social and economic development. There is a lack of effective drugs and vaccines against T. gondii infection. Recently, mRNA vaccines have been rapidly developed, and their packaging materials and technologies are well established. In this study, TGGT1_216200 (TG_200), a novel molecule from T. gondii, was identified using bioinformatic screening analysis. TG_200 was purified and encapsulated with a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) to produce the TG_200 mRNA-LNP vaccine. The immune protection provided by the new vaccine and its mechanisms after immunizing BABL/C mice via intramuscular injection were investigated. There was a strong immune response when mice were vaccinated with TG_200 mRNA-LNP. Elevated levels of anti-T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), and a higher IgG2a-to-IgG1 ratio was observed. The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, and IL-10 were also elevated. The result showed that the vaccine induced a mixture of Th1 and Th2 cells, and Th1-dominated humoral immune response. Significantly increased antigen-specific splenocyte proliferation was induced by TG_200 mRNA-LNP immunization. The vaccine could also induce T. gondii-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The expression levels of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), T-Box 21 (T-bet), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were significantly elevated after TG_200 mRNA-LNP immunization. The levels of CD83, CD86, MHC-I, MHC-II, CD8, and CD4 molecules were also higher. The results indicated that TG_200 mRNA-LNP produced specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Most importantly, TG_200 mRNA-LNP immunized mice survived significantly longer (19.27 ± 3.438 days) than the control mice, which died within eight days after T. gondii challenge (P< 0.001). The protective effect of adoptive transfer was also assessed, and mice receiving serum and splenocytes from mice immunized with TG_200 mRNA-LNP showed improved survival rates of 9.70 ± 1.64 days and, 13.40 ± 2.32 days, respectively (P< 0.001). The results suggested that TG_200 mRNA-LNP is a safe and promising vaccine against T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Vacinas Protozoárias , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(3): e0011198, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36940228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. It is usually asymptomatic, but toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy can cause congenital toxoplasmosis, potentially resulting in fetal damage. Epidemiological information is lacking for toxoplasmosis in Mayotte (a French overseas territory). We evaluated (1) the prevalence of maternal toxoplasmosis, (2) the incidence of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, and (3) the management of congenital toxoplasmosis in Mayotte. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected all the available data for toxoplasmosis serological screening during pregnancy and maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis obtained between January 2017 and August 2019 at the central public laboratory of Mayotte (Mamoudzou). Using toxoplasmosis serological data from samples collected from 16,952 pregnant women we estimated the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Mayotte at 67.19%. Minimum maternal toxoplasmosis incidence was estimated at 0.29% (49/16,952, 95% CI (0.0022-0.0038)), based on confirmed cases of maternal primary infection only. The estimated incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was 0.09% (16/16,952, 95% CI (0.0005-0.0015). Missing data made it difficult to evaluate management, but follow-up was better for mothers with confirmed primary infection and their infants. CONCLUSIONS / SIGNIFICANCE: The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and the incidence of toxoplasmosis are higher in Mayotte than in mainland France. There is a need to improve the antenatal toxoplasmosis screening and prevention programme, providing better information to physicians and the population, to improve management and epidemiological monitoring.


Assuntos
Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Congênita , Toxoplasmose , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Incidência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comores , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(1): 15-24, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new point of care test (POC) was developed that is promising as a tool to enhance impact of prenatal care programs for toxoplasmosis, however, no reports exist about its use or acceptability for healthcare personnel and mothers in Colombia. METHODS: This was a translational research - phase III study of the acceptability of a new POC test (Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM, LDBio) for qualitative diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in 783 pregnant women and 30 health personnel in primary health care sites in the city of Armenia, Quindío (Colombia). Along with collection of the results of diagnostic POC and confirmatory test and demographic information, we evaluated acceptability through measure of the willingness, credibility, and satisfaction by using questionnaires with a Likert scale during routine prenatal care visits. RESULTS: POC positivity was 46.5% among pregnant participants and was significantly related to socioeconomic factors, including education level (p = 0.00000000) and insurance status (p = 0.00000015). A total of 93-97% of healthcare personnel indicated agreement to positive statements regarding total satisfaction and total credibility of the LDBio test, but qualitative questions identified "Difficulty in the test procedure" as the most common response about barriers to apply the test. Greater than 90% of pregnant participants agree that POC test should be routine for all pregnant woman and permanently implemented. CONCLUSIONS: The test had near complete acceptability. In future studies it is necessary to examine the effect of non-differentiation between IgG and IgM isotypes.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Congênita , Toxoplasmose , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Testes Imediatos , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273781, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is one of the world's most common parasites. Primary infection of the mother during pregnancy can lead to transmission to the fetus with risks of brain and eye lesions, which may cause lifelong disabilities. France instituted a national program based on monthly retesting of susceptible pregnant women to reduce the number of severe cases through prompt antenatal and postnatal treatment and follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of the French prenatal retesting program to reduce the lifetime costs of congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: We measured and then compared the costs and benefits of screening vs. not screening using decision-tree modelling. It included direct and indirect costs to society of treatment and care, and the lifetime lost earnings of children and caregivers. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was carried out. FINDINGS: Total lifetime costs per live born child identified as congenitally infected were estimated to be €444 for those identified through prenatal screening vs €656 for those who were not screened. Estimates were robust to changes in all costs of diagnosis, treatment, and sequelae. INTERPRETATION: Screening for the prevention of the congenital T. gondii infection in France is cost saving at €212 per birth. Compared with no screening, screening every pregnant woman in France for toxoplasmosis in 2020 would have saved the country €148 million in addition to reducing or eliminating the devastating physical and emotional suffering caused by T. gondii. Our findings reinforce the conclusions of other decision-analytic modelling of prenatal toxoplasmosis screening.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Congênita , Toxoplasmose , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Modelos Econômicos , França/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010861, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital TORCH (Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), rubella virus (RV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV)) infections are associated with a variety of adverse prenatal and neonatal events, including miscarriage, malformations and developmental abnormalities, and they remain an issue that cannot be neglected in China. However, the current research focuses more on the general screening of TORCH in women of childbearing age, and the medical information of children hospitalized due to congenital and perinatal TORCH infections has not been described in detail. This study summarized and analyzed the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, length of stay (LOS), and the disease burden of hospitalized children diagnosed with congenital TORCH infections in 27 children's hospitals in China. METHODOLOGY: Based on the face sheet of discharge medical records (FSMRs) of hospitalized children in 27 tertiary children's hospitals collected in the Futang Research Center of Pediatric Development and aggregated into FUTang Update medical REcords (FUTURE), we summarized and analyzed the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, LOS, the disease burden (in US dollars, USD) and potential risk factors for hospitalized children diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, congenital rubella syndrome, congenital cytomegalovirus infection, and congenital HSV in 27 children's hospitals in China from 2015 to 2020. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-three patients aged 0-<1 year were hospitalized for congenital TORCH infections. Among infections with TORCH, hospitalization with congenital toxoplasmosis was the least common, with only five cases were reported (2.89%), while the LOS was the highest. The proportion of patients with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) was 15.61%, and 86% of children hospitalized with CRS had cardiovascular malformations, and the economic burden was the highest. Congenital CMV infection cases accounted for the largest proportion (76.30%). Overall, 5.20% of patients were infected with HSV, and the expense of hospitalization for congenital HSV infection was relatively low. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the hospitalization proportion due to congenital TORCH infection was extremely low (17.56 per 100,000 neonates), indicating that China's congenital TORCH infection prevention and control policies remain effective. The lowest proportion of patients was hospitalized with congenital toxoplasmosis, while the LOS was the longest. The economic burden of CRS was heavy, and infants are recommended be vaccinated against RV in a timely manner. Congenital CMV infections accounted for the largest proportion of patients, suggesting that the disease burden of congenital CMV infection cannot be ignored, and the prevention of congenital CMV infection during pregnancy is still an important issue that needs to pay attention. The expense of hospitalization for congenital HSV infection was relatively low, while the disease burden increases significantly when patients develop complications. These data illustrate the importance of improving screening for congenital TORCH infections in the early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Doenças Fetais , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Toxoplasmose Congênita , Toxoplasmose , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/complicações , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Criança Hospitalizada , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
6.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(5): 830-836, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in southern Taiwan and to determine the clinical benefits of screening for the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study included 458 pregnant women who received prenatal care from the first trimester at the Kaohsiung and Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals during the time period from 2014 to 2015. Serological tests performed to detect the presence of Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Amniocentesis was scheduled and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect Toxoplasma DNA. Moreover, the maternal characteristics and risk factors, perinatal outcomes related to the seropositivity for Toxoplasma infection were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the pregnant patients included in the current study, 39/458 (8.5%) were IgG+ and 2/458 (0.6%) were IgM+. The present study analyzed the maternal characteristics and risk factors, perinatal outcome pertaining to the IgG seropositive group by means of the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a female predominance (10.8%), compared to the males (6.4%), (adjusted OR = 0.48 (95%, 0.24-0.98), P = 0.043∗). The number cases with gestational age above 37 weeks at the time of delivery was significantly lower, compared to the cases below 37 weeks (adjusted OR = 0.32 (0.12-0.94), P = 0.038∗). Among one case with low avidity cannot exclude recent infection, the amniocentesis did not show any evidence of vertical transmission. CONCLUSION: The scenario may not warrant general screening and the results will not influence the clinical decisions. Although the present study failed to identify the maternal risk factors related to Toxoplasma infection, the results imply that health education is essential, owing to the slightly higher rate of preterm delivery in the IgG seropositive group.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
7.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(10): 2479-2485, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It has been generally believed that women who exposed to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy and have anti-T. gondii IgG antibody are immunized and their newborns will be protected from congenital infection. This study is aimed to investigate the role of T. gondii infection in spontaneous abortion through serological and molecular methods in southern Iran. STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples were taken from 50 spontaneously aborted mothers and anti-T. gondii antibodies were assessed using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and avidity ELISA methods. The placenta and blood samples of aborted women were used for detection of the parasite's DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the RE gene. The parasite genotypes were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method using SAG3 and GRA6 genes. RESULTS: IgG antibody was detected in 28% (14/50) of mothers, but all samples were negative for IgM antibody. In the avidity ELISA test, 26% (13/50) of the samples had a high avidity index, suggesting chronic infection, while a low avidity index was detected in one case (2%), which suggests acute infection. The parasite's DNA was detected in 18% (9/50) and 14% (7/50) of blood and placenta samples, respectively. All DNA positive samples were IgG positive. All isolates were belonged to the T. gondii type III genotype. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that T. gondii seropositive women are not protected from congenital transmission. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously until further studies will be confirmed these results.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009825, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597323

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis gondii exposure has been linked to increased impulsivity and risky behaviors, which has implications for eating behavior. Impulsivity and risk tolerance is known to be related with worse diets and a higher chance of obesity. There is little known, however, about the independent link between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) exposure and diet-related outcomes. Using linear and quantile regression, we estimated the relationship between T. gondii exposure and BMI, total energy intake (kcal), and diet quality as measured by the Health Eating Index-2015 (HEI) among 9,853 adults from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Previous studies have shown different behavioral responses to T. gondii infection among males and females, and socioeconomic factors are also likely to be important as both T. gondii and poor diet are more prevalent among U.S. populations in poverty. We therefore measured the associations between T. gondii and diet-related outcomes separately for men and women and for respondents in poverty. Among females <200% of the federal poverty level Toxoplasmosis gondii exposure was associated with a higher BMI by 2.0 units (95% CI [0.22, 3.83]) at median BMI and a lower HEI by 5.05 units (95% CI [-7.87, -2.24]) at the 25th percentile of HEI. Stronger associations were found at higher levels of BMI and worse diet quality among females. No associations were found among males. Through a detailed investigation of mechanisms, we were able to rule out T. gondii exposure from cat ownership, differing amounts of meat, and drinking water source as potential confounding factors; environmental exposure to T. gondii as well as changes in human behavior due to parasitic infection remain primary mechanisms.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pobreza , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/economia , Toxoplasmose/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am Fam Physician ; 104(3): 277-287, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523888

RESUMO

Chagas disease, cysticercosis, and toxoplasmosis affect millions of people in the United States and are considered neglected parasitic diseases. Few resources are devoted to their surveillance, prevention, and treatment. Chagas disease, transmitted by kissing bugs, primarily affects people who have lived in Mexico, Central America, and South America, and it can cause heart disease and death if not treated. Chagas disease is diagnosed by detecting the parasite in blood or by serology, depending on the phase of disease. Antiparasitic treatment is indicated for most patients with acute disease. Treatment for chronic disease is recommended for people younger than 18 years and generally recommended for adults younger than 50 years. Treatment decisions should be individualized for all other patients. Cysticercosis can manifest in muscles, the eyes, and most critically in the brain (neurocysticercosis). Neurocysticercosis accounts for 2.1% of all emergency department visits for seizures in the United States. Diagnosing neurocysticercosis involves serology and neuroimaging. Treatment includes symptom control and antiparasitic therapy. Toxoplasmosis is estimated to affect 11% of people older than six years in the United States. It can be acquired by ingesting food or water that has been contaminated by cat feces; it can also be acquired by eating undercooked, contaminated meat. Toxoplasma infection is usually asymptomatic; however, people who are immunosuppressed can develop more severe neurologic symptoms. Congenital infection can result in miscarriage or adverse fetal effects. Diagnosis is made with serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction testing, or parasite detection in tissue or fluid specimens. Treatment is recommended for people who are immunosuppressed, pregnant patients with recently acquired infection, and people who are immunocompetent with visceral disease or severe symptoms.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família/tendências , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Animais , Portador Sadio , Gatos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organização & administração , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./tendências , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/fisiopatologia , Cisticercose/complicações , Cisticercose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1675-1682, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165384

RESUMO

Point-of-care (POC) testing for Toxoplasma infection has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and management of toxoplasmosis, especially in high-risk populations in areas with significant environmental contamination and poor health infrastructure precluding appropriate follow-up and preventing access to medical care. Toxoplasmosis is a significant public health challenge in Morocco, with a relatively heavy burden of infection and, to this point, minimal investment nationally to address this infection. Herein, we analyse the performance of a novel, low-cost rapid test using fingerstick-derived whole blood from 632 women (82 of whom were pregnant) from slums, educational centres, and from nomad groups across different geographical regions (i.e. oceanic, mountainous) of Morocco. The POC test was highly sensitive and specific from all settings. In the first group of 283 women, sera were tested by Platelia ELISA IgG and IgM along with fingerstick whole blood test. Then a matrix study with 349 women was performed in which fingerstick - POC test results and serum obtained by venipuncture contemporaneously were compared. These results show high POC test performance (Sensitivity: 96.4% [IC95 90.6-98.9%]; Specificity: 99.6% [IC95 97.3-99.9%]) and high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection among women living in rural and mountainous areas, and in urban areas with lower educational levels. The high performance of POC test confirms that it can reduce the need for venipuncture and clinical infrastructure in a low-resource setting. It can be used to efficiently perform seroprevalence determinations in large group settings across a range of demographics, and potentially expands healthcare access, thereby preventing human suffering.


Assuntos
Testes Imediatos/normas , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos/economia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/sangue , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(8): e0041621, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077255

RESUMO

To improve serodiagnostic methods for diagnosis of acute from chronic toxoplasmosis, an economical in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring Toxoplasma-specific IgG, IgM, and IgG avidity has been developed and assessed based on use of various Toxoplasma gondii antigens, including SAG1, GRA7, and a combination of SAG1 and GRA7 (SAG1+GRA7), as well as Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLAs). Performances of in-house IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity assays were compared to those of ELISA commercial kits and VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. A set of 138 sera from patients with acquired T. gondii infection and seronegative people were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an area under curve (AUC) of 0.98, 0.97, 0.99, and 0.99 for IgM-TLAs, IgM-SAG1, IgM-GRA7, and IgM-SAG1+GRA7, respectively. Furthermore, AUC was calculated as 0.99, 0.99, 0.98, and 0.99 for IgG-TLAs, IgG-SAG1, IgG-GRA7, and IgG-SAG1+GRA7, respectively. The current study showed that GRA7 included 100% sensitivity for the detection of Toxo IgM, while SAG1 included 89.7% sensitivity. Furthermore, the highest specificity (97.2%) to detect Toxo IgM was achieved using SAG1+GRA7 antigen. For the detection of Toxo IgG, the highest sensitivity (100%) was recorded for SAG1+GRA7, followed by TLAs (97.9%). The SAG1+GRA7 showed the greatest potential for assessing avidity of IgG antibodies, with 97.1% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity compared to those of VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. The preliminary results have promised better discriminations between acute and chronic infections using a combination of SAG1 and GRA7 recombinant antigens compared to those using TLAs.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos de Protozoários , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico
13.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(8): 1000-1006, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082073

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis can be a life-threatening infection, particularly during pregnancy and in immunocompromised patients. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is challenging and has been revolutionized by molecular detection methods. This article summarizes the data of a multicenter study involving four centers to assess the performances of a commercial PCR assay as compared with four in-house PCR assays using Toxoplasma gondii standards, 20 external quality control specimens, and 133 clinical samples. This clinical cohort includes well-characterized clinical samples corresponding to different clinical situations: confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis (44 samples), toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients (25 samples), and chorioretinitis (5 samples). Furthermore, 59 samples from patients without toxoplasmosis were included as negative controls. The analytical sensitivities of the five methods tested were very similar; and the limit of Toxoplasma DNA detection was around 0.01 T. gondii genome per reaction for all the methods. The overall concordance between the commercial PCR and the four in-house PCR assays was 97.7% (130/133). The clinical sensitivity and specificity were >98% and could be increased for the commercial kit when PCR was performed in multiplicate to detect low parasitic loads. In conclusion, the commercial PCR assay shows suitable performances to diagnose the different clinical forms of toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 263, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range, infecting most warm-blooded hosts. Approximately 30% of humanity is infected with T. gondii, but clinical toxoplasmosis is relatively infrequent. Toxoplasmosis has a wide range of clinical symptoms involving almost all organ systems. In most persons that acquire infection postnatally, symptoms (when present) are mild and mimic other diseases such as flu, Lyme disease, Q fever, hematological alterations, or mumps. It is likely that clinical disease is more common than reported. The ingestion of infected meat or food and water contaminated with oocysts are the two main modes of postnatal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. The infective dose and the incubation period of T. gondii infection are unknown because there are no human volunteer experiments. METHODS: Here, I have critically reviewed outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans for the past 55 years, 1966-2020. Information from oocyst-acquired versus meat-acquired infections was assessed separately. RESULTS: Most outbreaks were from Brazil. There were no apparent differences in types or severity of symptoms in meat- versus oocyst-acquired infections. Fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, myalgia, and fatigue were the most important symptoms, and these symptoms were not age-dependent. The incubation period was 7-30 days. A genetic predisposition to cause eye disease is suspected in the parasites responsible for three outbreaks (in Brazil, Canada, and India). Only a few T. gondii tissue cysts might suffice to cause infection, as indicated by outbreaks affecting some (but not all) individuals sharing a meal of infected meat. CONCLUSIONS: Whether the high frequency of outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Brazil is related to environmental contamination, poor hygiene, socioeconomic conditions, or to genotypes of T. gondii needs investigation.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Higiene , Carne/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/economia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12512, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719490

RESUMO

Coronaviruses may exert severely negative effects on the mortality and morbidity of birds and mammals including humans and domestic animals. Most recently CoVID-19 has killed about half million people (27th of June, 2020). Susceptibility to this disease appears to differ markedly across different societies but the factors underlying this variability are not known. Given that prevalence of toxoplasmosis in human societies may serve as a proxy for hygiene, and it also exerts both direct and immune-mediated antiviral effects, we hypothesize a negative covariation between toxoplasmosis and measures of the CoVID-19 pandemic across countries. We obtained aged-adjusted toxoplasmosis prevalence of pregnant women from the literature. Since the differences in the CoVID-19 morbidity and mortality may depend on the different timing of the epidemics in each country, we applied the date of first documented CoVID-19 in each country as a proxy of susceptibility, with a statistical control for population size effects. Using these two indices, we show a highly significant negative co-variation between the two pandemics across 86 countries. Then, considering that the wealth of nations often co-varies with the prevalence of diseases, we introduced GDP per capita into our model. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis co-varies negatively, while the date of first CoVID-19 co-varies positively with GDP per capita across countries. Further, to control for the strong spatial autocorrelation among countries, we carried out a Spatial Structure Analyses of the relationships between the date of first CoVID-19, prevalence of toxoplasmosis, and GDP per capita. Results of this analysis did not confirm a direct causal relationship between toxoplasmosis and susceptibility to the CoVID-19 pandemics. As far as an analysis of observational data let us to suggest, it appears that the interaction between CoVID-19 and toxoplasmosis is mediated by GDP per capita and spatial effects. This prompts the question whether the formerly known covariations of CoVID-19 and BCG vaccination or air pollution might have also emerged as spurious indirect effects.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Toxoplasmose/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/economia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
16.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(3): 106099, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707170

RESUMO

Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) are effective against a variety of apicomplexan parasites. Fifteen BKIs with promising in vitro efficacy against Neospora caninum tachyzoites, low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells, and no toxic effects in non-pregnant BALB/c mice were assessed in pregnant mice. Drugs were emulsified in corn oil and were applied by gavage for 5 days. Five BKIs did not affect pregnancy, five BKIs exhibited ~15-35% neonatal mortality and five compounds caused strong effects (infertility, abortion, stillbirth and pup mortality). Additionally, the impact of these compounds on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo development was assessed by exposing freshly fertilised eggs to 0.2-50 µM of BKIs and microscopic monitoring of embryo development in a blinded manner for 4 days. We propose an algorithm that includes quantification of malformations and embryo deaths, and established a scoring system that allows the calculation of an impact score (Si) indicating at which concentrations BKIs visibly affect zebrafish embryo development. Comparison of the two models showed that for nine compounds no clear correlation between Si and pregnancy outcome was observed. However, the three BKIs affecting zebrafish embryos only at high concentrations (≥40 µM) did not impair mouse pregnancy at all, and the three compounds that inhibited zebrafish embryo development already at 0.2 µM showed detrimental effects in the pregnancy model. Thus, the zebrafish embryo development test has limited predictive value to foresee pregnancy outcome in BKI-treated mice. We conclude that maternal health-related factors such as cardiovascular, pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability properties also contribute to BKI-pregnancy effects.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftalenos/toxicidade , Neospora/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Naftalenos/farmacocinética , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Neospora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
17.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 49(7): 101814, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428782

RESUMO

Prenatal screening to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis as performed in France for several decades has been questioned in view of the decreasing incidence of this infection and the cost of testing. The French College of Obstetrics and Gynecology mandated a multidisciplinary panel of experts to perform a reassessment of the screening program in accordance with international good practice. In France, about 70% of pregnant women are not immune to T. gondii, and 0.2-0.25% become infected during pregnancy. The risk of maternal-fetal transmission of infection is on average 25-29% and depends greatly on the gestational age at seroconversion. In case of fetal transmission, the outcome is livebirth in 95% of cases, with latent congenital toxoplasmosis in 90% of cases and symptomatic forms in 10% of cases, of which 1/3 are severe and 2/3 moderate. Biological techniques have satisfactory performance regarding serologies for the diagnosis of maternal infections and PCR on amniotic fluid for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Primary prevention of toxoplasmosis is based on hygiene measures that are relatively simple, but poorly implemented. In case of maternal seroconversion, there is a strong case for prenatal prophylactic treatment as soon as possible (ideally within 3 weeks of seroconversion), spiramycin before 14 weeks of gestation (WG), and with a tendency to superiority of the pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine association over spiramycin beyond 14 W G, in order to reduce the risk of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis. In case of congenital toxoplasmosis, prompt initiation of treatment reduces the occurrence of cerebral signs and symptoms, as well as retinal lesions. Several medico-economic evaluations of the French toxoplasmosis screening program have been conducted including an individual cost-effectiveness approach with decision analysis which concluded on the profitability of prenatal screening as carried out in France (monthly surveillance of seronegative women, prenatal treatment in case of seroconversion, termination of pregnancy in severe forms). Though most international societies do not recommend systematic screening for mainly financial reasons, if congenital toxoplasmosis appears benign in France today, it is probably thanks to screening and the possibility of early treatment of fetuses and/or newborns. Thus, the panel recommends continuing for now the program in France for prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/parasitologia , Doenças Fetais/terapia , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 314: 108380, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707174

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals and it causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Meat containing viable T. gondii tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection. The relative importance of the different types of meat depends, not only on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in the different livestock species, but also on consumed volumes and preparation habits. To take these factors into account and to estimate the relative contribution of different meat products to human infection, a quantitative risk assessment model for meat-borne T. gondii infection was previously developed. However, at the time, the effect of salting on parasite viability was estimated based on a single experiment. In recent years, data using salting methods that are more in line with processing of meat products have come available. Literature data on the effect of salting on T. gondii viability were collected and used to fit a predictive model. In addition to the new salting model, a lower concentration of bradyzoites in cattle, more specific heating profiles, and more recent consumption data were implemented in the QMRA model for meat-borne T. gondii infection in the Netherlands. Results show that beef remains the most important source, as it contributed 84% of the total number of predicted infections in the Dutch population, followed by pork (12%), mutton (3.7%), lamb (0.2%) pork/beef mixed products (0.1%), and veal (0.01%). The predicted number of T. gondii infections is reasonably in line with epidemiological data. At the product level, filet americain (a raw beef spread) alone contributed 80% of the total predicted infections in the base model, but scenario analyses demonstrate that its contribution is highly dependent on the salting parameters. A clear identification of the most risky meat products is important, as interventions focussing on these products could have a great impact on reducing T. gondii disease burden in the Netherlands. For that reason, it is important that the effects of salting and other processing methods are evaluated in line with industrial processing and incorporated in quantitative risk assessment models for meat-borne toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos da Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Medição de Risco , Carneiro Doméstico , Suínos , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107808, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765613

RESUMO

There is a plethora of meat-borne hazards - including parasites - for which there may be a need for surveillance. However, veterinary services worldwide need to decide how to use their scarce resources and prioritise among the perceived hazards. Moreover, to remain competitive, food business operators - irrespective of whether they are farmers or abattoir operators - are preoccupied with maintaining a profit and minimizing costs. Still, customers and trade partners expect that meat products placed on the market are safe to consume and should not bear any risks of causing disease. Risk-based surveillance systems may offer a solution to this challenge by applying risk analysis principles; first to set priorities, and secondly to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. The latter is done through a focus on the cost-effectiveness ratio in sampling and prioritisation. Risk-based surveillance was originally introduced into veterinary public health in 2006. Since then, experience has been gathered, and the methodology has been further developed. Guidelines and tools have been developed, which can be used to set up appropriate surveillance programmes. In this paper, the basic principles are described, and by use of a surveillance design tool called SURVTOOLS (https://survtools.org/), examples are given covering three meat-borne parasites for which risk-based surveillance is 1) either in place in the European Union (EU) (Trichinella spp.), 2) to be officially implemented in December 2019 (Taenia saginata) or 3) only carried out by one abattoir company in the EU as there is no official EU requirement (Toxoplasma gondii). Moreover, advantages, requirements and limitations of risk-based surveillance for meat-borne parasites are discussed.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Animais , Prioridades em Saúde/classificação , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Gestão de Riscos/tendências , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Teníase/transmissão , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle , Triquinelose/transmissão
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