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1.
Autism Res ; 17(5): 972-988, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597587

RESUMO

There is a need for tools that can provide a brief assessment of functioning for children with neurodevelopmental conditions, including health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). This study evaluated the psychometric properties of three commonly used and well known HR-QoL measures in a cohort of children presenting to clinical developmental assessment services. The most common diagnoses received in these assessment services were autism spectrum disorders. Findings showed good internal consistency for the PedsQL and the CHU-9D, but not the EQ-5D-Y. This research also found that the CHU-9D, EQ-5D-Y, and PedsQL correlated with relevant functioning domains assessed by the VABS-III. Overall, the measures showed that children with neurodevelopmental conditions experienced poor HR-QoL. The majority of children (>86%) met cut-off criteria for significant health concerns on the PedsQL. On the EQ-5D-Y and CHU-9D, they showed reduced HR-QoL particularly on domains relating to school and homework, being able to join in activities, looking after self, and doing usual activities. This study supports the use of the CHU-9D and PedsQL in this population to assess and potentially track HR-QoL in a broad neurodevelopment paediatric population.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 200, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The results of disparate clinical studies indicate abnormally frequent cases of certain microorganisms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, these data require clarification and systematization. The study aims to study the structure of the microbial profile in children with ASD and genetic folate cycle deficiency (GFCD) and consider differences in diagnostic approaches for identifying microorganisms of different types. METHODS: The study analyzed medical data from 240 children (187 boys and 63 girls) with GFCD aged 2 to 9 years. The children had clinical manifestations of ASD (the study group, SG). The control group (CG) included 53 clinically healthy children (37 boys and 16 girls) of the same age but without GFCD. Both groups of children were tested on active herpetic infections (HSV-1/2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8), ТТV, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Borrelia burgdorferi, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Toxoplasma gondii, congenital CMV neuroinfection and postnatal HSV-1/2 encephalitis. The testing used diagnostic methods specified in PubMed-indexed studies. RESULTS: In the SG, TTV was found in 196 children (82%), HHV-7 - in 172 (72%), HHV-6 - in 162 (68%), EBV - in 153 (64%), Streptococcus pyogenes - in 127 (53%), Candida albicans - in 116 (48%), Borrelia - in 107 (45%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae - in 94 (39%), Chlamydia pneumoniae - in 85 (35%), Yersinia entеrocolitica - in 71 (30%), Toxoplasma gondii - in 54 (23%), congenital CMV neuroinfection - in 26 (11%), and postnatal HSV-1/2 encephalitis - in 11 children (5% of cases) (p < p0.05; Z < Z0.05). In the SG, there was a higher microbial load in older children (p < p0.05; Z < Z0.05). No gender differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: The study described and characterized a specific abnormal microbial spectrum with a predominance of viral opportunistic agents in children with ASD associated with GFCD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Encefalite , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Ácido Fólico
3.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 29(2): 145-153, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Caregivers of children with autism face significant challenges in navigating health, education and other systems of care to ensure appropriate services for their children. In South Africa, for example, many children with autism are reported to be out of schools and waiting long periods for specialist school placements thus adding to the burden of care for caregivers and raising many questions about equity, diversity and inclusion. METHODS: Here we performed a qualitative study using focus groups to collect data on the perspectives of caregivers of children with autism waiting for school placement in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. We asked families about their experiences of current autism services and for suggestions to improve service delivery. RESULTS: The main theme that emerged was 'We wait and we wait'. Caregivers expressed high levels of frustration with existing autism educational and other services. Perspectives about services were captured under three categories. The first category, 'The costs of waiting' describes the socioemotional, financial and time costs associated with having a child with autism wait for educational services. The second category 'Barriers while waiting' describes the attitudinal, structural, process and communication barriers experienced by caregivers while seeking services for their children. The final category 'Expecting action' describes attitudinal, service and policy expectations that caregivers felt could improve service delivery. Caregivers provided 10 recommendations for autism service improvements. CONCLUSION: Caregivers of children with autism waiting for educational services in the Western Cape Province of South Africa expressed dissatisfaction with existing services. Efforts to find solutions to providing services and support to children with autism waiting for educational services and their caregivers should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , África do Sul , Grupos Focais
4.
Autism Res ; 17(3): 610-625, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450955

RESUMO

Youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are at heightened risk for co-occurring mental health diagnoses, especially anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, caregiver-child agreement on presence of related symptoms in populations with neurodevelopmental conditions is not well understood. Here, we examine the extent to which 37 ASD, 26 DCD, and 40 typically developing children and their caregivers agree on the degree of the child's symptoms of anxiety and ADHD. All caregiver-child dyads completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and Conners 3 ADHD Index. Across groups, intraclass correlations indicated generally poor agreement on anxiety and ADHD symptomatology. Although youth generally reported greater internalizing symptoms (i.e., anxiety), caregivers tended to report more observable externalizing behaviors (i.e., ADHD). Together, the results of this study support the need for a multi-informant approach in assessments of anxiety and ADHD in youth with neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cuidadores , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia
5.
Comput Biol Med ; 171: 108194, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428095

RESUMO

Clinical assessment procedures encounter challenges in terms of objectivity because they rely on subjective data. Computational psychiatry proposes overcoming this limitation by introducing biosignal-based assessments able to detect clinical biomarkers, while virtual reality (VR) can offer ecological settings for measurement. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder where many biosignals have been tested to improve assessment procedures. However, in ASD research there is a lack of studies systematically comparing biosignals for the automatic classification of ASD when recorded simultaneously in ecological settings, and comparisons among previous studies are challenging due to methodological inconsistencies. In this study, we examined a VR screening tool consisting of four virtual scenes, and we compared machine learning models based on implicit (motor skills and eye movements) and explicit (behavioral responses) biosignals. Machine learning models were developed for each biosignal within the virtual scenes and then combined into a final model per biosignal. A linear support vector classifier with recursive feature elimination was used and tested using nested cross-validation. The final model based on motor skills exhibited the highest robustness in identifying ASD, achieving an AUC of 0.89 (SD = 0.08). The best behavioral model showed an AUC of 0.80, while further research is needed for the eye-movement models due to limitations with the eye-tracking glasses. These findings highlight the potential of motor skills in enhancing objectivity and reliability in the early assessment of ASD compared to other biosignals.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aprendizado de Máquina
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 171, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555309

RESUMO

There is widespread overlap across major psychiatric disorders, and this is the case at different levels of observations, from genetic variants to brain structures and function and to symptoms. However, it remains unknown to what extent these commonalities at different levels of observation map onto each other. Here, we systematically review and compare the degree of similarity between psychiatric disorders at all available levels of observation. We searched PubMed and EMBASE between January 1, 2009 and September 8, 2022. We included original studies comparing at least four of the following five diagnostic groups: Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, with measures of similarities between all disorder pairs. Data extraction and synthesis were performed by two independent researchers, following the PRISMA guidelines. As main outcome measure, we assessed the Pearson correlation measuring the degree of similarity across disorders pairs between studies and biological levels of observation. We identified 2975 studies, of which 28 were eligible for analysis, featuring similarity measures based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms, gene-based analyses, gene expression, structural and functional connectivity neuroimaging measures. The majority of correlations (88.6%) across disorders between studies, within and between levels of observation, were positive. To identify a consensus ranking of similarities between disorders, we performed a principal component analysis. Its first dimension explained 51.4% (95% CI: 43.2, 65.4) of the variance in disorder similarities across studies and levels of observation. Based on levels of genetic correlation, we estimated the probability of another psychiatric diagnosis in first-degree relatives and showed that they were systematically lower than those observed in population studies. Our findings highlight that genetic and brain factors may underlie a large proportion, but not all of the diagnostic overlaps observed in the clinic.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia
7.
Lancet Neurol ; 23(4): 344-381, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disorders affecting the nervous system are diverse and include neurodevelopmental disorders, late-life neurodegeneration, and newly emergent conditions, such as cognitive impairment following COVID-19. Previous publications from the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor Study estimated the burden of 15 neurological conditions in 2015 and 2016, but these analyses did not include neurodevelopmental disorders, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11, or a subset of cases of congenital, neonatal, and infectious conditions that cause neurological damage. Here, we estimate nervous system health loss caused by 37 unique conditions and their associated risk factors globally, regionally, and nationally from 1990 to 2021. METHODS: We estimated mortality, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs), by age and sex in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2021. We included morbidity and deaths due to neurological conditions, for which health loss is directly due to damage to the CNS or peripheral nervous system. We also isolated neurological health loss from conditions for which nervous system morbidity is a consequence, but not the primary feature, including a subset of congenital conditions (ie, chromosomal anomalies and congenital birth defects), neonatal conditions (ie, jaundice, preterm birth, and sepsis), infectious diseases (ie, COVID-19, cystic echinococcosis, malaria, syphilis, and Zika virus disease), and diabetic neuropathy. By conducting a sequela-level analysis of the health outcomes for these conditions, only cases where nervous system damage occurred were included, and YLDs were recalculated to isolate the non-fatal burden directly attributable to nervous system health loss. A comorbidity correction was used to calculate total prevalence of all conditions that affect the nervous system combined. FINDINGS: Globally, the 37 conditions affecting the nervous system were collectively ranked as the leading group cause of DALYs in 2021 (443 million, 95% UI 378-521), affecting 3·40 billion (3·20-3·62) individuals (43·1%, 40·5-45·9 of the global population); global DALY counts attributed to these conditions increased by 18·2% (8·7-26·7) between 1990 and 2021. Age-standardised rates of deaths per 100 000 people attributed to these conditions decreased from 1990 to 2021 by 33·6% (27·6-38·8), and age-standardised rates of DALYs attributed to these conditions decreased by 27·0% (21·5-32·4). Age-standardised prevalence was almost stable, with a change of 1·5% (0·7-2·4). The ten conditions with the highest age-standardised DALYs in 2021 were stroke, neonatal encephalopathy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, diabetic neuropathy, meningitis, epilepsy, neurological complications due to preterm birth, autism spectrum disorder, and nervous system cancer. INTERPRETATION: As the leading cause of overall disease burden in the world, with increasing global DALY counts, effective prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation strategies for disorders affecting the nervous system are needed. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Nascimento Prematuro , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Carga Global da Doença , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Progressão da Doença , Saúde Global , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Expectativa de Vida
8.
Autism ; 28(6): 1431-1440, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360525

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Health disparities are defined as preventable differences in the opportunities to achieve optimal health outcomes experienced by marginalized and underrepresented communities. For families with autistic children, health disparities limit accessing early intervention services-which have been found to improve quality of life and other outcomes. One specific early intervention service in the United States is Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part C Early Intervention programs, which are federally funded interventions for children birth-to-three with developmental delays. This study adds to this topic by examining which factors impact accessing Part C, Early Intervention services for children who were evaluated for autism. Results showed that only half of the sample received these services despite there being concerns about development for all children. In addition, results showed that those who identified as Black had decreased odds of having accessed Part C, Early Intervention compared to those who identified as White. These results suggest that there are disparities when it comes to accessing important early intervention services that may be negatively impacting the Black autistic community.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Masculino , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Estados Unidos , População Branca
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 34(2): 182-196, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no evidence supporting the existence of an association between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and extremism in the general population. However, there is increasing recognition that several features of ASD may provide the context of vulnerability to engage in extremist behaviour. AIMS: This paper sets out the case for a dedicated clinical approach to better integrate clinical risk appraisal processes with an assessment of ASD individuals' vulnerabilities within the Criminal Justice System. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this paper the Framework for the Assessment of Risk & Protection in Offenders on the Autistic Spectrum (FARAS): A Guide for Risk Assessors Working with Offenders on the Autistic Spectrum is explored. In developing the FARAS, Al-Attar proposed seven facets of ASD that 'may have different functional links with push and pull factors to terrorism' (p. 928), which include circumscribed interests; rich vivid fantasy and impaired social imagination; need for order, rules, rituals, routine and predictability; obsessionality, repetition and collecting; social interaction and communication difficulties; cognitive styles and Sensory processing. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We describe the FARAS within the context of the most widely used clinical risk appraisal 'aide memoire' instruments integral to the Structured Professional Judgement of risk process, namely the HCR20v3.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Criminosos/psicologia , Terrorismo/psicologia
10.
JAMA Pediatr ; 178(4): 331-332, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372992

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses concerns about the data quality of the Global Burden of Disease study with respect to incidence estimates of child and adolescent mental health disorders, such as autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Humanos , Carga Global da Doença , Big Data , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Saúde Global , Prevalência
11.
JAMA Pediatr ; 178(4): 384-390, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345807

RESUMO

Importance: Youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are more likely to be placed in foster care than other youth. Examining the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of youth with I/DD in the foster care system is critical for identifying disparities and understanding service needs. Objective: To produce a population-level analysis of youth with I/DD in foster care that examines differences in rates of foster care involvement based on race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved all individuals with I/DD 21 years and younger enrolled in Medicaid through foster care in 2016 via data from Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System (T-MSIS) Analytic Files (TAF) for all 50 US states and Washington, DC. As a key insurer of I/DD services and foster care, Medicaid claims offer a timely population-level analysis. Youth with I/DD were grouped into diagnostic subgroups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) only, intellectual disability only, or ASD and ID. The data analysis took place from July 2022 to September 2023. Exposure: TAF data contain Medicaid enrollment information by month with a binary indicator of foster care involvement, and eligibility files identify race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Main Outcomes and Measures: The period prevalence of foster care involvement was determined among I/DD youth by diagnostic subgroups using an intersectional approach across race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Logistic regression examined associations between risk for foster care involvement and race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Results: A total of 39 143 youth with I/DD had foster care involvement in 2016. Black youth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.28-1.47) and females (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.1-1.27) had increased likelihood for foster care involvement. The likelihood for foster care involvement increased with age in all groups relative to the age group 0 to 5 years old. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that among youth with I/DD, Black youth and females faced higher risk for foster care involvement, and the likelihood of foster care involvement increased with age. There is an urgent need for research that focuses on addressing system-level factors that drive increased risk. Understanding the specific health needs of Black and female youth with I/DD is critical to ensure the formation, implementation, and monitoring of equitable delivery of health services.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Medicaid , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia
12.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 63(2): 197-212, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assessment of autism-related behaviours (ARBs) in children has generally been limited to direct observations in clinical settings or informant-based reports. The widespread availability of video-streaming devices has made home observations of children's ARBs feasible. This approach could enable assessment of the generalization and durability of interventions and may be able to overcome methodological limitations of predominant current assessment approaches (response biases, limited sensitivity to treatment). DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-four autistic children and their families participated in a repeated-measures study with a correlational design. Approximately 10 hr of unprompted behaviour at home were videorecorded over the course of a week (2 hr per day) for each participant. Gold standard measures of ARBs were also administered (ADOS-2 and ADI-R). Two home-based observational measures of ARBs utilizing streaming video were developed and evaluated: the ARCHER and the CHEERS. Trained independent evaluators made ratings on the ARCHER, CHEERS and an observational measure of parental responsiveness. RESULTS: Correlations with the ADOS-2 and ADI-R were .47 and .34 for ARCHER scores and .51 and .48 for CHEERS scores, respectively. In linear mixed models, more responsive parenting was associated with fewer ARBs on a daily basis. Children spent their afternoons engaged in many typical activities including electronics, homework and games with family members, and ARBs were more prominent in some of these contexts (e.g., electronics) than others (e.g., family games). CONCLUSIONS: Home-based observational assessment of ARBs may be useful for clinical and descriptive research.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Gravação em Vídeo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Psicometria/instrumentação , Pré-Escolar , Relações Pais-Filho , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos
13.
Mol Autism ; 15(1): 7, 2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous interventions for irritability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been investigated. We aimed to appraise the magnitude of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for irritability in ASD without any restrictions in terms of eligible interventions. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science until April 15, 2023. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a parallel design that examined the efficacy of interventions for the treatment of irritability in patients of any age with ASD without any restrictions in terms of eligible interventions. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis by pooling effect sizes as Hedges' g. We classified assessed interventions as follows: pharmacological monotherapy, risperidone plus adjuvant therapy versus risperidone monotherapy, non-pharmacological intervention, and dietary intervention. We utilized the Cochrane tool to evaluate the risk of bias in each study and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence for each meta-analyzed intervention. RESULTS: Out of 5640 references, we identified 60 eligible articles with 45 different kinds of interventions, including 3531 participants, of which 80.9% were males (mean age [SD] = 8.79 [3.85]). For pharmacological monotherapy, risperidone (Hedges' g - 0.857, 95% CI - 1.263 to - 0.451, certainty of evidence: high) and aripiprazole (Hedges' g - 0.559, 95% CI - 0.767 to - 0.351, certainty of evidence: high) outperformed placebo. Among the non-pharmacological interventions, parent training (Hedges' g - 0.893, 95% CI - 1.184 to - 0.602, certainty of evidence: moderate) showed a significant result. None of the meta-analyzed interventions yielded significant effects among risperidone + adjuvant therapy and dietary supplementation. However, several novel molecules in augmentation to risperidone outperformed risperidone monotherapy, yet from one RCT each. LIMITATIONS: First, various tools have been utilized to measure the irritability in ASD, which may contribute to the heterogeneity of the outcomes. Second, meta-analyses for each intervention included only a small number of studies and participants. CONCLUSIONS: Only risperidone, aripiprazole among pharmacological interventions, and parent training among non-pharmacological interventions can be recommended for irritability in ASD. As an augmentation to risperidone, several novel treatments show promising effects, but further RCTs are needed to replicate findings. Trial registration PROSPERO, CRD42021243965.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Abordagem GRADE , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Aripiprazol , Risperidona
14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 92: 103877, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The economic burden of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on individuals, their families and society as a whole is poorly understood. Accurate figures are crucial for economic estimates and service planning. METHODS: The total lifetime individual costs and annual societal costs of ASD in China were estimated with a prevalence-based, gross cost of illness approach and data from multiple sources. The direct medical costs in outpatient and inpatient settings from the electronic health records (EHRs) of hospitals, and direct nonmedical costs from a national survey were included. The indirect costs were from both the national survey and the estimation using human capital methods. Age-specific lifetime incremental societal costs were measured. Comorbidity-related and unrelated costs were analyzed separately. RESULTS: The discounted lifetime cost for an individual with ASD in China was $2.65 million (at 2020 prices, $) for those without intellectual disability (ID) and $4.61 million (at 2020 prices, $) for those with ID. The total cost of ASD amounted to $41.8 billion in 2020. Productivity loss were major cost drivers for ASD individuals without ID. Direct nonmedical costs (rehabilitation or adult care costs etc.) were major drivers for ASD individuals with ID. In a lifetime course, the total annual costs for middle aged and elderly (>42 years) were highest, followed by transitional adults (18-29 years) and preschoolers, both for individuals with or without ID. The distribution of costs over the lifespan varied by the cost category. CONCLUSIONS: ASD imposes a substantial economic burden on families and health care systems. Sectors and services coordination should be given policy considerations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Estresse Financeiro , China/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 81(5): 477-488, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265792

RESUMO

Importance: Use of medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during pregnancy is increasing in the US. Whether exposure to these medications in utero impacts the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders with in utero exposure to stimulant medications for ADHD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included health care utilization data from publicly insured (Medicaid data from 2000 to 2018) and commercially insured (MarketScan Commercial Claims Database data from 2003 to 2020) pregnant individuals aged 12 to 55 years in the US with enrollment from 3 months prior to pregnancy through 1 month after delivery, linked to children. Children were monitored from birth until outcome diagnosis, disenrollment, death, or end of the study (December 2018 for Medicaid and December 2020 for MarketScan). Exposures: Dispensing of amphetamine/dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate in the second half of pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and a composite of any neurodevelopmental disorder were defined using validated algorithms. Hazard ratios were estimated comparing amphetamine/dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate to no exposure. Results: The publicly insured cohort included 2 496 771 stimulant-unexposed, 4693 amphetamine/dextroamphetamine-exposed, and 786 methylphenidate-exposed pregnancies with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.0) years. The commercially insured cohort included 1 773 501 stimulant-unexposed, 2372 amphetamine/dextroamphetamine-exposed, and 337 methylphenidate-exposed pregnancies with a mean (SD) age of 31.6 (4.6) years. In unadjusted analyses, amphetamine/dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate exposure were associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of the neurodevelopmental outcomes considered. After adjustment for measured confounders, amphetamine/dextroamphetamine exposure was not associated with any outcome (autism spectrum disorder: hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.56-1.14]; ADHD: HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.89-1.28; any neurodevelopmental disorder: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81-1.28). Methylphenidate exposure was associated with an increased risk of ADHD (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.12-1.82]) but not other outcomes after adjustment (autism spectrum disorder: HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.62-1.81; any neurodevelopmental disorder: HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.36). The association between methylphenidate and ADHD did not persist in sensitivity analyses with stricter control for confounding by maternal ADHD. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings in this study suggest that amphetamine/dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate exposure in utero are not likely to meaningfully increase the risk of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Metilfenidato , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Anfetamina/efeitos adversos , Dextroanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 54(4): 1411-1424, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635433

RESUMO

Autistic adults experience disparities in physical health and health care access. A major barrier to addressing these disparities is a lack of federal funding for research on this topic. In seeking funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), we discovered nodes that contribute to structural discrimination in physical health-related research for autistic adults. To examine this structural discrimination, we systematically searched funded research on all physical health-disparity conditions in autistic adults using NIH RePORTER. Among 61 unique studies, none focused on improving the relevant physical health condition through intervention, programs, or services for autistic adults. Thus, we need updated policies and procedures that support research on physical health disparities in populations with developmental or mental health conditions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 81(2): 209-213, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966844

RESUMO

Importance: Family socioeconomic status has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses. Less is known regarding the role of neighborhood disadvantage in the United States, particularly when children have similar access to health insurance. Objective: To evaluate the association between neighborhood disadvantage and the diagnosis of ASD and potential effect modification by maternal and child demographic characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a retrospective birth cohort from Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), an integrated health care system. Children born in 2001 to 2014 at KPSC were followed up through KPSC membership records. Electronic medical records were used to obtain an ASD diagnosis up to December 31, 2019, or the last follow-up. Data were analyzed from February 2022 to September 2023. Exposure: Socioeconomic disadvantage at the neighborhood level, an index derived from 7 US census tract characteristics using principal component analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical ASD diagnosis based on electronic medical records. Associations between neighborhood disadvantage and ASD diagnosis were determined by hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression models adjusted for birth year, child sex, maternal age at delivery, parity, severe prepregnancy health conditions, maternal race and ethnicity, and maternal education. Effect modification by maternal race and ethnicity, maternal education, and child sex was assessed. Results: Among 318 372 mothers with singleton deliveries during the study period, 6357 children had ASD diagnoses during follow-up; their median age at diagnosis was 3.53 years (IQR, 2.57-5.34 years). Neighborhood disadvantage was associated with a higher likelihood of ASD diagnosis (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11, per IQR = 2.70 increase). Children of mothers from minoritized racial and ethnic groups (African American or Black, Asian or Pacific Islander, Hispanic or Latinx groups) had increased likelihood of ASD diagnosis compared with children of White mothers. There was an interaction between maternal race and ethnicity and neighborhood disadvantage (difference in log-likelihood = 21.88; P < .001 for interaction under χ24); neighborhood disadvantage was only associated with ASD among children of White mothers (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26, per IQR = 2.00 increase). Maternal education and child sex did not significantly modify the neighborhood-ASD association. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, children residing in more disadvantaged neighborhoods at birth had higher likelihood of ASD diagnosis among a population with health insurance. Future research is warranted to investigate the mechanisms behind the neighborhood-related disparities in ASD diagnosis, alongside efforts to provide resources for early intervention and family support in communities with a higher likelihood of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Características da Vizinhança , Seguro Saúde
19.
Autism ; 28(2): 449-460, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37194206

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Autistic adults often encounter different types of healthcare barriers. Because autistic adults also have an increased risk for health problems, the aim of this study was to evaluate barriers and to explore how primary care providers and autistic adults want to improve their primary healthcare. In this co-created study, semi-structured interviews with three autistic adults, two parents of autistic children and six care providers were performed to evaluate barriers in Dutch healthcare. Next, in the survey-study (using the Delphi-method including controlled feedback in three consecutive questionnaires), 21 autistic adults and 20 primary care providers rated the impact of barriers and the usefulness and feasibility of recommendations to improve primary healthcare. In the interviews, 20 barriers in Dutch healthcare for autistic people were found. In the survey-study, the primary care providers rated the negative impact of most barriers lower than the autistic adults. This survey-study resulted in 22 recommendations to improve primary healthcare focused on: primary care providers (including education in collaboration with autistic people), autistic adults (including improvement of preparation for general practitioner-appointments) and organization of general practice (including improvement of continuity in care). In conclusion, primary care providers seem to view healthcare barriers as less impactful than autistic adults. In this co-created study, recommendations to improve primary healthcare for autistic adults were identified, based on the needs of autistic adults and primary care providers. These recommendations provide a basis for primary care providers, autistic adults and their support network to start conversations about, for example, strategies to improve primary care providers' knowledge, autistic adults' preparation for a general practitioner-appointment and organization of primary care.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos
20.
Autism ; 28(3): 780-785, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37272053

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: What is known? In most states, Medicaid waivers provide individuals with an intellectual disability diagnosis generous healthcare coverage throughout adulthood. By comparison, fewer Medicaid programs are available for autistic individuals, and they are more likely to experience disruptions, or gaps, in Medicaid coverage and subsequently not re-enroll.What this paper adds? One in five autistic individuals with Medicaid coverage between ages 8 and 25 accrued a new intellectual disability diagnosis. The probability of a new intellectual disability diagnosis was higher among those who had previous disruptions in Medicaid coverage.Implications for research and policy. Expanding Medicaid to cover autistic people of all ages could decrease the need for intellectual disability diagnosis accrual. Input from autistic individuals and their families regarding their health insurance access and healthcare experiences is critically important to understanding next steps for research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Deficiência Intelectual , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Medicaid , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
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