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1.
JAMA Pediatr ; 178(4): 384-390, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345807

RESUMO

Importance: Youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are more likely to be placed in foster care than other youth. Examining the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of youth with I/DD in the foster care system is critical for identifying disparities and understanding service needs. Objective: To produce a population-level analysis of youth with I/DD in foster care that examines differences in rates of foster care involvement based on race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved all individuals with I/DD 21 years and younger enrolled in Medicaid through foster care in 2016 via data from Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System (T-MSIS) Analytic Files (TAF) for all 50 US states and Washington, DC. As a key insurer of I/DD services and foster care, Medicaid claims offer a timely population-level analysis. Youth with I/DD were grouped into diagnostic subgroups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) only, intellectual disability only, or ASD and ID. The data analysis took place from July 2022 to September 2023. Exposure: TAF data contain Medicaid enrollment information by month with a binary indicator of foster care involvement, and eligibility files identify race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Main Outcomes and Measures: The period prevalence of foster care involvement was determined among I/DD youth by diagnostic subgroups using an intersectional approach across race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Logistic regression examined associations between risk for foster care involvement and race, ethnicity, age, and sex. Results: A total of 39 143 youth with I/DD had foster care involvement in 2016. Black youth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.28-1.47) and females (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.1-1.27) had increased likelihood for foster care involvement. The likelihood for foster care involvement increased with age in all groups relative to the age group 0 to 5 years old. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that among youth with I/DD, Black youth and females faced higher risk for foster care involvement, and the likelihood of foster care involvement increased with age. There is an urgent need for research that focuses on addressing system-level factors that drive increased risk. Understanding the specific health needs of Black and female youth with I/DD is critical to ensure the formation, implementation, and monitoring of equitable delivery of health services.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Medicaid , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia
2.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 92: 103877, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The economic burden of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on individuals, their families and society as a whole is poorly understood. Accurate figures are crucial for economic estimates and service planning. METHODS: The total lifetime individual costs and annual societal costs of ASD in China were estimated with a prevalence-based, gross cost of illness approach and data from multiple sources. The direct medical costs in outpatient and inpatient settings from the electronic health records (EHRs) of hospitals, and direct nonmedical costs from a national survey were included. The indirect costs were from both the national survey and the estimation using human capital methods. Age-specific lifetime incremental societal costs were measured. Comorbidity-related and unrelated costs were analyzed separately. RESULTS: The discounted lifetime cost for an individual with ASD in China was $2.65 million (at 2020 prices, $) for those without intellectual disability (ID) and $4.61 million (at 2020 prices, $) for those with ID. The total cost of ASD amounted to $41.8 billion in 2020. Productivity loss were major cost drivers for ASD individuals without ID. Direct nonmedical costs (rehabilitation or adult care costs etc.) were major drivers for ASD individuals with ID. In a lifetime course, the total annual costs for middle aged and elderly (>42 years) were highest, followed by transitional adults (18-29 years) and preschoolers, both for individuals with or without ID. The distribution of costs over the lifespan varied by the cost category. CONCLUSIONS: ASD imposes a substantial economic burden on families and health care systems. Sectors and services coordination should be given policy considerations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Estresse Financeiro , China/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 81(2): 209-213, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966844

RESUMO

Importance: Family socioeconomic status has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses. Less is known regarding the role of neighborhood disadvantage in the United States, particularly when children have similar access to health insurance. Objective: To evaluate the association between neighborhood disadvantage and the diagnosis of ASD and potential effect modification by maternal and child demographic characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a retrospective birth cohort from Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), an integrated health care system. Children born in 2001 to 2014 at KPSC were followed up through KPSC membership records. Electronic medical records were used to obtain an ASD diagnosis up to December 31, 2019, or the last follow-up. Data were analyzed from February 2022 to September 2023. Exposure: Socioeconomic disadvantage at the neighborhood level, an index derived from 7 US census tract characteristics using principal component analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical ASD diagnosis based on electronic medical records. Associations between neighborhood disadvantage and ASD diagnosis were determined by hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression models adjusted for birth year, child sex, maternal age at delivery, parity, severe prepregnancy health conditions, maternal race and ethnicity, and maternal education. Effect modification by maternal race and ethnicity, maternal education, and child sex was assessed. Results: Among 318 372 mothers with singleton deliveries during the study period, 6357 children had ASD diagnoses during follow-up; their median age at diagnosis was 3.53 years (IQR, 2.57-5.34 years). Neighborhood disadvantage was associated with a higher likelihood of ASD diagnosis (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11, per IQR = 2.70 increase). Children of mothers from minoritized racial and ethnic groups (African American or Black, Asian or Pacific Islander, Hispanic or Latinx groups) had increased likelihood of ASD diagnosis compared with children of White mothers. There was an interaction between maternal race and ethnicity and neighborhood disadvantage (difference in log-likelihood = 21.88; P < .001 for interaction under χ24); neighborhood disadvantage was only associated with ASD among children of White mothers (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26, per IQR = 2.00 increase). Maternal education and child sex did not significantly modify the neighborhood-ASD association. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, children residing in more disadvantaged neighborhoods at birth had higher likelihood of ASD diagnosis among a population with health insurance. Future research is warranted to investigate the mechanisms behind the neighborhood-related disparities in ASD diagnosis, alongside efforts to provide resources for early intervention and family support in communities with a higher likelihood of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Características da Vizinhança , Seguro Saúde
4.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 52(4): 645-658, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37682456

RESUMO

Between 1 to 2 of every 1,000 children are born deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and, of those, 30-50% have additional disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most measures assessing ASD characteristics rely on some degree of behavioral response to sound (e.g., responding to name, listening response), and may not be appropriate for use with children who are DHH. Further, ASD specific measures do not provide information on a child's functional abilities across developmental domains. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis comparing mean T-scores on a standardized multidimensional measure, the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Third Edition, Parent Rating Scale (BASC-3 PRS), across three groups matched for age and sex: children who are DHH and diagnosed with ASD (DHH + ASD; n = 16); children who are DHH without ASD (DHH-ASD; n = 16); and children who are typically hearing with ASD (H + ASD; n = 16). Analyses revealed statistically significant differences across scales of Attention Problems, Atypicality, Withdrawal, Behavioral Symptoms Index, Social Skills, Leadership, Functional Communication, Activities of Daily Living, Adaptive Skills, Autism Probability Indices, and Developmental Social Disorders. Pairwise comparisons showed DHH + ASD and H + ASD mean T-scores were statistically similar and distinct from DHH-ASD mean T-scores on all these scales except for Withdrawal, Leadership, Functional Communication, and Activities of Daily Living, where pairwise comparisons varied. The findings add to the literature on ASD and DHH children and call for further exploration of the BASC-3 as a tool for both evaluation of ASD and the development of individualized treatment plans in this unique population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Perda Auditiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Transversais , Pais
5.
Acad Pediatr ; 24(2): 258-266, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper examines the distribution, parameters, and determinants of safety net program use among a nationally representative sample of low-income children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We used data from the 2021 National Survey of Children's Health to produce population estimates of material hardship and safety net program use among 554 low-income households of children with ASD, ages 3 to 17 years, relative to 2831 children with other special health care needs (SHCN) and 8758 children with no SHCN of the same age. Design-adjusted multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of cash assistance, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, and disconnection from both. RESULTS: There were few significant differences in material hardship between children with ASD and those with other SHCN, although children with ASD experienced significantly higher levels of hardships compared to children with no SHCN. Having a child with ASD did not significantly increase the odds of safety net use. Health insurance and household income were stronger predictors of use than disability. Nine percent of disconnected children lived in households under 100% federal poverty level and experienced some type of material hardship. CONCLUSIONS: Future research about the economic security of children with ASD and their families could focus on the following 3 areas of inquiry: assess how race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic position interact with disability to influence safety net program use; examine the intersection between Medicaid and safety net programs at the state and national levels; and identify specific subgroups of children at risk for disconnection and understand why they are not accessing benefits.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Seguro Saúde , Medicaid
6.
Pediatrics ; 152(6)2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37909059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Youth with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or gender dysphoria (GD) alone have also been shown to be at greater risk for mental health (MH) concerns; however, very little research has considered how cooccurring ASD and GD may exacerbate MH concerns. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between ASD, GD, and MH diagnoses (anxiety, depression, eating disorder, suicidality, and self-harm) among US adolescent populations. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a large administrative dataset formed by 8 pediatric health system members of the PEDSnet learning health system network. Analyses included descriptive statistics and adjusted mixed logistic regression models testing for associations between combinations of ASD and GD diagnoses and MH diagnoses as recorded in the patient's electronic medical record. RESULTS: Based on data from 919 898 patients aged 9 to 18 years, adjusted mixed logistic regression indicated significantly greater odds of each MH diagnosis among those with ASD alone, GD alone, and cooccurring ASD/GD diagnoses compared with those with neither diagnosis. Youth with cooccurring ASD/GD were at significantly greater risk of also having anxiety (average predicted probability, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.81) or depression diagnoses (average predicted probability, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.43) compared with youth with ASD alone, GD alone, or neither diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Youth with cooccurring ASD/GD are more likely to also be diagnosed with MH concerns, particularly anxiety and depression. This study highlights the need to implement developmentally appropriate, gender-affirming MH services and interventions for youth with cooccurring ASD/GD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Disforia de Gênero , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Disforia de Gênero/complicações , Disforia de Gênero/epidemiologia , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade
7.
Autism Res ; 16(12): 2240-2246, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872874

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social communication challenges and restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests, but also by highly heterogeneous language skills. The recent International Society of Autism Research (INSAR) policy statement, Autism and the Criminal Justice System: Policy opportunities and challenges (INSAR, 2022), aims to prevent, reduce, and improve interactions between autistic individuals and the criminal justice system. This policy statement provides a foundation for considering how to include language in these important aims. In this commentary, we outline the centrality of language skills to these interactions and provide specific recommendations that can inform future research and provide guidance for autistic individuals, community partners, and individuals working within the criminal justice system. Considering language as a part of justice system policy for autistic individuals will result in greater equity and inclusion, particularly for autistic individuals with co-occurring language deficits and those who are linguistically diverse. Moreover, it will allow autistic individuals to combat other barriers to effectively navigating interactions with the criminal justice system, such as those related to the core features of autism. We advocate for a greater role for service providers who can assess challenges in language skills, and identify the specific accommodations each autistic individual will need to prevent, reduce, and improve interactions with the criminal justice system.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Direito Penal , Comunicação , Idioma
8.
Brain Behav ; 13(7): e3067, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37350023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) encompass a range of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the patient's communication and behavior. There are some reports about the increasing prevalence of ASD in recent decades, mostly due to the improvement in diagnosis and screening status. Few studies suggested a lower prevalence of ASD in North Africa and Middle East compared to more developed regions. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive outlook of ASD in the region. METHODS: We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data from 1990 to 2019 in North Africa and Middle East, which is one of the seven super regions of the GBD categorization. In this study, we reported the epidemiologic indices, including prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for ASD in the 21 countries of the super region. We also compared these indices between the countries based on their sociodemographic index (SDI) which was calculated according to income per capita, mean education, and fertility rate. RESULTS: Age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR) of ASD in the region is 304.4 (95% uncertainty interval 251.2-366.1) per 100,000 in 2019 with less than one percentage change since 1990. Age-standardized YLDs and incidence rates were 46.4 (30.4-67.5) and 7.7 (6.3-9.3) per 100,000 in 2019. The ASPR was 2.9 times greater in males compared to females in 2019. The highest age-standardized prevalence, incidence, and YLD rates among the countries were seen in Iran in 2019 (370.3, 9.3, and 56.4 per 100,000, respectively). High SDI countries had higher age-standardized YLDs rates compared to the other countries of the region. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the trends of age-standardized epidemiologic indices remained approximately steady through the years 1990-2019 in the region. Though, there was a wide discrepancy between the countries of the region. The difference of YLDs among the countries of this region is related to the SDI of the countries. Monetary and public awareness status are the SDI factors that may affect the quality of life of ASD patients in the region. This study provides valuable information for governments and health systems to implement policies for maintaining the improving trend, achieving more timely diagnosis, and bettering the supportive actions in this region.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Carga Global da Doença , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Prevalência , Incidência , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia
9.
Autism ; 27(7): 2145-2157, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36799305

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Children are at risk of varying severity of illness and even death from COVID-19. We aim to determine whether autistic children or children with mental health conditions have more underlying health conditions that put people at risk of severe illness from COVID-19. We use data from a national sample of Medicaid-enrolled children for the years 2008-2016. These data include children across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. We compare the prevalence of underlying conditions among autistic children and children with mental health condition to that of other children in Medicaid. This study included 888,487 autistic children, 423,397 with any mental health condition (but not autism), and 932,625 children without any of these diagnoses. We found 29.5% of autistic children and 25.2% of children with mental health conditions had an underlying condition with high risk for severe illness from COVID, compared to 14.1% of children without these diagnoses. Autistic children had over twice the odds of having any underlying conditions, when accounting for age, race, sex, and other characteristics. Children with mental health conditions had 70% higher odds of having these underlying conditions. Mitigation measures in schools and other areas could minimize risk of short- and long-term impacts from COVID for autistic and all children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , COVID-19 , Humanos , Criança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medicaid , Saúde Mental , COVID-19/epidemiologia
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 53(3): 918-933, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36757541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of current study was to evaluate change in hours of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy utilization for autistic children during the year prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the first three months of the pandemic (crisis phase), and the following 9 months of the pandemic (mitigation phase). Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate if change in therapy utilization differed based on child race, ethnicity, and primary payer of services. Finally, we aimed to identify potential mechanisms of ABA therapy disruption by interpreting findings using an extended version of Donabedian's structure-process-outcome model. METHODS: Retrospective clinical data on client demographics and therapy utilization (n = 283) were collected from ABA clinics in California and analyzed with four piecewise growth multi-level models. RESULTS: We found that therapy utilization dropped during the first three months of the pandemic (-10.65 h/month; p < .001) and increased during the following 9 months (2.39 h/month; p < .001). Moderator analyses revelated that Asian, Non-Latinx and school-district funded children had significantly different trajectories of change in therapy utilization compared to white, non-Latinx participants and private insurance funded participants, respectively. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that utilization of ABA therapy was disrupted for a full year following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and that child race/ethnicity and primary payer influenced the degree to which autistic children were impacted by service disruption. These findings have implications for autistic children who lost therapy access during key developmental periods and for the ABA care delivery system.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , COVID-19 , Humanos , Criança , Pandemias , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Autism ; 27(5): 1362-1376, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527227

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has traditionally been made through in-person evaluation. While the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted access to ASD services, there has been remarkable growth in research focused on novel ASD diagnostic practices, including the use of telemedicine. We implemented a standard ASD tele-assessment evaluation procedure, including use of a novel remote clinician-coached, caregiver-delivered ASD assessment tool (TELE-ASD-PEDS; TAP), with the goal of continuing to provide diagnostic services to young children and their families during the pandemic. We examined the relationship between child characteristics and diagnostic outcome for 335 children, ages 14-78 months, who received ASD tele-assessment conducted by psychologists and pediatricians in an outpatient clinic of a Midwestern academic medical center. We found that clinicians could make a determination about ASD diagnosis for most children (85%) evaluated using tele-assessment. Child clinical characteristics, including TAP scores and clinician ratings of ASD symptoms, were related to diagnostic outcome (i.e. diagnosis of ASD, no ASD, and Unsure about ASD). When all clinical characteristics were examined together, the presence of specific repetitive behaviors predicted ASD diagnosis. We also found that the TAP is effective for making an ASD diagnosis when used as part of comprehensive tele-assessment evaluation in children ⩾ 36 months of age with delayed language. Our study adds to an increasing body of research supporting use of tele-assessment for diagnosis of ASD. Although further research is needed, telemedicine may help families from different backgrounds and geographic locations to access high-quality diagnostic services.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , COVID-19 , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Cognição , Cuidadores , Teste para COVID-19
12.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 145: 105021, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581169

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a great interest in utilizing technology in mental health research. The rapid technological development has encouraged researchers to apply technology as a part of a diagnostic process or treatment of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs). With the large number of studies being published comes an urgent need to inform clinicians and researchers about the latest advances in this field. Here, we methodically explore and summarize findings from studies published between August 2019 and February 2022. A search strategy led to the identification of 4108 records from PubMed and APA PsycInfo databases. 221 quantitative studies were included, covering a wide range of technologies used for diagnosis and/or treatment of NDDs, with the biggest focus on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The most popular technologies included machine learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurofeedback. The results of the review indicate that technology-based diagnosis and intervention for NDD population is promising. However, given a high risk of bias of many studies, more high-quality research is needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Saúde Mental
13.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 79: 103359, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462389

RESUMO

AIM: To estimate the trend in burden of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Annual incident cases, incidence rates, prevalent cases, prevalence rates, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and DALY rates of ASD among children under 5 years from 1990 to 2019 were collected from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019. The percentage of relative changes in cases and the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) of rates were calculated to reflect the temporal trends of ASD burden. Pearson correlation analysis was used to explore the influential factors for EAPC. RESULTS: Globally, the incidence rate, prevalence rate, and DALY rate of ASD among children under 5 years were 91.09 per 100,000, 439.39 per 100,000, and 68.67 per 100,000 in 2019, respectively. From 1990-2019, the incidence rate decreased (EAPC = -0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.12 to -0.06), whereas the prevalence rate (EAPC=0.08, 95%CI 0.06-0.09) and DALY rate (EAPC=0.08, 95%CI 0.07-0.10) increased. The largest increases in prevalent cases (80.26%) and DALYs (81.24%) were found in low SDI regions, while High-income North America experienced the fastest increase in incidence rate, prevalence rate, and DALY rate. Moreover, the burden of ASD among male children under 5 years was approximately three times that among female children, despite the slight narrowing of gender disparity. The EAPC of incidence rate was positively correlated with SDI and UHCI in 2019 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ASD is a noticeable child neurodevelopmental syndrome. More attention should be given to early screening, diagnosis, and intervention, particularly in resource-limited areas.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Incidência
14.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 21, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432146

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the factors associated with the early diagnosis of autism and other types of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children treated at the Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents of the Unified Health System, from 2013 to 2019,in Brazil. METHODS An exploratory cross-sectional study, based on data from the Record of Outpatient Health Actions (RAAS) of the first appointment of children aged 1 to 12 years. The gross (RRg) and adjusted (RRa) relative risks and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using the Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation. RESULTS Of the 22,483 children included in the study, the majority were male (81.9%), lived in the same municipality where they were diagnosed (96.8%) and in the Southeast region (57.7%). Early diagnosis was higher for childhood autism (RRg = 1.48; 95%CI 1.27-1.71) , PDD without subtype designation (RRg = 1.55; 95%CI 1.34-1.80), other PDD (RRg = 1.48; 95%CI 1.21-1.81) and PDD not otherwise specified (RRg = 1.44; 95%CI 1.22-1.69) than for atypical autism. Children residing in the same municipality where the diagnosis was made had a higher rate of early diagnosis (RRg = 1.31; 95%CI 1.10-1.55) than the others; as well as those referred by primary care (RRg = 1.51; 95%CI 1.37-1.68) and by spontaneous demand (RRg = 1.45; 95%CI 1.31-1.61) than those from other types of referral. Early diagnosis was higher from 2014 and lower in the North region than in the other regions. In the multiple analysis, the magnitude of RRa was similar to that of RRg. CONCLUSIONS Early identification of autism and other PDD has improved in Brazil, but it still represents about 30% of the diagnoses made. The variables included in the model were significant, but still explain little of the early diagnosis of children with autism and other PDD.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar os fatores associados ao diagnóstico precoce do autismo e de outros tipos de transtorno global do desenvolvimento (TGD) de crianças atendidas no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantojuvenil do Sistema Único de Saúde, no período de 2013 a 2019, no Brasil. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal exploratório, com base nos dados do Registro das Ações Ambulatoriais de Saúde (RAAS) do primeiro atendimento de crianças de 1 a 12 anos. Foram estimados o risco relativo bruto (RRb) e ajustado (RRa), e respectivo intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%), utilizando o modelo de regressão de Poisson com estimativa de variância robusta. RESULTADOS Das 22.483 crianças incluídas no estudo, a maioria era do sexo masculino (81,9%), residia no mesmo município em que foi diagnosticada (96,8%) e na região Sudeste (57,7%). O diagnóstico precoce foi maior para autismo infantil (RRb= 1,48; IC95% 1,27-1,71), TGD sem designação de subtipo (RRb= 1,55; IC95% 1,34-1,80), outros TGD (RRb= 1,48; IC95% 1,21-1,81) e TGD não especificado (RRb= 1,44; IC95% 1,22-1,69) do que para autismo atípico. As crianças que residiam no mesmo município onde foi realizado o diagnóstico tiveram maior índice de diagnóstico precoce (RRb= 1,31; IC95% 1,10-1,55) do que as demais; bem como aquelas encaminhadas pela atenção básica (RRb= 1,51; IC95% 1,37-1,68) e por demanda espontânea (RRb= 1,45; IC95% 1,31-1,61) do que as oriundas de outros tipos de encaminhamento. O diagnóstico precoce foi maior a partir de 2014 e menor na região Norte quando comparada às demais. Na análise múltipla, a magnitude do RRafoi similar ao do RRb. CONCLUSÕES A identificação precoce de autismo e outros TGD tem melhorado no país, mas ainda representa cerca de 30% dos diagnósticos realizados. As variáveis incluídas no modelo foram significativas, mas ainda explicam pouco do diagnóstico precoce de crianças com autismo e outros TGD.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Sistema Único de Saúde , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Diagnóstico Precoce , Epidemiologia Analítica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial
15.
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515367

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a higher risk of inactivity, and efforts to promote physical activity among this population have been limited. Physical activity on prescription (PAP) may be a suitable tool for motivating participation in physical activity among children with these diagnoses. However, PAP calls for synergy and partnership between health care and other sectors of the community. The aim of this study was to describe a health promotion partnership for physical activity targeting children with ASD or ADHD. Data were obtained through individual interviews with professionals at CAP (n = 11) and three focus-group interviews with coaches from local sports clubs. We used the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning as the theoretical framework and used qualitative content analysis as the method of analysis to study partnerships between professionals from the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry outpatient clinic (CAP) and coaches from local sport clubs. The findings demonstrate that the partnerships included both positive and negative processes. Although the two partners shared values regarding the project, such as working for a good cause for the children and seeing the potential in the collaboration, there were doubts about sharing common resources and uncertainties about the sustainability of the PAP project. Challenges remain and further research is needed into developing, monitoring and evaluating health promotion partnerships when promoting physical activity for all.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Suécia , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde
16.
Metallomics ; 14(12)2022 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is on the rise, and high levels of exposure to toxic heavy metals may be associated with this increase. Urine analysis is a noninvasive method for investigating the accumulation and excretion of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to identify ASD-associated urinary metal markers. METHODS: Overall, 70 children with ASD and 71 children with typical development (TD) were enrolled in this retrospective case-control study. In this metallomics investigation, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was performed to obtain the urine profile of 27 metals. RESULTS: Children with ASD could be distinguished from children with TD based on the urine metal profile, with ASD children showing an increased urine metal Shannon diversity. A metallome-wide association analysis was used to identify seven ASD-related metals in urine, with cobalt, aluminum, selenium, and lithium significantly higher, and manganese, mercury, and titanium significantly lower in the urine of children with ASD than in children with TD. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) machine learning method was used to rank the seven urine metals in terms of their effect on ASD. On the basis of these seven urine metals, we constructed a LASSO regression model for ASD classification and found an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.913. We also constructed a clinical prediction model for ASD based on the seven metals that were different in the urine of children with ASD and found that the model would be useful for the clinical prediction of ASD risk. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that altered urine metal concentrations may be an important risk factor for ASD, and we recommend further exploration of the mechanisms and clinical treatment measures for such alterations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Metais Pesados , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Modelos Estatísticos , Prognóstico , Espectrometria de Massas
17.
Int J Health Geogr ; 21(1): 13, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgenerational epigenetic risks associated with complex health outcomes, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have attracted increasing attention. Transgenerational environmental risk exposures with potential for epigenetic effects can be effectively identified using space-time clustering. Specifically applied to ancestors of individuals with disease outcomes, space-time clustering characterized for vulnerable developmental stages of growth can provide a measure of relative risk for disease outcomes in descendants. OBJECTIVES: (1) Identify space-time clusters of ancestors with a descendent with a clinical ASD diagnosis and matched controls. (2) Identify developmental windows of ancestors with the highest relative risk for ASD in descendants. (3) Identify how the relative risk may vary through the maternal or paternal line. METHODS: Family pedigrees linked to residential locations of ASD cases in Utah have been used to identify space-time clusters of ancestors. Control family pedigrees of none-cases based on age and sex have been matched to cases 2:1. The data have been categorized by maternal or paternal lineage at birth, childhood, and adolescence. A total of 3957 children, both parents, and maternal and paternal grandparents were identified. Bernoulli space-time binomial relative risk (RR) scan statistic was used to identify clusters. Monte Carlo simulation was used for statistical significance testing. RESULTS: Twenty statistically significant clusters were identified. Thirteen increased RR (> 1.0) space-time clusters were identified from the maternal and paternal lines at a p-value < 0.05. The paternal grandparents carry the greatest RR (2.86-2.96) during birth and childhood in the 1950's-1960, which represent the smallest size clusters, and occur in urban areas. Additionally, seven statistically significant clusters with RR < 1 were relatively large in area, covering more rural areas of the state. CONCLUSION: This study has identified statistically significant space-time clusters during critical developmental windows that are associated with ASD risk in descendants. The geographic space and time clusters family pedigrees with over 3 + generations, which we refer to as a person's geographic legacy, is a powerful tool for studying transgenerational effects that may be epigenetic in nature. Our novel use of space-time clustering can be applied to any disease where family pedigree data is available.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Método de Monte Carlo , Pais , Risco
18.
Autism ; 26(8): 1931-1946, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899909

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Although the prevalence of autism has been rising in recent years, disparities in diagnosis still remain. Female and Black populations in the United States are diagnosed later, are more likely to have an intellectual disability, and are excluded from research as well as services designed for autistic individuals. Autistic Black girls are effectively invisible in the current scientific literature. Intersectional theory, which looks at a person as a whole, examines models that are inclusive toward diverse gender, ability, and racial/ethnic backgrounds. This theory may be a useful approach to clinical and research work with autism so that practitioners may be most effective for the whole population of autistic people. The authors recommend research focusing on inclusion of autistic populations with intellectual disability and research studies that include evaluations as part of the procedure. Clinically, the authors recommend a focus on screening all young children for autism and improving provider knowledge in working with diverse autistic populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Etnicidade , Grupos Raciais
19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(10): 4172-4180, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768640

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) substantially contributes to the burden of mental disorders. Improved awareness and changes in diagnostic criteria of ASD may have influenced the diagnostic rates of ASD. However, while data on trends in diagnostic rates in some individual countries have been published, updated estimates of diagnostic rate trends and ASD-related disability at the global level are lacking. Here, we used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study data to address this gap, focusing on changes in prevalence, incidence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of ASD across the world. From 1990 to 2019, overall age-standardized estimates remained stable globally. Both prevalence and DALYs increased in countries with high socio-demographic index (SDI). However, the age-standardized incidence decreased in some low SDI countries, indicating a need to improve awareness. The male/female ratio decreased between 1990 and 2019, possibly accounted for by increasing clinical attention to ASD in females. Our results suggest that ASD detection in low SDI countries is suboptimal, and that ASD prevention/treatment in countries with high SDI should be improved, considering the increasing prevalence of the disorder. Additionally, growing attention is being paid to ASD diagnosis in females, who might have been left behind by ASD epidemiologic and clinical research previously. ASD burden estimates are underestimated as GBD does not account for mortality in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Incidência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Saúde Global
20.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e33, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535764

RESUMO

AIMS: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, with symptoms appearing in the early developmental period. Little is known about its current burden at the global, regional and national levels. This systematic analysis aims to summarise the latest magnitudes and temporal trends of ASD burden, which is essential to facilitate more detailed development of prevention and intervention strategies. METHODS: The data on ASD incidence, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019 came from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The average annual percentage change was calculated to quantify the secular trends in age-standardised rates (ASRs) of ASD burden by region, sex and age. RESULTS: In 2019, there were an estimated 60.38 × 104 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 50.17-72.01] incident cases of ASD, 283.25 × 105 (95% UI 235.01-338.11) prevalent cases and 43.07 × 105 (95% UI 28.22-62.32) DALYs globally. The ASR of incidence slightly increased by around 0.06% annually over the past three decades, while the ASRs of prevalence and DALYs both remained stable over the past three decades. In 2019, the highest burden of ASD was observed in high-income regions, especially in high-income North America, high-income Asia Pacific and Western Europe, where a significant growth in ASRs was also observed. The ASR of ASD burden in males was around three times that of females, but the gender difference was shrunk with the pronounced increase among females. Of note, among the population aged over 65 years, the burden of ASD presented increasing trends globally. CONCLUSIONS: The global burden of ASD continues to increase and remains a major mental health concern. These substantial heterogeneities in ASD burden worldwide highlight the need for making suitable mental-related policies and providing special social and health services.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Carga Global da Doença , Idoso , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
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