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1.
Pediatrics ; 153(Suppl 2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300001

RESUMO

Developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP) subspecialists care for children with complex neurodevelopmental and behavioral health conditions; additional roles include education and training, advocacy, and research. In 2023, there were 1.0 DBP subspecialists per 100 000 US children aged 0 to 17 years (range 0.0-3.8), with wide variability in DBP subspecialist distribution. Given the prevalence of DB conditions, the current workforce is markedly inadequate to meet the needs of patients and families. The American Board of Pediatrics Foundation led a modeling project to forecast the US pediatric subspecialty workforce from 2020 to 2040 using current trends in each subspecialty. The model predicts workforce supply at baseline and across alternative scenarios and reports results in headcount (HC) and HC adjusted for percent time spent in clinical care, termed "clinical workforce equivalent." For DBP, the baseline model predicts HC growth nationally (+45%, from 669 to 958), but these extremely low numbers translate to minimal patient care impact. Adjusting for population growth over time, projected HC increases from 0.8 to 1.0 and clinical workforce equivalent from 0.5 to 0.6 DBP subspecialists per 100 000 children aged 0 to 18 years by 2040. Even in the best-case scenario (+12.5% in fellows by 2030 and +7% in time in clinical care), the overall numbers would be minimally affected. These current and forecasted trends should be used to shape much-needed solutions in education, training, practice, policy, and workforce research to increase the DBP workforce and improve overall child health.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Criança , Escolaridade , Recursos Humanos
3.
Sante Publique ; 35(5): 69-80, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172051

RESUMO

The prevalence and severity of smoking are particularly high in populations in precarious situations and make smoking an essential determinant of social inequalities in health, due to its particularly catastrophic impact on the health of these populations. The general reduction in smoking, less significant in disadvantaged populations, contributes to further increasing these inequalities, and smoking tends to be concentrated in the most vulnerable populations. The relationships between tobacco and precariousness are examined by identifying, based on a review of the literature, the main common factors of vulnerability: stress and social adversity, self-stigma, a low feeling of self-efficacy, the social function of tobacco use, the ambivalence of demands, associated addictions, the severity of tobacco dependence, distance from support and care systems, etc. Specific attention is paid to certain particular conditions: mental health disorders, addictions (other than tobacco), inadequate housing, detention, migration. On this basis, courses of action are proposed to improve access to care and its effectiveness for the people concerned. Emphasis is placed on the mobilization of professionals who often tend to neglect issues of smoking in view of the immediate severity of the problems at the origin of the demands of the people received. A support offer for harm reduction (vaping in particular) seems particularly suited to often-ambivalent demands. The importance of networking and the involvement of CSAPAs/CAARUDs is also underlined. At the systemic level, all of this must be accompanied by political advocacy to reduce these inequalities and social determinants of health.


La prévalence et la sévérité du tabagisme sont particulièrement élevées dans les populations en situation de précarité et font du tabagisme un déterminant essentiel des inégalités sociales de santé, du fait de son impact particulièrement catastrophique sur la santé de ces populations. La réduction générale du tabagisme, moins importante dans les populations défavorisées, contribue à accroître encore ces inégalités et le tabagisme a tendance à se concentrer dans les populations les plus vulnérables. Les relations entre tabac et précarité sont examinées en identifiant, sur la base d'une revue de la littérature, les principaux facteurs communs de vulnérabilité : stress et adversité sociale, auto-stigmatisation, faible sentiment d'auto-efficacité, fonction sociale du tabagisme, ambivalence de la demande, addictions associées, sévérité de la dépendance au tabac, éloignement des dispositifs d'aide et de soins… Une attention spécifique est prêtée à certaines conditions particulières : troubles mentaux, addictions (hors-tabac), mal-logement, détention, migrations. Sur cette base, des pistes d'actions sont proposées pour améliorer l'accès aux soins et leur efficacité chez les personnes concernées. Un accent particulier est porté sur la mobilisation des professionnels qui ont souvent tendance à négliger les questions de tabagisme au regard de la sévérité immédiate des problèmes à l'origine de la demande des personnes accueillies. Une offre d'accompagnement à la réduction des risques (vapotage notamment) semble particulièrement adaptée à la demande souvent ambivalente des personnes. L'importance du travail en réseau et de l'implication des CSAPA/CAARUD est également soulignée. Sur le plan systémique, tout ceci doit s'accompagner d'un plaidoyer politique pour réduire ces inégalités et déterminants sociaux de santé.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 1424-1425, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269678

RESUMO

Patient-Accessible Electronic Health Records (PAEHR) is particularly controversial in mental healthcare. We aim to explore if there is any association between patients with mental health conditions and the experience of someone demanding access to their PAEHR. A chi-square test showed a significant association between group belonging and experiences of someone demanding access to the PAEHR.


Assuntos
Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Eletrônica , Instalações de Saúde , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos
8.
Nanoscale ; 16(6): 2974-2982, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258372

RESUMO

Wearable bioelectronic devices, which circumvent issues related to the large size and high cost of clinical equipment, have emerged as powerful tools for the auxiliary diagnosis and long-term monitoring of chronic psychiatric diseases. Current devices often integrate multiple intricate and expensive devices to ensure accurate diagnosis. However, their high cost and complexity hinder widespread clinical application and long-term user compliance. Herein, we developed an ultralow-cost poly(vinylidene fluoride)/zinc oxide nanofiber film-based piezoelectric sensor in a thermal compression bonding process. Our piezoelectric sensor exhibits remarkable sensitivity (13.4 mV N-1), rapid response (8 ms), and exceptional stability over 2000 compression/release cycles, all at a negligibly low fabrication cost. We demonstrate that pulse wave, blink, and speech signals can be acquired by the sensor, proposing a single biomechanical modality to monitor multiple physiological traits associated with bipolar disorder. This ultralow-cost and mass-producible piezoelectric sensor paves the way for extensive long-term monitoring and immediate feedback for bipolar disorder management.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Nanofibras , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Pressão
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 268, 2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schoolteachers are often the first to respond when a student presents with a mental health issue in the classroom. This places a burden on schools that impacts school staff, healthcare workers and teachers. More broadly, it places a responsibility on the education system to address students' mental health. This study examines Australian teachers' classroom experiences and the training areas identified by teachers as necessary to manage these issues. METHOD: Interviews were undertaken with 18 in-service teachers between 2020 and 2021 from Catholic, Independent and Public schools. Data were gathered via multiple interviews and analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: The major mental health issues identified by teachers related to mental disorders, depression, anxiety, and a complex range of negative emotional states. Teachers requested training in child and adolescent mental health, counselling skills, early detection and intervention, and training skills to manage the complex relationship with parents and external health and community personnel. Teachers also reported the need to access mental health resources, support and training, which were differentially accessed along socioeconomic status and postcodes. CONCLUSION: The data show that teachers are often placed as first responders when a student has a mental health issue but feel inadequately trained to manage these issues in the classroom. We identified mental health issues presenting in Australian classrooms and documented critical features of mental-health training asked for by teachers in order to address those issues. Given the increasing demands on teachers to address the mental health of children and adolescents, we argue that an urgent review of mental health training for teachers is needed.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Austrália , Ansiedade
10.
Popul Health Manag ; 27(1): 13-25, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236711

RESUMO

The impacts of homelessness on health and health care access are detrimental. Intervention and efforts to improve outcomes and increase availability of affordable housing have mainly originated from the public health sector and government. The role that large community-based health systems may play has yet to be established. This study characterizes patients self-identified as homeless in acute care facilities in a large integrated health care system in Northern California to inform the development of collaborative interventions addressing unmet needs of this vulnerable population. The authors compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical conditions, and health care utilization of individuals who did and did not self-identify as homeless and characterized their geographical distribution in relation to Sutter hospitals and homeless resources. Between July 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020, 5% (N = 20,259) of the acute care settings patients had evidence of homelessness, among which 51.1% age <45 years, 66.4% males, and 24% non-Hispanic Black. Patients experiencing homelessness had higher emergency department utilization and lower utilization of outpatient and urgent care services. Mental health conditions were more common among patients experiencing homelessness. More than half of the hospitals had >5% of patients who identified as homeless. Some hospitals with higher proportions of patients experiencing homelessness are not located near many shelter resources. By understanding patients who self-identify as homeless, it is possible to assess the role of the health system in addressing their unmet needs. Accurate identification is the first step for the health systems to develop and deliver better solutions through collaborations with nonprofit organizations, community partners, and government agencies.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Habitação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , California
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 343: 116542, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290399

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Meta-reviews synthesising research on social class and mental health and wellbeing are currently limited and focused on specific facets of social class (e.g., social capital) or mental health and wellbeing (e.g., mental health disorders), and none sought to identify mechanisms in this relationship. OBJECTIVES: The present meta-review sought to (1) assess the overall relationship between social class and mental health and wellbeing, (2) determine the mechanisms that act in this relationship, and (3) evaluate the strength of evidence available. METHODS: The protocol was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021214731). We systematically searched twelve databases in September 2022 and identified 149 eligible reviews from 38,257 records screened. Quality of evidence was assessed with the JBI levels of evidence and risk of bias with the ROBIS tool. RESULTS: A large but low-quality evidence base points to class-based inequalities in mental health and wellbeing, with the strongest available evidence linking lower social positions to an increased risk of depression. In terms of different facets of stratification, the best available evidence suggests that deprivation (e.g., poverty), socioeconomic status, income, and subjective social status are consequential for individuals' mental health and wellbeing. However, high-quality evidence for the roles of education, occupation, other economic resources (e.g., wealth), and social capital is currently limited. Most reviews employed individual-level measures (e.g., income), as opposed to interpersonal- (e.g., social capital) or community-level (e.g., neighbourhood deprivation) measures. Considering mechanisms, we found some evidence for mediation via subjective social status, sense of control, and experiences of stress and trauma. There was also some evidence that higher socioeconomic status can provide a buffer for neighbourhood deprivation, lower social capital, and lower subjective social status. CONCLUSIONS: Future research employing experimental or quasi-experimental methods, and systematic reviews with a low risk of bias, are necessary to advance this area of research.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Classe Social , Pobreza , Características de Residência
13.
J Affect Disord ; 350: 539-543, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0) have been widely used to measure functional impairment and disability. To ensure that the scores from these two scales are practically exchangeable across diseases, therapies, and care programmes, the current study aimed to examine the linkage of the WHODAS 2.0 with the SDS and develop a simple and reliable conversion table for the two scales in people with mental disorders. METHODS: A total of 798 patients (mean age = 36.1, SD = 12.7) were recruited from outpatient clinics of the Institute of Mental Health, and the Community Wellness Clinic in Singapore. Using a single-group design, an equipercentile equating method with log-linear smoothing was used to establish a conversion table from the SDS to the WHODAS 2.0 and vice versa. RESULTS: The conversion table showed that the scores were consistent for the entire range of scores when the scores were converted either from the SDS to the WHODAS 2.0 or from the WHODAS 2.0 to the SDS. The agreement between the WHODAS 2.0's raw and converted scores and SDS's raw and converted scores were interpreted as good with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.711 and 0.725, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study presents a simple and reliable method for converting the SDS scores to the WHODAS 2.0 scores and vice versa, enabling interchangeable use of data across these two disability measures.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Adulto , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Saúde Mental , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria
14.
Assessment ; 31(1): 199-215, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37706296

RESUMO

Researchers and clinicians working within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition, Text Rev (DSM-5-TR) framework face a difficult question: what does it mean to have an evidence-based assessment of a nonevidence-based diagnostic construct? Alternative nosological approaches conceptualize psychopathology as (a) hierarchical, allowing researchers to move between levels of description and (b) dimensional, eliminating artificial dichotomies between disorders and the dichotomy between mental illness and mental well-being. In this article, we provide an overview of ongoing efforts to develop validated measures of transdiagnostic nosologies (i.e., the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology; HiTOP) with applications for measurement-based care. However, descriptive models like HiTOP, which summarize patterns of covariation among psychopathology symptoms, do not address dynamic processes underlying the problems associated with psychopathology. Ambulatory assessment, well-suited to examine such dynamic processes, has also developed rapidly in recent decades. Thus, the goal of the current article is twofold. First, we provide a brief overview of developments in constructing valid measures of the HiTOP model as well as developments in ambulatory assessment practices. Second, we outline how these parallel developments can be integrated to advance measurement-based treatment. We end with a discussion of some major challenges for future research to address to integrate advances more fully in transdiagnostic and ambulatory assessment practices.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicopatologia , Saúde Mental , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Bem-Estar Psicológico
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 331: 115668, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38101074

RESUMO

Depression is a common mental disorder and more women are affected by depression than men. In this study, we aimed to analyze the trends in the incidence of depression among women from 1990 to 2019 and their associations with sociodemographic and universal health coverage indices based on data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019. It was observed that while the incidence rate of depression among women decreased by an average of 0.35% per year at the global level, the incidence rate increased at the regional level for the high sociodemographic index region by an average of 0.39% per year from 1990 to 2019. And the global downward trend in incidence rate from 1990 to 2019 was contributed by the downward trend from 2000 to 2009. In Spearman correlation analyzes at the level of country/territory, a negative correlation between the estimated annual percentage change in the incidence rate and the universal health coverage index was found (ρ=-0.15).


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Incidência , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Global
16.
Brain Cogn ; 174: 106117, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery is an efficient tool for assessing brain-behavior domains, and its efficiency was augmented via computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This battery requires validation in a separate sample to establish psychometric properties. METHODS: In a mixed community/clinical sample of N = 307 18-to-35-year-olds, we tested the relationships of the CAT tests with the full-form tests. We compared discriminability among recruitment groups (psychosis, mood, control) and examined how their scores relate to demographics. CAT-Full relationships were evaluated based on a minimum inter-test correlation of 0.70 or an inter-test correlation within at least 0.10 of the full-form correlation with a previous administration of the full battery. Differences in criterion relationships were tested via mixed models. RESULTS: Most tests (15/17) met the minimum criteria for replacing the full-form with the updated CAT version (mean r = 0.67; range = 0.53-0.80) when compared to relationships of the full-forms with previous administrations of the full-forms (mean r = 0.68; range = 0.50-0.85). Most (16/17) CAT-based relationships with diagnostics and other validity criteria were indistinguishable (interaction p > 0.05) from their full-form counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The updated CNB shows psychometric properties acceptable for research. The full-forms of some tests should be retained due to insufficient time savings to justify the loss in precision.


Assuntos
Teste Adaptativo Computadorizado , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Encéfalo , Psicometria , Cognição , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 51(2): 196-206, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151573

RESUMO

Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has been shown to effectively help people with serious mental illness obtain competitive employment, and IPS programs have been established in over 40 U.S. states and at least 20 other countries. As this expansion continues, the field needs data describing IPS implementation, clients, fidelity, and outcomes in real-world, non-research settings, specifically regarding racial and ethnic disparities and young adults. The goal of this study was to observe the initial three years of IPS implementation, measuring fidelity, client characteristics, and employment outcomes in three mental health agencies in one California county. In 2018, officials in one California county contracted with the IPS Center to provide training and measure IPS program fidelity at three mental health agencies in a large urban area. The goal was to establish and maintain IPS programs with good fidelity and effectiveness. After an initial year of preparation, three mental health programs recruited unemployed clients with interest in employment and implemented IPS. An IPS trainer provided initial training, ongoing consultation, and measured program fidelity. The program clinicians documented client characteristics, IPS service use, and quarterly employment throughout 13 quarters. The project followed 351 mental health clients as they participated in three new supported employment programs over a three-year period. The average client age was 36 years, including 107 (31%) young adults (ages 18-25) and 244 older adults (ages 26+); 177 (50%) identified their gender as female, 173 as male, and 1 as other or declined to answer; 119 (36%) identified as Hispanic, 116 (35%) as non-Hispanic White, 42 (13%) as non-Hispanic Asian, 35 (11%) as non-Hispanic Black, and 20 (6%) as other non-Hispanic. Most clients (78%) had diagnoses of non-psychotic conditions such as anxiety or depression, and 22% had diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or other psychotic disorder. During the project, 312 (87%) engaged in supported employment services, 206 (58%) attained competitive employment, and 177 (50%) found their first job within nine months of enrolling. Hispanics (64%), Asians (57%), and non-Hispanic Blacks (77%) achieved higher employment rates than non-Hispanic Whites (49%). Young adults (73%) achieved higher employment rates than older adults (51%). Engaging in new IPS supported employment programs over several months led to high rates of competitive employment across all groups in real-world, non-research settings, typically within nine months. Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Blacks achieved higher rates of competitive employment than non-Hispanic Whites, and young adults achieved higher rates than older adults. Further research may explain these differences.


Assuntos
Readaptação ao Emprego , Transtornos Mentais , Esquizofrenia , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Adolescente , Adulto , Centros Comunitários de Saúde Mental , California , Saúde Mental , Reabilitação Vocacional
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(2): 238-245, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109768

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a prevalent parasitic disease with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. We lack long-term outcomes for latent infections. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between latent T. gondii infection and mortality risk. We queried TriNetX, a international multicenter network, to validate mortality risk differences among patients with positive or negative toxoplasma IgG through propensity score matching (PSM). We excluded patients with toxoplasmosis disease by International Classification of Diseases codes or polymerase chain reaction testing. We found 28,138 patients with available toxoplasma IgG serology. Seropositive patients were older and had a male preponderance. More seropositive patients identified as Hispanic, Latino, or Black persons. Patients who were positive for T. gondii IgG serology were slightly more likely to have underlying heart failure, a transplanted organ or tissue, malignant neoplasms of lymphoid or hematopoietic tissues, and diseases of the nervous system than seronegative controls. After PSM of patients with positive (N = 6,475) and negative (N = 6,475) toxoplasma IgG serologies, toxoplasmosis-positive patients were more likely to have long-term drug use but less likely to suffer from behavioral disorders. The overall PSM 1- and 5-year mortality was higher among patients with a positive toxoplasma IgG serology. The risk of schizophrenia was increased at 5 years. We found a prevalence of toxoplasma IgG positivity of 0.03% during the last 3 years. Latent T. gondii associates with a higher overall mortality risk. The study of social determinants of health and follow-up studies are necessary to corroborate the findings and find possible causal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Imunoglobulina M
19.
Behav Sci Law ; 42(1): 46-55, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38145476

RESUMO

Civil litigation involving the forensic neuropsychiatric evaluation of a personal injury case requires an assessment of damages and causation. The expert witness is obliged to integrate data from three critical sources of information: the review of records; the results of neuropsychological testing; and the findings from the clinical examination. In civil litigation involving a personal injury claim, the expert witness can be expected to address causation and prognosis of any neuropsychiatric damages. We discuss the undertaking of a forensic neuropsychiatric evaluation, psychiatric disorders often encountered in personal injury litigation, provide case vignettes and describe a number of special types of forensic neuropsychiatric evaluations, for example, Workers' Compensation, VA Disability and Social Security Disability.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Avaliação da Deficiência
20.
Nervenarzt ; 95(1): 18-27, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany different offers of social support are available for families that are provided by different sectors, e.g., the youth welfare and the healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: Documentation of the utilized help, child-related factors that are associated with the utilization and the parental desires for support. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 160 parents undergoing (partial) inpatient treatment in psychiatric hospitals via an oral interview using standardized and semi-standardized instruments. RESULTS: The results show that nonprofessional help by family and friends as well as support offers provided by the healthcare system are used most frequently. Families that perceived their children as more burdened receive more help than families with children judged as being less burdened. There are regional differences especially in the utilization of high-threshold help by the healthcare system. DISCUSSION: Support offers seem to reach families with mental illnesses, especially those that are particularly burdened; however, there are regional differences regarding the utilization of support as well as the wishes for specific support offers.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Adolescente , Humanos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Família , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia
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