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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Animais Selvagens
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-12, 01/jan./2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367660

RESUMO

Objetivos: contribuir para a geração de dados de avaliação econômica de estratégias de empoderamento farmacoterapêutico para pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM tipo 2). Métodos: este estudo farmacoeconômico é aninhado a um ensaio clínico com controle não randomizado que incluiu pacientes ≥18 anos de idade, cadastrados no HIPERDIA. Os pacientes foram alocados em um modelo de Markov conforme valores de hemoglobina glicada do acompanhamento. As probabilidades do surgimento de complicações relativas ao DM, incluindo-se óbito, foram estimadas por dez anos. Cada complicação do DM tipo 2 teve seu custo estabelecido para determinação do custo anual. Resultados: entre os participantes da intervenção, não ocorrem óbitos ocasionados por DM tipo 2, e a progressão de complicações mantém-se estável durante os anos simulados, enquanto, no grupo controle, 60% dos pacientes podem evoluir para óbito nos dez anos, e a probabilidade de serem acometidos por complicações relacionadas ao DM tipo 2 é crescente. Com relação aos custos, ao final de dez anos, os pacientes que participaram da Estratégia Individual de Empoderamento Farmacoterapêutico (EIEF) tiveram um custo médio de UU$134,45 poupando a vida de 100% dos pacientes, e os pacientes do atendimento convencional um custo médio de UU$237,12 e 40% dos pacientes acompanhados chegariam ao final do ciclo com vida. Conclusão: a EIEF parece ser uma alternativa economicamente viável em longo prazo, bem como para a promoção do controle glicêmico.


Objectives: contribute to the data generation for the economic evaluation of pharmacotherapeutic empowerment strategies for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (type 2 DM). Method: This pharmacoeconomic study is nested in a clinical trial with non-randomized control that included patients ≥18 years old, registered in HIPERDIA. The patients were allocated to a Markov model according to the follow-up glycated hemoglobin values. The probabilities of the appearance of complications related to DM, including death, have been estimated for ten years. Each complication of type 2 DM had its cost established to determine the annual cost. Results: Among the participants in the intervention, there are no deaths caused by type 2 DM, and the progression of complications remains stable during the simulated years, whereas in the control group, 60% of the patients can progress to death in ten years and the probability of being affected by complications related to type 2 DM is increasing. Regarding costs, at the end of ten years, patients who participated in Individual Pharmacotherapeutic Empowerment Strategy (IPES) had an average cost of US$ 134.45, saving 100% of patient's lives, and conventional care patients cost an average of US$ 237.12 and 40% of the patients followed would reach the end of the life cycle. Conclusion: The IPES seems like an economically viable and long-term economic alternative and promotes glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Empoderamento , Controle Glicêmico
3.
Epilepsia ; 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Existing gene panels were developed to understand the aetiology of epilepsy and while important, further benefits will arise from an effective pharmacogenomics panel for personalising therapy and achieving seizure control. Our study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a pharmacogenomics panel for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, compared with usual care. METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was employed using a discrete event simulation model. The microsimulation model aggregated the costs and benefits of genetically-guided treatment versus usual care for 5000 simulated patients. The 10-year model combined data from various sources including; genomic databases on prevalence of variants, population-level pharmaceutical claims on antiseizure medications, published long-term therapy retention rates, patient-level cost data, and systematic reviews. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained were computed. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address uncertainty in model parameters. RESULTS: The mean cost of the genetically-guided treatment option was AU$98,199 compared with AU$95,386 for usual care. Corresponding mean QALYs were 4.67 compared with 4.28 for genetically-guided and usual care strategies, respectively. The incremental cost per QALY gained was AU$7,381. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost per QALY gained was AU$6,321 (95% Uncertainty interval: AU$3,604, AU$9,621) with a 100% likelihood of being cost-effective in the Australian healthcare system. The most influential drivers of the findings were the monthly healthcare costs associated with reduced seizures, costs when seizures continued, and the quality of life estimates under genetically-guided and usual care strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: This early economic evaluation of a pharmacogenomics panel to guide treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy could potentially be cost-effective in the Australian healthcare system. Clinical trial evidence is necessary to confirm these findings.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1125, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068521

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study reports economic evaluation of mesh fixation in open and laparoscopic hernia repair from a prospective real-world cohort study, using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA). METHODS: A prospective real-world cohort study was conducted in two university-based hospitals in Thailand from November 2018 to 2019. Patient data on hernia features, operative approaches, clinical outcomes, associated cost data, and quality of life were collected. Models were used to determine each group's treatment effect, potential outcome means, and average treatment effects. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to evaluate the incremental risk of hernia recurrences. RESULTS: The 261 patients in this study were divided into six groups: laparoscopic with tack (LT, n = 47), glue (LG, n = 26), and self-gripping mesh (LSG, n = 30), and open with suture (OS, n = 117), glue (OG, n = 18), and self-gripping mesh (OSG, n = 23). Hernia recurrence was most common in LSG. The mean utility score was highest in OG and OSG (both 0.99). Treatment costs were generally higher for laparoscopic than open procedures. The cost-effectiveness plane for utility and hernia recurrence identified LSG as least cost effective. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves identified OG as having the highest probability of being cost effective at willingness to pay levels between $0 and $3,300, followed by OSG. CONCLUSION: Given the similarity of hernia recurrence among all major procedures, the cost of surgery may impact the decision. According to our findings, open hernia repair with adhesive or self-gripping mesh appears most cost-effective.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal , Laparoscopia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Telas Cirúrgicas , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1131, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review aims to synthesise evidence on the economic impact of psychological interventions and therapies when applied to a broad range of physical health conditions. METHODS: The following bibliographic databases were searched for relevant articles: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid) and PsycINFO (Ebsco). As this review was intended to update an earlier review, the date range for the search was restricted to between January 2012 and September 2018. Reference lists from the review articles were also searched for relevant articles. Study quality was evaluated using the Scottish Intercollegiate Network Guidelines (SIGN) appraisal checklists for both economic studies and Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs). When the economic analyses did not provide sufficient detail for quality evaluation, the original RCT papers were sought and these were also evaluated. Half of the papers were quality rated by a second author. Initial agreement was high and all disagreements were resolved by discussion. RESULTS: This yielded 1408 unique articles, reduced to 134 following screening of the title and abstract. The full texts of the remaining articles were reviewed by at least one team member and all exclusions were discussed and agreed by the team. This left 46 original research articles, alongside five systematic reviews. Fifty-seven per cent of the articles were deemed to be of high quality, with the remainder of acceptable quality. Fifteen different medical conditions were covered, with chronic pain (10 articles) and cancer (9 articles) being the two most investigated health conditions. Three quarters of the papers reviewed showed evidence for the cost-effectiveness of psychological interventions in physical health, with the clearest evidence being in the field of chronic pain and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides a comprehensive integration of the research on the cost-effectiveness of psychological therapies in physical health. Whilst the evidence for cost-effectiveness in chronic pain and cancer is encouraging, some health conditions require further study. Clearly, as the primary research is international, and was therefore conducted across varying health care systems, caution must be exercised when applying the results to counties outside of those covered. Despite this, the results are of potential relevance to service providers and funders.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Neoplasias , Dor Crônica/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Intervenção Psicossocial
6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(8): 2709-2719, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is a common adverse reaction to chemotherapy that can lead to treatment delay, platelet transfusion, thereby increasing treatment costs, reducing chemotherapy effectiveness and affecting prognosis. Based on real-world data, this study analyzed the safety, efficacy, and economic of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) in the treatment of CIT in hematological tumors from the perspective of the health care system. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the data of hematological tumor patients treated with rhTPO and rhIL-11 due to thrombocytopenia caused by chemotherapy. The propensity score matching (PSM) method was used to balance the baseline information of the two groups and they were further stratified according to the degree of thrombocytopenia (grade I-II and grade III-IV). The platelet compliance rate at 2 weeks of treatment was used as the efficacy evaluation index, and the cost-effectiveness method was used to evaluate the economic value of the two drugs in the treatment of thrombocytopenia based on drug effectiveness. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,571 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 476 patients were included after 1:1 PSM. For patients with grade I-II thrombocytopenia, no significant difference in the platelet compliance rate was found between the two groups after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. The platelet compliance rate in the rhTPO group was higher than that in the rhIL-11 group for patients with grade III-IV thrombocytopenia. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) showed that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the rhTPO and rhIL-11 groups was 226,615.8. The ICER value was sensitive to the platelet compliance rate of the two groups, the cost of rhTPO, the cost of platelet transfusion in the rhTPO group. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that when willingness to pay was less than approximately 220,000 yuan, rhIL-11 economy presented 100% better than that of rhTPO. CONCLUSIONS: In CIT treatment for hematological tumors, rhTPO yielded a higher platelet compliance rate than rhIL-11 treatment, especially for patients with grade III-IV thrombocytopenia. However, whether rhTPO has economic advantages still requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Trombocitopenia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Interleucina-11 , Contagem de Plaquetas , Proteínas Recombinantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombopoetina/uso terapêutico
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2230043, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066894

RESUMO

Importance: Intravenous (IV) insulin infusion is the standard of care for treating diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) worldwide. Subcutaneous (SC) insulin aspart could decrease the use of health care resources. Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of mild uncomplicated DKA management with SC insulin aspart vs IV insulin infusion among pediatric patients from the perspective of a public health care payer using clinical data. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation included children aged 2 to 14 years presenting to the emergency department of a single academic medical center with mild DKA between January 1, 2015, and March 15, 2020. The medical records for DKA treatment course and its associated hospitalization costs were reviewed. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2015, to March 15, 2020. Exposures: Subcutaneous insulin aspart vs IV regular insulin infusion. Main Outcomes and Measures: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (US dollars per hour), duration of DKA treatment, and length of hospital stay. Results: A total of 129 children with mild DKA episodes (mean [SD] age, 9.9 [3.1] years; 72 girls [55.8%]) were enrolled in the study. Seventy children received SC insulin aspart and 59 received IV regular insulin. Overall, the length of hospital stay in the SC insulin group was reduced (mean, 16.9 [95% CI, -31.0 to -2.9] hours) compared with the IV insulin group (P = .005). The mean (SD) cost of hospitalization in the SC insulin group (US $1071.99 [US $523.89]) was less than that in the IV insulin group (US $1648.90 [US $788.03]; P = .001). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -34.08 (95% CI, -25.97 to -129.82) USD/h. The use of SC insulin aspart was associated with a lower likelihood of prolonged hospital stay (ß = -17.22 [95% CI, -32.41 to -2.04]; P = .03) than IV regular insulin when controlling for age and sex. Conclusion and Relevance: Findings of this economic evaluation suggest that SC insulin aspart is dominant vs IV regular insulin in the management of mild uncomplicated DKA in children.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Cetoacidose Diabética , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Aspart/uso terapêutico , Insulina Regular Humana/uso terapêutico
8.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101387, 2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070844

RESUMO

It has been speculated that out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients' survival might be improved by implementing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) before arrival to hospital. Therefore, we sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of OH-ECPR versus in-hospital (IH)-ECPR in OHCA patients in Qatar. From the hospital perspective, a conventional decision-analytic model was constructed to follow up the clinical and economic consequences of OH-ECPR versus IH-ECPR in a simulated OHCA population over one year. The primary outcome was the survival at discharge after arrest as well as the overall direct healthcare costs of managing OHCA patients. The robustness of this model was evaluated via sensitivity analyses. The OH-ECPR yielded 16% survival at discharge after arrest compared to 7% with IH-ECPR, [risk ratio (RR)=0.91; 95%CI 0.79 to 1.06; P=0.26]. Incorporating the uncertainty associated with this survival rate, and based on the estimated willingness to pay threshold in Qatar, the OH-ECPR was cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of QAR 464,589 (USD 127,634). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses confirmed the robustness of the study outcome. This is the first cost-effectiveness evaluation of OH-ECPR versus IH-ECPR in OHCA patients. OH-ECPR is potentially an economically acceptable resuscitative strategy in Qatar.

9.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, economic evaluations have engaged clinicians and policymakers; however, patients and their caregivers have insight that can ensure that the economic evaluation process appropriately reflects disease consequences and adequately addresses their priorities related to treatment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify patient priorities to inform an early economic evaluation of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS: We conducted two online group discussions of four participants each, involving patients with experience of hematological cancer and a caregiver. We used an adapted version of the nominal group technique, a consensus-building discussion approach, to generate focused qualitative data. RESULTS: Patients and a caregiver acknowledged both the costs directly related to clinical care, such as the out-of-pocket cost of drugs, and the indirect treatment costs, such as the cost of transport, accommodation, and food. The emotional and physical toll of treatment and the influence of treatment on employment and education were additional costs emphasized by participants. Treatment benefits prioritized by participants included the efficacy of treatment, manageable side effects, improved quality of life, accessibility of treatment, and short treatment duration. CONCLUSIONS: Engaging patients and caregivers in an early economic evaluation could help identify additional costs and benefits of therapies that are not typically recognized in economic evaluations but have the potential to increase the commercial viability of novel therapies. This research also demonstrates how patients and caregivers can be engaged at different levels in the development of early economic evaluation models.

10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 912921, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045725

RESUMO

Objective: Results of CameL-sq has revealed the clinical benefits to patients with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (sq-NSCLC). This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of camrelizumab plus chemotherapy to treat sq-NSCLC from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Methods: We used a partitioned survival model with a lifetime horizon to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of camrelizumab plus chemotherapy vs. chemotherapy in treating sq-NSCLC. Baseline characteristics of patients and key clinical data were extracted from CameL-sq. Costs and utilities were collected from the open-access database and published literature. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years gained, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were chosen as economic outcome indicators. We also performed a sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and scenario analysis to verify the stability of the basic analysis results and explore the results under different scenarios. Results: Combination therapy added 0.47 QALYS and 0.91 life-years with an incremental cost of $6,347.81 compared with chemotherapy, which had an ICER of $13,572 per QALY. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that camrelizumab plus chemotherapy had a 37.8% probability of cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold (WTP) of 1 time GDP per capital. When WTP was set as 3 times GDP per capital, combination therapy had significant cost-effectiveness. Deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that cost of the best supportive care was the factor with the greatest influence. The subgroup analysis found that combination therapy was associated with cost-effectiveness in several subgroups, namely, patients with disease stage IIIB/IIIC and with PD-L1 tumor proportion score ≤ 1%. Scenario analysis showed that ICER was positively correlated with the price of camrelizumab. Conclusion: In this economic evaluation, camrelizumab plus chemotherapy was unlikely to be cost-effective compared with chemotherapy in the first line therapy of sq-NSCLC from a perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Reducing the price of camrelizumab and tailoring treatments based on individual patient factors might improve the cost-effectiveness. Our findings may provide evidence for clinicians in making optimal decisions in general clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Camelus , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
11.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 8173768, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046083

RESUMO

Purpose. This paper aimed to study how to analyze and study economic and social development under the new crown epidemic based on the neural network and described the BP neural network. Methodology. Economic forecasts are affected by multiple influencing factors, the relationships between these factors are complex, and it is a nonlinear system with a high degree of uncertainty. The use of traditional forecasting methods has many limitations, and neural network methods can overcome these limitations and achieve good nonlinear forecasting. Research Findings. Through the analysis and statistics of the impact of the SARS epidemic and the new crown epidemic on the economy, by 2021, the economic contribution of final consumption expenditure, total capital formation, and net exports will be 65.4%, 13.7%, and 20.9%, respectively, and the impact of the current new crown virus epidemic on the economy will be greater than that of the SARS epidemic in 2003. Research Implications. The model applied to economic forecasting based on the BP network can achieve good forecasting effect, and scientific and reasonable forecasting methods depend on the in-depth understanding of economic activities and dominance of familiarity with economic theory. Practical Implications. Through the analysis of the economy in the context of political will and the new crown epidemic, it will give more reference to more and more complex emergencies in the future.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Previsões , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Mudança Social
12.
Explor Target Antitumor Ther ; 3(4): 414-422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046222

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the local impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on breast cancer (BC) care, with particular attention to the economical and psychological consequences of the possible delay of new diagnoses and treatments. Methods: Three years' activity (from 2019 to 2021) has been compared. The number of BCs diagnosed from the total amount of mammographic and ultrasound (US) examinations performed in women aged more than 40 years old has been considered. A Pearson's chi-squared test was performed to verify differences between results. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.01. Results: A statistically significant difference was found in the number of BC diagnosed between screening and ambulatory care patients in both the 2019-2020 (χ2 = 24.93, P < 0.01) and 2019-2021 (χ2 = 29.93, P < 0.01) comparisons. No statistically significant difference was found in the data recorded between 2020 and 2021 (χ2 = 2.35, P > 0.01). By evaluating the specific age groups for each year, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) was found in the number of BC diagnosed in screening patients aged 50-69 years old in both 2019-2020 and 2019-2021 comparisons. The percentages of early BC diagnosed in 2019, 2020, and 2021 were 80.9%, 91.7%, and 89.8%, respectively. The adherence rates to screening in 2019, 2020, and 2021 were 67.5%, 45.2%, and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Results showed a reduction of new diagnoses in the screening range during the pandemic in comparison with the previous period. The high percentage of early BC would seem to have prevented worsening outcomes. Nevertheless, women who have not undergone screening could present a more advanced stage disease in the following years. Consequently, the evaluation of possible solutions to guarantee an essential level of care with the purpose to avoid worsening patients' outcomes and the increase in healthcare costs is mandatory.

13.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 41(2): 135-144, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Training school children may help to increase the rate of citizen-initiated resuscitation. However, training in school settings exclusively by healthcare professionals would lead to high costs for the Portuguese National Health Service. The aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of training by school teachers, in comparison with training provided by healthcare professionals. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was performed, with assessments before, immediately after, and two and a half months after the intervention. The costs and effectiveness of the training were compared in a sample of 362 students from the 10th, 11th and 12th grades, when performed by school teachers (experimental) versus health professionals (control). RESULTS: Regarding knowledge retention and chest compressions, there was no significant difference between the groups two and a half months later. Regarding practical skills, the experimental group had improved more at two and a half months than the control group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups using multivariate analysis. The implementation and annual maintenance costs were 4043 and 862 euros, respectively, in the experimental group, and 8561 and 6430 euros in the control group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The training provided by school teachers presented similar levels of effectiveness obtained at a lower cost, compared to the same training led by health professionals. This result suggests that generalizing training performed by school teachers could be valuable.

14.
Infect Chemother ; 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proportion of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriales as a causative pathogen of community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (APN) has been increasing. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on medical costs and length of hospital stay for the treatment of APN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2018 and December 2019. All hospitalized patients aged ≥19 years who were diagnosed with community-acquired APN were recruited, and those diagnosed with Enterobacteriales as a causative pathogen were included. Log-linear regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for medical costs and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients participated in this study. Of these, 75 (31.1%) and 87 (36.1%) had extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens and ciprofloxacin-resistant pathogens as the causative pathogen, respectively. Based on the log-linear regression model, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriales is a causative pathogen that is, on average, 27.0%, or United States Dollar (USD) 1,211 (P = 0.026) more expensive than non-ESBL-producing Enterobacteriales. A patient who is a year older would incur USD 23 (P = 0.040) more, those having any structural problems in the urinary tract would incur USD 1,231 (P = 0.015) more, and those with a unit increase in the Pitt bacteremia score would incur USD 767 (P <0.001) more, with all other variables constant. Having a case in which ESBL-producing Enterobacteriales is a causative pathogen would explain staying 22.0% longer or 2 more days (P = 0.050) in the hospital than non-ESBL-producing Enterobacteriales. A patient who is 10 years older would, on average, would have to stay for half a day longer (P = 0.045). Any structural problems in the urinary tract explain a longer stay (2.4 days longer; P = 0.032), and moving from 0 to 5 on the Pitt bacteremia score would explain four more days (P = 0.038) in the hospital. CONCLUSION: Patients with community-acquired APN with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriale as the causative pathogen would incur, on average, 27.0% higher medical costs and 22.0% longer hospitalization days than patients detected with non-ESBL-producing pathogens.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lisbon has about 500,000 inhabitants and it's the capital and the main economic hub of Portugal. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter<2.5µm (PM2.5) have strong association with health effects. Researchers continue to identify new harmful air pollutants effects in our health even in low levels. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in Lisbon, Portugal. METHODS: We have studied abatement scenarios of PM2.5 concentrations and the health effects in the period from 2015 to 2017 using the APHEKOM tool and the associated health costs were assessed by Value of Life Year. RESULTS: The mean concentration of PM2.5 in Lisbon was 23µg/m3±10µg/m3 (±Standard Deviation). If we consider that World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10µg/m3) were reached, Lisbon would avoid more than 423 premature deaths (equivalent to 9,172 life years' gain) and save more than US$45 million annually. If Lisbon city could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5µg/m3, nearly 165 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$17 million annually. CONCLUSION: According to our findings, reduced levels of PM2.5 could improve the life's quality and save a significant amount of economic resources.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To critically examine the methods used for full economic evaluations of preventive interventions for dental caries and periodontitis. METHODS: Published literature post-2000 was searched to April 2021. Based on a developed intervention classification framework for dental caries and periodontitis, only universal, selective or indicated interventions were included in this review. The Drummond 10-point checklist was used for quality appraisal. RESULTS: Of 3,007 unique records screened for relevance, 73 studies were reviewed. Most model-based studies (61/73) used cost-effectiveness analysis (49%) or cost-benefit analysis (28%). Trial-based studies (16/73) commonly used cost-effectiveness analysis (59%). Four studies used both economic evaluation methods. Sixty-four papers (88%) were on dental caries, eight papers (11%) focused on periodontitis, and one paper (1%) included both oral diseases; 72% of model-based and 82% of trial-based studies were of good quality. The most frequently investigated dental caries preventive interventions were water fluoridation (universal intervention; cost-saving or cost-effective), fissure sealant and fluoride varnish (selective and indicated interventions; cost-effectiveness outcomes were inconsistent). Supportive periodontal therapy with oral health education (indicated intervention; cost-effective) was the most frequently evaluated preventive intervention for periodontitis. Thirty percent of studies with a time horizon > 1 year did not apply an appropriate discount rate and 26% did not comprehensively discuss other important considerations beyond the technical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Generic health outcome measures should be incorporated for economic evaluations on preventive interventions for dental caries and periodontitis, and an increased focus to prevent periodontitis using economic evaluation methods is needed to inform resource allocation and policy decision-making.

17.
Health Econ ; 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089775

RESUMO

The statistical quality of trial-based economic evaluations is often suboptimal, while a comprehensive overview of available statistical methods is lacking. Therefore, this review summarized and critically appraised available statistical methods for trial-based economic evaluations. A literature search was performed to identify studies on statistical methods for dealing with baseline imbalances, skewed costs and/or effects, correlated costs and effects, clustered data, longitudinal data, missing data and censoring in trial-based economic evaluations. Data was extracted on the statistical methods described, their advantages, disadvantages, relative performance and recommendations of the study. Sixty-eight studies were included. Of them, 27 (40%) assessed methods for baseline imbalances, 39 (57%) assessed methods for skewed costs and/or effects, 27 (40%) assessed methods for correlated costs and effects, 18 (26%) assessed methods for clustered data, 7 (10%) assessed methods for longitudinal data, 26 (38%) assessed methods for missing data and 10 (15%) assessed methods for censoring. All identified methods were narratively described. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available statistical methods for dealing with the most common statistical complexities in trial-based economic evaluations. Herewith, it can provide valuable input for researchers when deciding which statistical methods to use in a trial-based economic evaluation.

18.
Work ; 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amputation has significant negative impacts on physical, psychological, social and economic wellbeing of individuals and families. This is potentially compounded by significant delays to rehabilitation in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To quantify disability, occupation and socioeconomic status of people with unilateral lower-limb amputation (LLA) and their families in Bangladesh, post-amputation and pre-rehabilitation. METHODS: Between November 2017 and February 2018, people with unilateral LLA attending two locations of Center for the Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed, Bangladesh, for prosthetic rehabilitation were surveyed pre-rehabilitation, using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-2.0) with additional socio-economic questions. Data were analysed descriptively, using cross-tabulation with Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Seventy-six individuals participated. The majority had traumatic (64.5%), transtibial amputation (61.8%), were young adults (37.92±12.35 years), in paid work prior to LLA (80%), married (63.2%), male (81.6%), from rural areas (78.9%), with primary/no education (72.4%). After LLA mobility (WHODAS score 74.61±13.19) was their most negatively affected domain. Most (60.5%) did not return to any occupation. Acute healthcare costs negatively impacted most families (89.5%), over 80% becoming impoverished. Nearly 70% of previous income-earners became economically dependent changing traditional family roles. CONCLUSIONS: Following LLA, most participants experienced significant mobility impairment and became economically dependent. The impact of LLA extends beyond the individual, to families who often face challenges to traditional primary earner gendered roles. Improved access to timely and affordable rehabilitation is required to reduce the significant personal and societal costs of disability after LLA.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094709

RESUMO

This paper aims to assess the sustainability of coffee production in Brazil by a framework at the farm level. The framework developed comprises four dimensions of sustainability structured from the literature review. Primary data were collected from 20 coffee farms selected from the most producing communities in the Planalto de Vitória da Conquista locality, sited in Centro-Sul Baiano middle region at the Bahia state. The main environmental issues identified related to coffee farmers are inadequate management of water consumption, influenced by the lack of knowledge about irrigation techniques in some cases, and the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The economic evaluation of the activity revealed a low index of producers belonging to a class organization. In social aspects the issues are low level of technical/technological instruction for coffee producers, temporary workers are often used, the old age of most producers, the lack of family succession for the activity, low incomes, the high number of temporary workers, and the absence of the worker gains. As for the technical dimension, only half of the farmers invest in innovation, which causes high obsolescence of their equipment and machinery and a low participation rate in training courses. In the environmental dimension, the farmers return the packages of pesticides to the stores where they bought them. In the technical dimension, most farmers perform soil analysis. Besides addressing the identified challenges, the initiatives can help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, especially the 9th, 12th, and 13th.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health state utility value (HSUV) is an important outcome of cost-utility analysis. The EQ-5D is commonly used to elicit the HSUV of economic analyses based on the recommendations of the Thai health technology assessment guidelines. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a dataset of utility values in patients with liver, lung, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers at different stages in Thailand. AREAS COVERED: In total, 25 studies were identified in PubMed, Scopus, Thai Library Integrated System, Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program, and Health System Research Institute from inception to May 2021. The EQ-5D 3 Level Version was commonly used to identify the HSUVs of Thai patients with cancer. Meanwhile, the use of the EQ-5D 5 Level Version was supported by psychometric testing. However, mapping techniques between disease-specific and health preference-based instruments was utilized. EXPERT OPINION: This study showed that patients with colorectal cancer had the highest HSUVs for both the earlier and metastatic stages. Additionally, the differences in HSUVs were found among studies because of the different chemotherapy treatments and elicitation methods. Therefore, it is generally recommended that health economists use HSUVs derived from using the same method during an economic evaluation.

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