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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244551, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285626

RESUMO

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.


Resumo Origanum vulgare tem despertado grande interesse na academia e na indústria farmacêutica devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes, antifúngicas e antitumorais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar o potencial anti-MRSA e avaliações de toxicidade in vivo de O. vulgare. O extrato de O. vulgare foi usado para monitorar a atividade anti-MRSA em camundongos. Após infecção estabelecida por MRSA em camundongos (Mus musculus), o tratamento com O. vulgare foi continuado por 7 dias. As autópsias foram realizadas e o reisolamento, pontuação das lesões grosseiras e carga bacteriana em vários órgãos foram medidos. Além disso, a amostra de sangue foi analisada para ensaios hematológicos. A avaliação da toxicidade do potencial de O. vulgare como medicamento foi feita com 200 mg / kg e 400 mg / kg, avaliando as funções hepática e renal. A carga bacteriana e as lesões graves nos pulmões e no coração foram significativamente baixas em comparação com o controle positivo após o tratamento com O. vulgare. Da mesma forma, os grupos tratados com O. vulgare apresentaram valores hematológicos, de neutrófilos e de TLC semelhantes aos grupos de controle. Aumento de AST, ALP e bilirrubina total juntamente com degeneração hepatocelular marcada e distorção ao redor da veia central, infiltração de células inflamatórias e vacuolização citoplasmática de células hepáticas foram observados em doses mais altas. Conclui-se que o extrato bruto de O. vulgare pode conter metabólitos secundários benéficos e, no futuro, pode ser explorado para a cura de doenças infecciosas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240484, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249278

RESUMO

Abstract The Cautín River is closely related with the economic development of Temuco city, (38°S; Chile). Existing knowledge of the Cautín River is limited to information about its biological characteristics as a reference for the evaluation and assessment of water quality. The object of this study was to develop taxonomic characterisation of the benthic macroinvertebrates along the main course of the Cautín River, and to study the community structure using correlation analysis between community parameters. To carry out this research, the macroinvertebrate community was studied in 10 sampling sites distributed along the main course of the river. The samples were taken in summer (1997 and 2000), when optimal hydrological conditions existed. Analysis of the samples showed that the benthic fauna was composed of 56 taxa, the dominant group being insects with 48 taxa. Three main sectors were recognised in the course of the Cautín River: high, middle and low. Each sector has restricted-distribution species, while other species are widely distributed along the river. These distribution patterns seem to be influenced by dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, altitudinal distribution and anthropo-cultural activity, present at every sampling site. Finally, this research provides a first approach to the biology of the Cautín River. Further studies could be planned on the basis of this knowledge to investigate water quality indicators based on macroinvertebrate communities.


Resumo O rio Cautín está intimamente relacionado ao desenvolvimento econômico da cidade de Temuco (38°S; Chile). Quanto ao conhecimento total do rio Cautín, existem informações limitadas sobre as características biológicas que podem servir de referência para a avaliação da qualidade da água. Este estudo tem o objetivo de caracterizar os macroinvertebrados bentônicos taxonomicamente ao longo do curso principal do rio Cautín e estudar a estrutura da comunidade usando análise de correlação entre os parâmetros dela. Para realizar esta pesquisa, a comunidade de macroinvertebrados foi estudada em dez locais de estudo distribuídos ao longo do rio principal. As amostras foram coletadas no verão (1997 e 2000), em razão das condições hidrológicas ideais. A análise das amostras mostrou que a fauna bentônica é composta de 56 táxons, sendo o grupo dominante o de insetos com 48 táxons. Na distribuição do principal no curso do rio, três setores são reconhecidos: alto, médio e baixo no rio Cautín. Cada setor possui espécies de distribuição restrita e outro com ampla distribuição ao longo do rio. Esses padrões de distribuição parecem influenciar a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido, a temperatura, a distribuição altitudinal e a atividade antropocultural desenvolvida em todos os locais de amostragem. Finalmente, esta pesquisa fornece uma primeira abordagem biológica do rio Cautín e, de acordo com esses conhecimentos, um estudo posterior pode ser planejado em relação aos indicadores de qualidade da água e com base nas comunidades de macroinvertebrados.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235017, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249279

RESUMO

Abstract Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) is widely distributed in the Brazilian savanna and its fruits are used by humans for food, production of cosmetics, lubricants, and in the pharmaceutical industry. This plant is damaged by galling insects. Number of these galling insects and their parasitoids was recorded, in the field (galls) and in the laboratory (adults emerged from the galls), from three C. brasiliense crown heights, during three years. Numbers of adults of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), galling insect (younger attack) and Sycophila sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) (a parasitoid of Eurytoma sp.), were greater on the apical parts of C. brasiliense tree crowns. Numbers and groups of Eurytoma sp. globoid galls (older attack) were higher in the median and basal crown parts. The numbers of Eurytoma sp. galls were higher on apical part of C. brasiliense tree crown and also of their parasitoids.


Resumo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) é, amplamente, distribuída no cerrado brasileiro e seus frutos são utilizados para alimentação humana, produção de cosméticos, lubrificantes e na indústria farmacêutica, no entanto, é danificada por insetos galhadores. O número de insetos galhadores e seus parasitoides foram avaliados, em campo (galhas) e em laboratório (emergência de adultos das galhas), em três alturas do dossel de C. brasiliense, durante três anos. Os números de adultos Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), inseto galhador (galhas novas) e de Sycophila sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), parasitoide de Eurytoma sp., foram maiores na parte apical do dossel da copa de árvores de C. brasiliense. A quantidade de galhas globoides de Eurytoma sp., isoladas ou em grupo (galhas velhas), foi maior na parte mediana e basal da copa. Os números de adultos do galhador Eurytoma sp. e de seus parasitoides, que os seguem, foram maiores na parte apical da copa de árvores de C. brasiliense.

4.
J. Health NPEPS ; 6(2): 1-23, dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1291053

RESUMO

Objective: to analyze epidemic curves based on mathematical models for the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and the impacts of population density on COVID-19 transmission. Method: the linear, polynomial and exponential regression model was used to make the numerical adjustment of the respective curves empirical. Result: it was found that the models used describe very well the empirical curves in which they were tested. In particular, the polynomial model is able to identify with reasonable reliability the appearance of the inflection point in the accumulated curves, which corresponds to the maximum point of the respective daily curves. The analysis indicates a weak positive correlation between infection, mortality, lethality and deaths from COVID-19 with population density, as revealed by the correlation and analysis of R2 . Conclusion: the models are very effective in describing the COVID-19 and epidemic curves in the estimation of important epidemiological parameters, such as peak case curves and daily deaths, allowing practical and efficient monitoring of the evolution of the epidemic.


Objetivo: analizar curvas epidémicas basadas en modelos matemáticos para el estado de Mato Grosso do Sul y los impactos de la densidad de población en la transmisión de COVID-19. Método: se utilizó el modelo de regresión lineal, polinomial y exponencial para hacer el ajuste numérico valor de las respectivas curvas empíricas. Resultados: se encontró que los modelos utilizados describen muy bien las curvas empíricas en las que fueron probados. En particular, el modelo polinomial es capaz de identificar con razonable fiabilidad la aparición del punto de inflexión en las curvas acumuladas, que corresponde al punto máximo de las respectivas curvas diarias. El análisis indica una correlación positiva débil entre la infección, la mortalidad, la letalidad y las muertes por COVID-19 con la densidad de población, según lo revelado por la correlación y el análisis de R2 .Conclusión: los modelos son muy efectivos para describir el COVID-19 y curvas epidémicas en la estimación de parámetros epidemiológicos importantes, como las curvas de casos máximos y las muertes diarias, lo que permite un seguimiento práctico y eficaz de la evolución de la epidemia.


Objetivo: analisar as curvas epidêmicas com base em modelos matemáticos para o estado de Mato Grosso do Sul e os impactos da densidade populacional na transmissão da COVID-19. Método: o modelo de regressão linear, polinomial e exponencial foi utilizado para fazer o ajuste numérico das respectivas curvas empíricas. Resultados: verificou-se que os modelos utilizados descrevem muito bem as curvas empíricas nas quais foram testados. Em particular, o modelo polinomial é capaz de identificar com razoável confiabilidade o aparecimento do ponto de inflexão nas curvas acumuladas, que corresponde ao ponto máximo das respectivas curvas diárias. A análise indica uma correlação positiva fraca entre infecção, mortalidade, letalidade e mortes por COVID-19 com a densidade populacional, conforme revelado pela correlação e análise de R 2. Conclusão: os modelos são muito eficazes na descrição das curvas epidêmicas de COVID19 e na estimativa de parâmetros epidemiológicos importantes, como curvas de casos de pico e óbitos diários, permitindo um monitoramento prático e eficiente da evolução da epidemia


Assuntos
Modelos Epidemiológicos , COVID-19 , Política de Saúde
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 194, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa is committed to advancing universal health coverage (UHC). The usefulness and potential of using routine health facility data for monitoring progress towards UHC, in the form of the 16-tracer WHO service coverage index (SCI), was assessed. METHODS: Alternative approaches to calculating the WHO SCI from routine data, allowing for disaggregation to district level, were explored. Data extraction, coding, transformation and modelling processes were applied to generate time series for these alternatives. Equity was assessed using socio-economic quintiles by district. RESULTS: The UHC SCI at a national level was 46.1 in 2007-2008 and 56.9 in 2016-2017. Only for the latter period, could the index be calculated for all indicators at a district level. Alternative indicators were formulated for 9 of 16 tracers in the index. Routine or repeated survey data could be used for 14 tracers. Apart from the NCD indicators, a gradient of poorer performance in the most deprived districts was evident in 2016-2017. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to construct the UHC SCI for South Africa from predominantly routine data sources. Overall, there is evidence from district level data of a trend towards reduced inequity in relation to specific categories (notably RMNCH). Progress towards UHC has the potential to overcome fragmentation and enable harmonisation and interoperability of information systems. Private sector reporting of data into routine information systems should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Setor Privado , África do Sul/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150099, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517321

RESUMO

Investigating the effects of the increased global warming through the lens of the Paris agreements would be of particular importance for Central African countries, which are already experiencing multiple socio-political and socio-economic constraints, but are also subject to severe natural hazards that interact to limit their adaptive capacity and thus increase their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. This study explores changes in heat stress and the proportion of population at risk of discomfort over Central Africa, based on an ensemble-mean of high-resolution regional climate model simulations that cover a 30-year period, under 1.5, 2 and 3 °C Global Warming Levels (GWLs). The heat index was computed according to Rothfusz's equation, while the discomfort index was obtained from Thom's formula. The results show that throughout the year but with a predominance from March to August, the spatial extent of both heat and discomfort categories is projected to gradually increase according to the considered GWLs (nearly threefold for an increasing warming thresholds from 1.5 to 3 °C). As these heat conditions become more frequent, they lead to the emergence of days with potentially dangerous heat-related risks, where almost everyone feels discomfort due to heat stress. It thus appears that the majority of populations living in countries located along the Atlantic coast and in the northern and central part of the study area are likely to be more vulnerable to certain health problems, which could have repercussions on the socio-economic development of the sub-region through decreased workers' productivity and increased cooling degree days. Overall, these heat-related risks are more extended and more frequent when the GWL reaches 2 °C and above.

7.
Int J Life Cycle Assess ; : 1-16, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522069

RESUMO

Purpose: Several frameworks coincide in the importance of addressing social impacts to ensure sustainability. However, the agri-food sector, regarded as key in sustainable production, still neglects to identify potential social impacts when applying life cycle approaches. This work contributes to understanding the social performance of three agricultural products from a Latin American and Caribbean developing country as Costa Rica while recognising the challenges of Social-Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) application in this context. Methods: S-LCA represents a powerful technique to evaluate the potential social impacts of a product. Three case studies were analysed through S-LCA, using the subcategory assessment method (SAM) to characterise the social impacts and detect hotspots in the production of green coffee, raw milk and leafy vegetables. Primary data was collected through questionnaires to relevant informants and observations. In addition to secondary information, these data and information were used to assess eight impact subcategories for the farmer and worker stakeholder groups and nine subcategories for the local community. Results and discussion: The main results suggest that the Costa Rican institutional and market frameworks provide an enabling environment for a generally positive social performance in the studied cases. The assessed stakeholders can fulfil basic needs through access to inputs and services and achieve fair-trading conditions. Child labour, forced labour and evidence of environmental or health risks for the surrounding communities were absent. Important efforts to address the delocalisation, migration and child labour were observed, suggesting the potential development of social handprints in further studies. However, the farm production phase, related to farmers and workers, entails hotspots regarding social security and women's empowerment. Moreover, farmers appear as the most vulnerable group because of their overall social performance. Conclusions: S-LCA helped identify relevant areas of intervention in the context of these particular case studies; however, further research and capacity building are recommended to tackle the detected challenges, both in the agri-food chains and in the use of S-LCA. Furthermore, these findings can aid in future decision and policy-making to improve and safeguard the positive social performance observed in the studied products. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11367-021-01964-4.

9.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 21(3): 101577, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479667

RESUMO

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Ruksakiet K, Hanák L, Farkas N, Hegyi P, Sadaeng W, Czumbel LM, Sang-Ngoen T, Garami A, Mikó A, Varga G, Lohinai Z. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite in Root Canal Disinfection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Endod. 2020 Aug;46(8):1032-1041.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2020.05.002. Epub 2020 May 12. PMID: 32413440. SOURCE OF FUNDING: The Hungarian Human Resources Development Operational Program, the Higher Education Excellence Program of the Hungarian Ministry of Human Capacities to the Therapy Research Module of Semmelweis University, National Research, Development and Innovation Office, Hungarian Scientific Research Fund and the Economic Development and Innovation Operative Programme Grant. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Desinfecção , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
10.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 54, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following other countries, Israel passed the Vaccine Injury Compensation Law in 1989, which provides for compensation to vaccine recipients who had suffered injuries without proving negligence. In 2021, after deliberations between the ministries of health and of finance Covid-19 vaccines (administered from the beginning of the campaign on December 20, 2020 and up to December 21, 2022) were included within the compensation law. The current study aims to examine the objectives of Israel's Vaccine Injury Compensation Law, at the time of its enactment, and to explore barriers to their fulfillment. These issues are especially relevant in light of the discussions held on the option for liability exemption which excludes the possibility of redress from the Covid-19 vaccine manufacturers in case of injury attributed to the vaccine, and considering the heavy burden of proof required in standard tort law. METHODS: The study employed a qualitative methodology which made use of both content analysis of relevant documents and in-depth interviews. RESULTS: In passing the Vaccine Injury Compensation Law, legislators sought to assist vaccine recipients who had suffered injuries by both lowering their burden of proof as well as establishing a short and efficient procedure for deliberating their claims. Furthermore, legislators believed that the assurance of compensation to vaccine recipients who had suffered injuries would help to encourage a high rate of vaccination compliance. An examination of the law's implementation over time revealed that the aforementioned goals were not attained. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the law since its enactment missed the opportunity to fulfill its original purposes to promote public health fundamental principles of fairness and solidarity. In addition, the adversarial proceedings as well as some of the law's provisions have the potential to undermine public trust in the State's willingness to grant compensation for injuries that are attributed to vaccines and thereby subvert the law's pivotal objective of promoting trust and vaccine compliance. We suggest that allowing circumstantial evidence as to an association between vaccine and an injury, transitioning to administrative deliberation, making available to the public details of cases where compensation was awarded, as well as other possible emendations would help it better reflect the values of fairness and solidarity that underlying the law's purpose. These would also promote the level of trust in healthcare authorities which is essential to preserving high vaccine coverage.

11.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1541-1549, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465152

RESUMO

AIMS: While a centralized system for the care of patients with a sarcoma has been advocated for decades, regional variations in survival remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate regional variations in survival and the impact of national policies in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in the UK. METHODS: The study included 1,775 patients with a STS who were referred to a tertiary sarcoma centre. The geographical variations in survival were evaluated according to the periods before and after the issue of guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2006 and the relevant evolution of regional management. RESULTS: There had been a significant difference in survival between patients referred from the North East, North West, East Midlands, West Midlands, South West, and Wales in the pre-NICE era (five-year disease-specific survival (DSS); South West, 74% vs North East, 47% (p = 0.045) or West Midlands, 54% (p = 0.049)), which was most evident for patients with a high-grade STS. However, this variation disappeared in the post-NICE era, in which the overall DSS for high-grade STS improved from 47% to 68% at five years (p < 0.001). Variation in the size of the tumour closely correlated with the variation in DSS, and the overall size of the tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis also decreased after the national policies were issued. CONCLUSION: The survival of patients with a STS improved and regional variation corrected after the introduction of national policies, as a result of a decreasing size of tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis, particularly in patients with a high-grade STS. This highlights the positive impact of national guidelines on regional variation in the presentation, management, and outcome in patients with a STS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1541-1549.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Política de Saúde , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci ; 4: 417-447, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465183

RESUMO

Data from satellite instruments provide estimates of gas and particle levels relevant to human health, even pollutants invisible to the human eye. However, the successful interpretation of satellite data requires an understanding of how satellites relate to other data sources, as well as factors affecting their application to health challenges. Drawing from the expertise and experience of the 2016-2020 NASA HAQAST (Health and Air Quality Applied Sciences Team), we present a review of satellite data for air quality and health applications. We include a discussion of satellite data for epidemiological studies and health impact assessments, as well as the use of satellite data to evaluate air quality trends, support air quality regulation, characterize smoke from wildfires, and quantify emission sources. The primary advantage of satellite data compared to in situ measurements, e.g., from air quality monitoring stations, is their spatial coverage. Satellite data can reveal where pollution levels are highest around the world, how levels have changed over daily to decadal periods, and where pollutants are transported from urban to global scales. To date, air quality and health applications have primarily utilized satellite observations and satellite-derived products relevant to near-surface particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Health and air quality communities have grown increasingly engaged in the use of satellite data, and this trend is expected to continue. From health researchers to air quality managers, and from global applications to community impacts, satellite data are transforming the way air pollution exposure is evaluated.

13.
Chemistry ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469606

RESUMO

Tetrahydrides crystallizing in the ThCr 2 Si 2 structure type have been predicted to become stable for a plethora of metals under pressure, and some have recently been synthesized. Through detailed first-principles investigations we show that the metal atoms within these I 4 /mmm symmetry MH 4 compounds may be divalent, trivalent or tetravalent. The valence of the metal atom and its radius govern the bonding and electronic structure of these phases, and their evolution under pressure. The factors important for enhancing superconductivity include a large number of hydrogenic states at the Fermi level, and the presence of quasi-molecular H units whose bonds have been stretched and weakened (but not broken) via electron transfer from the electropositive metal, and via a Kubas-like interaction with the metal. Analysis of the microscopic mechanism of superconductivity in MgH 4 , ScH 4 and ZrH 4 reveals that phonon modes involving a coupled libration and stretch of the H units leading to the formation of more complex hydrogenic motifs are important contributors towards the electron phonon coupling mechanism. In the divalent hydride MgH 4 , modes associated with motions of the hydridic hydrogen atoms were also key contributors, and softened substantially at lower pressures.

14.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 10(3): 18-28, jul.-set.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291450

RESUMO

Procuramos identificar os critérios que conduzem à seleção para investigação de determinadas patologias. O objetivo é verificar se tais critérios são adequados às necessidades de investigação em saúde e respondem aos problemas globais de saúde pública. Tentámos confrontar o que diz a informação científica publicada com a nossa experiência na Comissão de Ética para a Investigação Clínica. Na maioria dos repositórios consultados, há poucas referências a prioridades ou seleção de prioridades, reportando-se a aspetos concretos de patologias específicas. O motor de busca EuropePMC identifica perto de 40 milentradas, sendo o mais significativo que encontrámos. Analisámos alguns dos artigos pela abordagem ética, metodológica para a investigação médica e suas prioridades, nomeadamente, a participação dos pacientes. A interação entre medicamentos antirretrovirais e o consumo de drogas injetáveis e a inclusão de pacientes utilizadores de injetáveis (UDI) em ensaios clínicos só foram investigadas pelas companhias farmacêuticas (e pelos próprios investigadores), pelo confronto e pressão dos principais Community Advisory Boards (CAB), nomeadamente o European CAB. A seleção e arbitragem entre patologias para a investigação não parecem despertar muito interesse por parte de investigadores e da Academia. São os financiadores da investigação, entidades, públicas ou privadas, com ou sem fins lucrativos, que selecionam as áreas a investigar. Nas empresas farmacêuticas, é o retorno económico: doenças de países e regiões de baixos recursos ou raras não têm um mercado. Têm sido as organizações multilaterais e fundações de âmbito global, com os seus financiamentos, a definir as prioridades das investigações em áreas de maior impacto global e social.


We try to identify the criteria leadingto the selection for investigation of certain pathologies. Its goal is to verify whether these criteria are adequate to the global health research needs and respond to the main global public health problems.We tried to confrontwhat the published scientific information says with our own experience as a member of the Ethics Committee for Clinical Research.Most of the open access repositories consulted, refers, mostly, to specificpathologies, with few references to priorities or selection of priorities.The EuropePMC search engine, the most significant of which wehave found,identifies nearly 40.000 entries. We analyzed some of the articles by the ethical, methodological approach to medical research and its priorities, namely, patient participation.Interactionsbetween antiretroviral drugs and injecting drug use and the inclusion of drug user patients in clinical trials where only be investigated by pharmaceutical companies (and the researchers themselves), with the confrontation and pressure from the main Community Advisory Boards(CAB), in particular European CAB.The selection and arbitration between pathologies for research does not seem, comparatively, to raiseinterest on the part of researchers and the Academy. The research funders define the financeable areas.In pharmaceutical companies, it is the economic return, with little interest and social impact of the research results. Diseases in low-resource or rare countries and regions are not an interestingmarket.Multilateral organizations and global foundations have been responsible for prioritizing funding for research in areas of greatest global and social impact.


Buscamos identificar los criterios conducentesa la selecciónpara la investigación de determinadas patologías. Su objetivo último es verificar si dichos criterios son adecuados a las necesidades de investigación en salud y a los problemas de salud pública global.Intentamos confrontarlo que dice la información científica publicada con nuestra experiencia en el Comité de Ética para la Investigación Clínica.La mayoría de los repositorios de acceso abierto consultadosse refieren a patologías concretas,contienen pocas referencias a prioridades o selección de prioridades.El motor de búsqueda EuropePMC,lo más significativoque hemosencontrado,identifica cerca de 40.000 entradas. Analizamos algunos de los artículos por el enfoque ético, metodológico de la investigación médica y sus prioridades, a saber, la participación de los pacientes. Lasinteraccionesentre los medicamentos antirretrovirales y el uso de drogas inyectables y la inclusión de pacientes UDI enensayos clínicos solo fueron investigadas por loenfrentamiento ypresión de los principales Community Advisory Boards(CAB), en particular European CAB.La selección y arbitraje entre patologías para la investigación no parecedespertar mucho interés por parte de los investigadores y de la Academia. Los financiadores de investigación definen las áreas financiables.En las empresas farmacéuticas es el retorno económico, con poco interés e impacto social de los resultados de la investigación. Los países y regiones de recursos escasos o raros no tienen interés económico, no tienen mercado.Las organizacionesy fundaciones multilaterales a nivel global se han encargado de priorizar la financiación de la investigación en áreas de mayor impacto global y social.

15.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 10(3): 101-126, jul.-set.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291456

RESUMO

O objetivo do trabalho é analisar o direito de acesso aos benefícios do desenvolvimento científico-tecnológico, tendo as vacinas contra aCOVID-19 como referência de estudo. O texto se sustenta metodologicamente em artigos da Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos da UNESCO(DUBDH) que tem relação direta com a situação proposta. O estudo inicia com a apresentação da DUBDH e breve histórico de seus pressupostos básicos. Com base nos Artigos 21 e 24 que tratam respectivamente das Práticas Transnacionais e Cooperação Internacional, a reflexão indica mudanças significativas recentes com relação à universalidade do acesso à saúde, substituída nas instâncias da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e Banco Mundial pela proposta de cobertura universal à saúde, com significado e alcance bastante diversos. A partir do Artigo 13 da DUBDH, que trata da Solidariedade e Cooperação, o texto defende o conceito de solidariedade cooperativa, fundamentado na concepção clássica bilateral de solidariedade como ajuda de países poderosos a outros mais necessitados, embora essa possibilidade seja com frequência substituída por situações da chamada solidariedade exploratória. Finalmente, com base no Artigo 15, que trata do Compartilhamento de Benefícios ­central para o presente estudo ­é apresentada uma análise comparativa entre: a) fatos históricos relacionados com a permissão para quebra de patentes no âmbito da Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC) que possibilitaram acesso amplo às terapias antirretrovirais para controle do HIV/AIDS; e b) fatos que passaram acontecer a partir de 2020 com a pandemia de COVID-19 com relação ao direito do acesso às vacinas.


This paper aims to analyze the right to access the benefits of scientific and technological development, using the vaccines against COVID-19 as a study case. The text is methodologically supported by articles in the UNESCOUniversal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (DBHR) that have a direct relationship with the proposed situation. The study begins with the presentation of the DUBDH and a brief history of its basic assumptions. Based on Articles 21 and 24, which deal respectively with TransnationalPractices and International Cooperation, the reflection indicates recent significant changes in relation to the universality of access to health, replaced in the instances of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank for the proposal of universalhealth coverage, with a very different meaning and scope. Based on Article 13 of the DUBDH, which deals with Solidarity and Cooperation, the text defends the concept of cooperative solidarity, based on the classic bilateral conception of solidarity as help from rich countries to others most in need, although this possibility is with frequency replaced by situations of the so-called exploratory solidarity. Finally, based on Article 15, which deals with Sharing of Benefits ­central to the present study ­a comparative analysis is presented between: a) historical facts related to the permission to break patents within the scope of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that enabled broad access to antiretroviral therapies to control HIV/AIDS; and b) facts that have happened since 2020 with the COVID-19 pandemic regarding the right of access to vaccines.


El objetivo del trabajo es analizar el derecho de acceso a los beneficios del desarrollo científico y tecnológico, utilizando vacunas contra COVID-19 como referencia del estudio. El texto se apoya metodológicamente en artículos de la Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos de la UNESCO(DUBDH) que tienen una relación directa con la situación propuesta. El estudio comienza con la presentación de la DUBDH y un breve histórico de sus supuestos básicos. Con base en los artículos 21 y 24, que tratan respectivamente de Prácticas Transnacionales y Cooperación Internacional, la reflexión señala cambios significativos recientes en relación a la universalidad de acceso a la salud, reemplazada en las instancias de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y Banco Mundial por la propuesta de cobertura universal de salud, con un significado y alcance muy diferente. Con base en el artículo 13 de la DUBDH, que trata de Solidaridad y Cooperación, el texto defiende el concepto de solidaridad cooperativa, partiendo de la clásica concepción bilateral de la solidaridad como ayuda de los países ricos a otros más necesitados, aunque esta posibilidad es sustituidacon frecuencia por situaciones de la llamada solidaridad exploratoria. Finalmente, conbase en el artículo 15, que trata del Aprovechamiento Compartido de los Beneficios ­fundamental para el presente estudio­se presenta un análisis comparativo entre: a) hechos históricos relacionados con el permiso para romper patentes en el ámbito de laOrganización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) que permitió un amplio acceso a terapias antirretrovirales para controlar el VIH/SIDA; y b) hechos ocurridos desde 2020 con la pandemia de COVID-19 en relación al derecho de acceso a las vacunas.

16.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 418-425, jul.-sept. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286275

RESUMO

RESUMEN Las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones forman parte esencial del desarrollo científico-tecnológico actual, han invadido todas las esferas de la vida humana, incluyendo la educación. En esta compleja vorágine es recurrente la tendencia a la formación de seres humanos peligrosamente atados a necesidades e intereses creados artificialmente por estos medios y la propaganda que divulgan. El presente trabajo pretende resaltar cuestiones relacionadas con su empleo en el contexto universitario, con énfasis en algunas consecuencias negativas que puede provocar su uso inadecuado o abusivo, y alentar a la universidad cubana a concretar una didáctica educativa congruente con las necesidades sociales actuales.


ABSTRACT Information and Communication Technologies are an essential part of current scientific-technological development; they have invaded all spheres of human life, including education. In this complex maelstrom there is a recurring tendency to the formation of human beings dangerously tied to needs and interests artificially created by these media and the propaganda they disseminate. The present work aims to highlight issues related to its use in the university context, with emphasis on some negative consequences that its inappropriate or abusive use may cause, and to encourage the Cuban university to specify an educational didactics congruent with current social needs.

17.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 490-493, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288610

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: The essence of sustainable development is ecological civilization. The entire modern development, including sports in colleges and universities, is built based on resource conservation, enhanced environmental support capabilities, and a virtuous ecological environment cycle to achieve sustainable economic and social development. Objective: Looking at the development history of sports in Chinese colleges and universities for more than 50 years, there have been many successful experiences in human resource development, and there are also many problems that need to be solved. Methods: The author took 442 people from 4 provinces as the survey object, researched and discussed the evaluation indicators of the sustainable development of sports in colleges and universities. After factor analysis and professional theoretical research, a total of 15 indicators in 5 categories were established: science and technology, moral education, system Standard category, economic, competitive development category, external input category, and the coach training system category that eliminates "inbreeding." Results: The author found in the research that both sports and non-sports families in China are unwilling to engage in sports and college sports for their children. The main reasons are traditional ideological issues, sports social status issues, and athletes' education issues. Among them, coaches, the "inbreeding" training system is one of the main reasons that affect the sports talent resources of colleges and universities in China. Conclusions: There can be at least five types of evaluation indicators for the sustainable development of sports in Chinese colleges and universities: science and technology and ethics education, institutional norms, economic and competitive development, external investment, and a coach training system that eliminates inbreeding. The income of sports families is generally lower than that of non-sports families, and their education level is also lower. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A essência do desenvolvimento sustentável é a civilização ecológica Todo o desenvolvimento moderno, incluindo esportes universitários, é baseado na economia de recursos, fortalecimento da capacidade de suporte ambiental e realização do desenvolvimento econômico e social sustentável do ciclo ecológico e ambiental. Objetivo: revisar o curso de desenvolvimento de educação física da universidade chinesa por mais de 50 anos, há muitas experiências bem-sucedidas no desenvolvimento de recursos humanos e muitos problemas a serem resolvidos. Métodos: 442 pessoas de 4 províncias foram investigadas para conhecer o índice de avaliação do desenvolvimento sustentável da educação física universitária. Por meio da análise fatorial e da pesquisa da teoria profissional, foram determinados 15 índices de cinco categorias principais: ciência e tecnologia, educação moral, normas institucionais, economia, desenvolvimento competitivo, insumos externos e eliminação da consanguinidade. Resultados: as famílias esportivas e não esportivas não estão dispostas a permitir que seus filhos participem de atividades esportivas universitárias, sendo os principais motivos as ideias tradicionais, o status social do esporte e a educação dos atletas. Entre eles, o sistema de treinamento "consanguíneo" de treinadores é um dos principais motivos que afetam os recursos de talentos esportivos das universidades chinesas. Conclusão: O índice de avaliação do desenvolvimento sustentável da educação física nas universidades chinesas pode ser dividido em pelo menos cinco categorias: educação científica e ética, normas institucionais, desenvolvimento econômico e competitivo, investimento externo, eliminação do sistema endógamo de treinamento de treinadores. A renda das famílias que praticam esportes é geralmente menor do que a das não praticantes, e o nível de educação também é baixo. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: la esencia del desarrollo sostenible es la civilización ecológica. Todo el desarrollo moderno, incluidos los deportes universitarios, se basa en el ahorro de recursos, el fortalecimiento de la capacidad de apoyo ambiental y la realización del desarrollo económico y social sostenible del ciclo ecológico y ambiental. Objetivo: revisar el curso de desarrollo de la educación física universitaria en China durante más de 50 años, hay muchas experiencias exitosas en el desarrollo de los recursos humanos, y hay muchos problemas que resolver. Métodos: 442 personas de 4 provincias fueron investigadas para conocerel índice de evaluación del desarrollo sostenible de la educación física universitaria. A través del análisis factorial y la investigación de la teoría profesional, se han determinado 15 índices de cinco categorías principales: ciencia y tecnología, educación moral, normas institucionales, economía, desarrollo competitivo, insumos externos y eliminación de la endogamia. Resultados: tanto las familias deportivas como las no deportivas no están dispuestas a que sus hijos participen en actividades deportivas universitarias. Las principales razones son las ideas tradicionales, la condición social deportiva y la educación de los atletas. Entre ellas, el sistema de formación de "endogamia" de los entrenadores es una de las principales razones que afectan a los recursos de talentos deportivos de las universidades chinas. Conclusión: el índice de evaluación del desarrollo sostenible de la educación física en las universidades de China puede dividirse en al menos cinco categorías: educación científica y ética, normas institucionales, desarrollo económico y competitivo, inversión externa, eliminación del sistema de formación de entrenadores endogámico. Los ingresos de las familias deportivas son generalmente inferiores a los de las familias no deportivas, y el nivel de educación también es bajo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473780

RESUMO

The study is aimed at the frosting problem of the air source heat pump in the low temperature and high humidity environment, which reduces the service life of the system. First, the frosting characteristics at the evaporator side of the air source heat pump system are analyzed. Then, a new defrost technology is proposed, and dimensional theory and neural network are combined to predict the transfer performance of the new system. Finally, an adaptive network control algorithm is proposed to predict the frosting amount. This algorithm optimizes the traditional neural network algorithm control process, and it is more flexible, objective, and reliable in the selection of the hidden layer, the acquisition of the optimal function, and the selection of the corresponding learning rate. Through model performance, regression analysis, and heat transfer characteristics simulation, the effectiveness of this method is further confirmed. It is found that, the new air source heat pump defrost system can provide auxiliary heat, effectively regulating the temperature and humidity. The mean square error is 0.019827, and the heat pump can operate efficiently under frosting conditions. The defrost system is easy to operate, and facilitates manufactures designing for different regions under different conditions. This research provides reference for energy conservation, emission reduction, and sustainable economic development.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149781, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467898

RESUMO

Increasing trade cooperation under the Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative has promoted economic development and intensified the water scarcity risk transmission between China and countries along the route (B&R countries). Local water scarcity risk (LWSR, the potential direct production losses induced by local water scarcity) can transcend geographical boundaries through global supply chains and influence production activities in downstream economies. To understand the vulnerability of the Initiative to water scarcity, we investigated the impacts of LWSR in China and B&R countries on each other's economies during 2001-2013, using a global environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model. Results reveal that more than 80% of China's trade-related water scarcity risk imports (TWSR imports, the vulnerability to foreign water scarcity risk through imports) originates from B&R countries. The share of TWSR from China in total imports of B&R countries has steadily increased. In particular, India, Thailand, Iran, Pakistan and Kazakhstan have the largest TWSR exports (LWSR in each nation transmitted to other nations through its exports) to China, while South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia have the largest imports from China. Water scarcity to their Agriculture sectors is responsible for TWSR transmission between them. Our study can contribute to the policy-making of governments and firms involved in mitigating the supply chain wide water scarcity risk. It also reveals the need for nations to collectively manage water resources to achieve sustainable development.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149745, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467916

RESUMO

The growing social awareness of environmental protection entails that the assumptions of the sustainable development idea are being implemented in various economic sectors at an increasingly fast pace. One of them is the power industry, the sustainable development of which is now becoming a priority in economic policy for many countries. The paper refers to this issue by developing methodology for both studying and assessing the level of sustainable energy development in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The study involved 21 indicators characterizing the sustainable energy development of these countries in the areas of energy, environmental, economic, and social security for 2008 and 2018. When considering the complexity of the subject matter and the wide scope of the research, four methods of multi-criteria data analysis (TOPSIS, VIKOR, MOORA and COPRAS) were used. For each of them, based on the adopted criteria, synthetic indicators were determined, which allowed for the assessment of the level of sustainable energy development in the CEE countries. Weights for the adopted indicators were identified based on the Shanon's Entropy method. Afterwards, an unambiguous assessment of the level of sustainable energy development of the CEE countries was performed. The results showed that in 2008 and 2018, the best ranking position was held by Latvia and Croatia, and the worst ranking position was held by Poland and Bulgaria. The method of multidimensional scaling made it possible to determine the positions of studied countries on scatter plots in two-dimensional space, which showed differences between individual CEE countries. All in all, the applied methods allowed for a considerably broad assessment of the level of sustainable energy development of the CEE countries.

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