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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130669, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365252

RESUMO

Analysis of digital images by smartphone was used for copper quantification in sugarcane spirit (cachaça) samples through the formation of blue complex between copper and cuprizone. An experimental design was carried out to evaluate the best complexation reaction conditions. Moreover, different image acquisition procedures (external camera coupled to a smartphone or the smartphone camera) with different regions of interest sizes, distances in image acquisition, and concentration ranges of the calibration curve and the influence of processing the curve in univariate and multivariate modes, by PLS, were evaluated. The results obtained in three real samples and two spikes were compared with those of UV-Vis spectrophotometry, used as a reference method, and they show the potential of the proposed method for the accurate determination of copper. When compared to traditional techniques, the proposed method has the advantages of portability and low cost in addition to requiring a smaller amount of reagents.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239691, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249238

RESUMO

Abstract The loop is a material classically used in the laboratory for the purpose of plate streaking and handling biological materials. However, metal loops techniques might be time consuming, considering the amount of time spent to guarantee its cooling process through each inoculation. Furthermore, plastic loops may also represent environmental issues during its production and discard process and can also represent higher costs for the laboratory. Thus, in situations of limited resources, even the simplest materials can be restricted due to logistical and budgetary issues, especially in developing countries. Inspired by demands like these, facing an occasional shortage of supply of laboratory plastic handles, we hereby present a quality control for sterilization methods and cost-effectiveness studies towards the use of wooden sticks in a Latin American country and we discuss the possibility of the large-scale use of this technique.


Resumo A alça calibrada é um material usado classicamente em laboratório para fins de inoculação em placas e manuseio de materiais biológicos. No entanto, as técnicas de alças metálicas podem consumir muito tempo, considerando a quantidade de tempo gasto para garantir seu processo de resfriamento a cada inoculação. Além disso, alças de plástico também podem representar questões ambientais durante o processo de produção e descarte e também podem representar custos mais altos para o laboratório. Assim, em situações de recursos limitados, até os materiais mais simples podem ser restringidos devido a questões logísticas e orçamentárias, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento. Inspirados por demandas como essas, diante de uma escassez ocasional de suprimentos de alças de plástico de laboratório, apresentamos um controle de qualidade para métodos de esterilização e estudos de custo-efetividade para o uso de varas de madeira em um país latino-americano e discutimos a possibilidade de grande uso em escala dessa técnica.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18055, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508114

RESUMO

The scale up of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide treated nets have contributed significantly to global reductions in malaria prevalence over the last two decades. However, widespread pyrethroid resistance has necessitated the use of new and more expensive insecticides for IRS. Partial IRS with pirimiphos-methyl in experimental huts and houses in a village-wide trial was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae s.l. in northern Ghana. Four different scenarios in which either only the top or bottom half of the walls of experimental huts were sprayed, with or without also spraying the ceiling were compared. Mortality of An. gambiae s.l. on partially sprayed walls was compared with the standard procedures in which all walls and ceiling surfaces are sprayed. A small-scale trial was then conducted to assess the effectiveness, feasibility, and cost of spraying only the upper walls and ceiling as compared to full IRS and no spraying in northern Ghana. Human landing catches were conducted to estimate entomological indices and determine the effectiveness of partial IRS. An established transmission dynamics model was parameterized by an analysis of the experimental hut data and used to predict the epidemiological impact and cost effectiveness of partial IRS for malaria control in northern Ghana. In the experimental huts, partial IRS of the top (IRR 0.89, p = 0.13) or bottom (IRR 0.90, p = 0.15) half of walls and the ceiling was not significantly less effective than full IRS in terms of mosquito mortality. In the village trial, the annual entomological inoculation rate was higher for the unsprayed control (217 infective bites/person/year (ib/p/yr)) compared with the fully and partially sprayed sites, with 28 and 38 ib/p/yr, respectively. The transmission model predicts that the efficacy of partial IRS against all-age prevalence of malaria after six months would be broadly equivalent to a full IRS campaign in which 40% reduction is expected relative to no spray campaign. At scale, partial IRS in northern Ghana would have resulted in a 33% cost savings ($496,426) that would enable spraying of 36,000 additional rooms. These findings suggest that partial IRS is an effective, feasible, and cost saving approach to IRS that could be adopted to sustain and expand implementation of this key malaria control intervention.

4.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 779, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contradictory opinions about whether early correction and fusion surgeries should be performed for congenital scoliosis (CS) patients at a young age exist. The objectives of this study were to analyze the association between patient characteristics and fusion-surgery outcomes in CS patients treated with spinal correction and fusion surgeries and to report risk factors for extended length of stay (LOS), more estimated blood loss (EBL), longer fused segments and higher medical costs. METHODS: We analyzed data of 1,207 CS inpatients treated with fusion surgeries in our institute from January 2010 - December 2019. All patients underwent spinal X-ray, CT, MRI, echocardiogram and urogenital ultrasound. We analyzed demographic and clinical information and outcome measures, including LOS, EBL, fused segments and medical costs. RESULTS: Age at fusion (OR = 1.053; p < 0.001), musculoskeletal defects (OR = 1.670; p = 0.004) and thoracic deformity (OR = 1.519; p = 0.03) were risk factors for extended LOS. Age at fusion (OR = 1.117; p < 0.001), male sex (OR = 1.813; p < 0.001), mixed defects (OR = 1.662; p = 0.027) and failure of formation (OR = 1.718; p = 0.021) were risk factors for more EBL. Age at fusion (OR = 1.213; p < 0.001) was a risk factor for longer fused segments. Age at fusion (OR = 1.091; p < 0.001) and thoracic deformity (OR = 1.853; p = 0.004) were risk factors for higher medical costs. CONCLUSIONS: We found that older age at fusion in CS patients is a risk factor for extended LOS, more EBL, longer fused segments and higher medical costs with the risk increasing by 5-21 % for each year of age. Other identified risk factors include thoracic deformity for extended LOS; longer fused segments, higher medical costs, and musculoskeletal defects for extended LOS; and CS type (FF and MD) and sex (male) for more EBL.


Assuntos
Escoliose , Fusão Vertebral , Idoso , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 955, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, elective spinal surgery rates in workers' compensation populations are high, as are reoperation rates, while return-to-work rates following spinal surgery are low. Little information is available from Australia. The aim of this study was to describe the rates, costs, return to work and reoperation following elective spinal surgery in the workers' compensation population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used administrative data from the State Insurance Regulatory Authority, the government organisation responsible for regulating and administering workers' compensation insurance in NSW. These data cover all workers' compensation-insured workers in New South Wales (over 3 million workers/year). We identified a cohort of insured workers who underwent elective spinal surgery (fusion or decompression) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2018. People who underwent surgery for spinal fracture or dislocation, or who had sustained a traumatic brain injury were excluded. The main outcome measures were annual spinal surgery rates, cost of the surgical episode, cumulative costs (surgical, hospital, medical and physical therapy) to 2 years post-surgery, and reoperation and return-to-work rates 2 years post-surgery. RESULTS: There were 9343 eligible claims (39.1 % fusion; 59.9 % decompression); claimants were predominantly male (75 %) with a mean age of 43 (range 18 to 75) years. Spinal surgery rates ranged from 15 to 29 surgeries per 100,000 workers per year, fell from 2011-12 to 2014-15 and rose thereafter. The average cost in Australian dollars for a surgical episode was $46,000 for a spinal fusion and $20,000 for a decompression. Two years post-fusion, only 19 % of people had returned to work at full capacity; 39 % after decompression. Nineteen percent of patients underwent additional spinal surgery within 2 years of the index surgery, to a maximum of 5 additional surgeries. CONCLUSION: Rates of workers' compensation-funded spinal surgery did not rise significantly during the study period, but reoperation rates are high and return-to-work rates are low in this population at 2 years post- surgery. In the context of the poor evidence base supporting lumbar fusion surgery, the high cost, increasing rates, and the increased likelihood of poor outcomes in the workers' compensation population, we question the value of this procedure in this setting.


Assuntos
Retorno ao Trabalho , Indenização aos Trabalhadores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia has maintained low rates of SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, due to geographic location and strict public health restrictions. However, the financial and social impacts of these restrictions can negatively affect parents' and children's mental health. In an existing cohort of mothers recruited for their experience of adversity, this study examined: 1) families' experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic and public health restrictions in terms of clinical exposure, financial hardship family stress, and family resilience (termed 'COVID-19 impacts'); and 2) associations between COVID-19 impacts and maternal and child mental health. METHODS: Participants were mothers recruited during pregnancy (2013-14) across two Australian states (Victoria and Tasmania) for the 'right@home' trial. A COVID-19 survey was conducted from May-December 2020, when children were 5.9-7.2 years old. Mothers reported COVID-19 impacts, their own mental health (Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales short-form) and their child's mental health (CoRonavIruS Health and Impact Survey subscale). Associations between COVID-19 impacts and mental health were examined using regression models controlling for pre-COVID-19 characteristics. RESULTS: 319/406 (79%) mothers completed the COVID-19 survey. Only one reported having had COVID-19. Rates of self-quarantine (20%), job or income loss (27%) and family stress (e.g., difficulty managing children's at-home learning (40%)) were high. Many mothers also reported family resilience (e.g., family found good ways of coping (49%)). COVID-19 impacts associated with poorer mental health (standardised coefficients) included self-quarantine (mother: ß = 0.46, child: ß = 0.46), financial hardship (mother: ß = 0.27, child: ß = 0.37) and family stress (mother: ß = 0.49, child: ß = 0.74). Family resilience was associated with better mental health (mother: ß = -0.40, child: ß = -0.46). CONCLUSIONS: The financial and social impacts of Australia's public health restrictions have substantially affected families experiencing adversity, and their mental health. These impacts are likely to exacerbate inequities arising from adversity. To recover from COVID-19, policy investment should include income support and universal access to family health services.

7.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20210156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the average direct cost of procedures performed by health professionals, in a Dialysis Center, for the management of complications of vascular access for hemodialysis. METHOD: Quantitative, exploratory-descriptive case study type research. The average direct cost was calculated by multiplying the time spent by health professionals by the unit cost of direct labor, adding this to the input costs (materials/ medicines/solutions). RESULTS: The following average direct costs were obtained: US$0.72, US$2.00 and US$1.41 for "administration of easy-to-dilute, difficult-to-dilute, and undiluted antibiotics", respectively; $2.61 for "central venous catheter dressing with topical antibiotic"; $48.05 for "alteplase infusion"; US$183.68 for "insertion of central venous catheter for hemodialysis"; and $1.31 for "arteriovenous fistula puncture". CONCLUSION: Material and drug costs significantly contributed to the composition of the average total direct cost of most procedures.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Diálise Renal , Bandagens , Cateterismo , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132130, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517237

RESUMO

Pb(II) ions is an inorganic pollutant that is present in the environment. Its presence affects both human health and ecosystem. Economically, amongst many wastewater treatment approaches, adsorption is both cheap and environmentally friendly for removing Pb(II) ion from contaminated water. In this state of the art review, about 227 research and review based publications on adsorption-based studies between 1989 and 2021, which have used various materials as adsorbents of Pb (II) ions, were selected and reviewed for more evaluation. A number of adsorbents which have been reported in these literatures for the adsorption of Pb(II) ion are agrobased, modified agrobased, clay minerals, modified/nanocomposite clay minerals, silica-based, zeolite-based and chitosan-based adsorbents, respectively. The adsorption potential of the adsorbents is exhibited under optimum experimental conditions. The unmodified and modified agro based adsorbents were shown to exhibit the greatest Pb(II) adsorption capacity, with great potential for further exploration, compared to the others afore-listed. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose and reaction time are discussed. Furthermore, in order to comprehend the nature of adsorption process between the adsorbent and contaminant (Pb(II)), thermodynamic analyses of adsorption systems are intensively described. All these discussions revealed the applicability of adsorption process for toxic Pb(II) ions removal with respect to wastewater treatment techniques. The review concludes by commenting on the various adsorbents' adsorption capacity and proposes some studies that should also be considered in future works.

9.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(19): 1295-1301, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517398

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative outcomes and hospitalization costs between patients undergoing primary or revision posterior cervical discectomy and fusion (PCDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: While prior studies found differences in outcomes between primary and revision anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), risk, and outcome profiles for posterior cervical revision procedures have not yet been elucidated. METHODS: Institutional records were queried for cases involving isolated PCDF procedures to evaluate preoperative characteristics and outcomes for patients undergoing primary versus revision PCDF between 2008 and 2016. The primary outcome was perioperative complications, while perioperative and resource utilization measures such as hospitalization length, required stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), direct hospitalization costs, and 30-day emergency department (ED) admissions were explored as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: One thousand one hundred twenty four patients underwent PCDF, with 218 (19.4%) undergoing a revision procedure. Patients undergoing revision procedures were younger (53.0 vs. 60.5 yrs), but had higher Elixhauser scores compared with the non-revision cohort. Revision cases tended to involve fewer spinal segments (3.6 vs. 4.1 segments) and shorter surgical durations (179.3 vs. 206.3 min), without significant differences in estimated blood loss. There were no significant differences in the overall complication rates (P = 0.20), however, the primary cohort had greater rates of required ICU stays (P = 0.0005) and non-home discharges (P = 0.0003). The revision cohort did experience significantly increased odds of 30-day ED admission (P = 0.04) and had higher direct hospitalization (P = 0.03) and surgical (P < 0.0001) costs. CONCLUSION: Complication rates, including incidental durotomy, were similar between primary and revision PCDF cohorts. Although prior surgery status did not predict complication risk, comorbidity burden did. Nevertheless, patients undergoing revision procedures had decreased risk of required ICU stay but greater risk of 30-day ED admission and higher direct hospitalization and surgical costs.Level of Evidence: 3.


Assuntos
Doenças da Coluna Vertebral , Fusão Vertebral , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Talanta ; 235: 122750, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517618

RESUMO

A 3D reduced graphene oxide (3D-rGO), a self-supported, efficient, and low-cost sorbent, was synthesised and employed in a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. As a proof of concept, it was applied to remove diclofenac from aqueous solution. After applying statistical methods to systematically investigate key parameters for optimizing the 3D-rGO cartridge performance, it reached removal and elution efficiencies of 100 % and 90 %, respectively. This SPE cartridge presented advantages compared to traditional ones as the smaller amount of material into the cartridge (mass twenty times smaller), in addition to the ability of eliminating sorbent preconditioning, reducing the use of solvents, and making the process environmentally friendly with a faster operation. Also, it presented improved reproducibility after several cycles of reuse, and finally a lower cost of production unveiled by a cost-benefit analysis. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode suggested that the 3D framework morphology with a high content of carbon at the surface and some residual oxygen-containing groups are the protagonists in this performance. Therefore, 3D-rGO has the potential to be a highly efficient sorbent in analytical procedures using SPE for environmental contaminants in water and effluent samples.


Assuntos
Grafite , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Água
11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518939

RESUMO

AIM: To report revolutionary reorganization of academic gastroenterology division from COVID-19 pandemic surge at metropolitan Detroit epicenter from 0 infected patients on March 9, 2020, to > 300 infected patients in hospital census in April 2020 and > 200 infected patients in April 2021. SETTING: GI Division, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, has 36 GI clinical faculty; performs > 23,000 endoscopies annually; fully accredited GI fellowship since 1973; employs > 400 house staff annually since 1995; tertiary academic hospital; predominantly voluntary attendings; and primary teaching hospital, Oakland-University-Medical-School. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Expert opinion. Personal experience includes Hospital GI chief > 14 years until 2020; GI fellowship program director, several hospitals > 20 years; author of > 300 publications in peer-reviewed GI journals; committee-member, Food-and-Drug-Administration-GI-Advisory Committee > 5 years; and key hospital/medical school committee memberships. Computerized PubMed literature review was performed on hospital changes and pandemic. Study was exempted/approved by Hospital IRB, April 14, 2020. RESULTS: Division reorganized patient care to add clinical capacity and minimize risks to staff of contracting COVID-19 infection. Affiliated medical school changes included: changing "live" to virtual lectures; canceling medical student GI electives; exempting medical students from treating COVID-19-infected patients; and graduating medical students on time despite partly missing clinical electives. Division was reorganized by changing "live" GI lectures to virtual lectures; four GI fellows temporarily reassigned as medical attendings supervising COVID-19-infected patients; temporarily mandated intubation of COVID-19-infected patients for esophagogastroduodenoscopy; postponing elective GI endoscopies; and reducing average number of endoscopies from 100 to 4 per weekday during pandemic peak! GI clinic visits reduced by half (postponing non-urgent visits), and physical visits replaced by virtual visits. Economic pandemic impact included temporary, hospital deficit subsequently relieved by federal grants; hospital employee terminations/furloughs; and severe temporary decline in GI practitioner's income during surge. Hospital temporarily enhanced security and gradually ameliorated facemask shortage. GI program director contacted GI fellows twice weekly to ameliorate pandemic-induced stress. Divisional parties held virtually. GI fellowship applicants interviewed virtually. Graduate medical education changes included weekly committee meetings to monitor pandemic-induced changes; program managers working from home; canceling ACGME annual fellowship survey, changing ACGME physical to virtual site visits; and changing national conventions from physical to virtual. CONCLUSION: Reports profound and pervasive GI divisional changes to maximize clinical resources devoted to COVID-19-infected patients and minimize risks of transmitting infection.

12.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(10): 2164-2172, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519717

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exercise usually results in less weight loss than expected. This suggests increased energy intake and/or deceased expenditure counteract the energy deficit induced by exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in components of daily energy expenditure (doubly labeled water and room calorimetry) after 24 wk of exercise training with two doses of aerobic exercise. METHODS: This was an ancillary study in 42 (29 women, 13 men) sedentary, middle-age (47.8 ± 12.5 yr) individuals with obesity (35 ± 3.7 kg·m-2) enrolled in the Examination of Mechanisms of Exercise-induced Weight Compensation study. Subjects were randomized to three groups: healthy living control group (n = 13), aerobic exercise that expended 8 kcal·kg-1 of body weight per week (8 KKW, n = 14), or aerobic exercise that expended 20 kcal per kilogram of weight per week (20 KKW, n = 15). Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was measured in free-living condition by doubly labeled water and in sedentary conditions in a metabolic chamber over 24 h (24EE). Energy intake was calculated over 14 d from TDEE before and after the intervention using the intake-balance method. RESULTS: Significant weight loss occurred with 20 KKW (-2.1 ± 0.7 kg, P = 0.04) but was only half of expected. In the 20 KKW group free-living TDEE increased by ~4% (P = 0.03), which is attributed to the increased exercise energy expenditure (P = 0.001), while 24EE in the chamber decreased by ~4% (P = 0.04). Aerobic exercise at 8 KKW did not induce weight change, and there was no significant change in any component of EE. There was no significant change in energy intake for any group (P = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Structured aerobic exercise at a dose of 20 KKW produced less weight loss than expected possibly due to behavioral adaptations leading to reduced 24EE in a metabolic chamber without any change in energy intake.

13.
J Fam Econ Issues ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522076

RESUMO

This study provides an evidence-based link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult financial wellbeing. Drawing on a comprehensive financial wellbeing framework that was developed by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, we analyze data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a survey designed primarily to measure health behaviors and outcomes, but which also asks about financial wellbeing aspects such as food and housing security. We use ordered probit analysis to investigate how respondents' self-reported levels of food security and housing security are influenced by demographics that include remembered ACEs and find that, at various income levels, financial stress in adulthood is related to childhood trauma. This interdisciplinary approach to studying financial outcomes extends work in public health and psychology that establishes a link between ACEs and adult physical and mental health measures. The finding is timely as policy makers craft responses to global public health, financial, and other shocks. Recognizing this link between ACEs and adult financial wellbeing provides additional evidence that educators, therapists, social workers, and other professionals should collaborate and develop integrated practices to prevent or reduce ACEs and promote resilience.

14.
JAAPA ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524163

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This economic analysis of physician assistant/associate (PA) career earnings sought to assess the increasing effect of student debt, its potential effect on job selection, and whether such financial obligations may influence graduates to select higher-paying specialties. The model was a 30-year-old newly graduated PA who begins working in family medicine. A simulation included wages, student debt, national household expenditures, and real estate statistics. The scenario consisted of a high and middle cost of living in two geographic areas, a family of four, and an average life expectancy. Using a validated economic program, a series of calculations produced the financial effect on moderateincome levels and expenditures based on median PA earnings. On the deficit side is education debt, loan repayment, financing a house, college for children, retirement, and discretionary spending. Weighted variables were used to maximize the sensitivity effect of the simulation. A Monte Carlo probabilistic program predicted the likely outcome of income, expenses, inflation, and investments. Furthermore, the lifetime earnings of a PA who retires at age 67 years and lives to age 85 years falls in the 75th percentile of income of all Americans. The conclusion is that a full-time PA career in any clinical role is as economically rewarding as it is satisfying.

15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(9): e1008380, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478440

RESUMO

For various species, high quality sequences and complete genomes are nowadays available for many individuals. This makes data analysis challenging, as methods need not only to be accurate, but also time efficient given the tremendous amount of data to process. In this article, we introduce an efficient method to infer the evolutionary history of individuals under the multispecies coalescent model in networks (MSNC). Phylogenetic networks are an extension of phylogenetic trees that can contain reticulate nodes, which allow to model complex biological events such as horizontal gene transfer, hybridization and introgression. We present a novel way to compute the likelihood of biallelic markers sampled along genomes whose evolution involved such events. This likelihood computation is at the heart of a Bayesian network inference method called SnappNet, as it extends the Snapp method inferring evolutionary trees under the multispecies coalescent model, to networks. SnappNet is available as a package of the well-known beast 2 software. Recently, the MCMC_BiMarkers method, implemented in PhyloNet, also extended Snapp to networks. Both methods take biallelic markers as input, rely on the same model of evolution and sample networks in a Bayesian framework, though using different methods for computing priors. However, SnappNet relies on algorithms that are exponentially more time-efficient on non-trivial networks. Using simulations, we compare performances of SnappNet and MCMC_BiMarkers. We show that both methods enjoy similar abilities to recover simple networks, but SnappNet is more accurate than MCMC_BiMarkers on more complex network scenarios. Also, on complex networks, SnappNet is found to be extremely faster than MCMC_BiMarkers in terms of time required for the likelihood computation. We finally illustrate SnappNet performances on a rice data set. SnappNet infers a scenario that is consistent with previous results and provides additional understanding of rice evolution.

16.
Arthroscopy ; 37(9): 2768, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481618

RESUMO

Recent literature supports the concept of superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) in patients with irreparable massive rotator cuff tears. Tensor fascia lata autograft and dermal allograft have been used with reported improvement of clinical outcomes. Long head biceps (LHB) tendon autograft has been proposed as an alternative autograft source for SCR. The advantage of LHB autograft is its anatomic proximity, robust graft strength, and cost-effectiveness. The biomechanical data, as well as short-term clinical outcomes, support the use of LHB autograft for SCR.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Articulação do Ombro , Autoenxertos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Tendões
17.
Arthroscopy ; 37(9): 2883-2884, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481628

RESUMO

Point-of-care harvest and application of residence stem cells are practical and cost-effective. Tissue formerly considered waste contains these biologically potent cells, and use of such tissue may represent a big part of biologics going forward. The practical application of orthobiologics has slowed because of 3 hurdles: the regulatory requirements of stem cell technologies; the energy, time, and money required to develop a clinical evidence base; and the expense that they present to patients and institutions. Orthobiologic technologies that are simple and cheap and that leverage tissues that are already readily available at the point of care (i.e., the surgical procedure) solve many of these challenges. Cell sources could include knee synovium, shoulder subacromial bursa, bone marrow aspirate, and anterior cruciate ligament injury effusion fluid and stump tissue. A current concern is that collagenase processing and culture expansion are steps resulting in regulatory hurdles in the United States.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Bolsa Sinovial , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
18.
Ultrasonics ; 118: 106549, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474357

RESUMO

The state-of-the-art configurations for acoustic-resolution photoacoustic (PA) microscope (AR-PAM) are large in size and expensive, hindering their democratization. While previous research on AR-PAMs introduced a low-cost light source to reduce the cost, few studies have investigated the possibility of optimizing the sensor actuation, particularly for the AR-PAM. Additionally, there is an unmet need to evaluate the image quality deterioration associated with the actuation inaccuracy. A low-cost actuation device is introduced to reduce the system size and cost of the AR-PAM while maintaining the image quality by implementing the advanced beamformers. This work proposes an AR-RAM incorporating the delta configuration actuator adaptable from a low-cost off-the-shelf 3D printer as the sensor actuation device. The image degradation due to the data acquisition positioning inaccuracy is evaluated in the simulation. We further assess the mitigation of potential actuation precision uncertainty through advanced 3D synthetic aperture focusing algorithms represented by the Delay-and-Sum (DAS) with Coherence Factor (DAS+CF) and Delay-Multiply-and-Sum (DMAS) algorithms. The simulation study demonstrated the tolerance of image quality on actuation inaccuracy and the effect of compensating the actuator motion precision error through advanced reconstruction algorithms. With those algorithms, the image quality degradation was suppressed to within 25% with the presence of 0.2 mm motion inaccuracy. The experimental evaluation using phantoms and an ex-vivo sample presented the applicability of low-cost delta configuration actuators for AR-PAMs. The measured full width at half maximum of the 0.2 mm diameter pencil-lead phantom were 0.45 ± 0.06 mm, 0.31 ± 0.04 mm, and 0.35 ± 0.07 mm, by applying the DAS, DAS+CF, and DMAS algorithms, respectively. AR-PAMs with a compact and low-cost delta configuration provide high-quality PA imaging with better accessibility for biomedical applications. The research evaluated the image degradation contributed by the actuation inaccuracy and suggested that the advanced beamformers are capable of suppressing the actuation inaccuracy.

19.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114270, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482274

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the importance of strong and resilient health systems. Yet how much a society should spend on healthcare is difficult to determine because additional health expenditures imply lower expenditures on other types of consumption. Furthermore, the welfare-maximizing ("efficient") aggregate amount and composition of health expenditures depend on efficiency concepts at three levels that often get blurred in the debate. While the understanding of efficiency is good at the micro- and meso-levels-that is, relating to minimal spending for a given bundle of treatments and to the optimal mix of different treatments, respectively-this understanding rarely links to the efficiency of aggregate health expenditure at the macroeconomic level. While micro- and meso-efficiency are necessary for macro-efficiency, they are not sufficient. We propose a novel framework of a macro-efficiency score to assess welfare-maximizing aggregate health expenditure. This allows us to assess the extent to which selected major economies underspend or overspend on health relative to their gross domestic products per capita. We find that all economies under consideration underspend on healthcare with the exception of the United States. Underspending is particularly severe in China, India, and the Russian Federation. Our study emphasizes that the major and urgent issue in many countries is underspending on health at the macroeconomic level, rather than containing costs at the microeconomic level.

20.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 62, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral glucose hypometabolism is consistently observed in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as in young cognitively normal carriers of the Ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (APOE), the strongest genetic predictor of late-onset AD. While this clinical feature has been described for over two decades, the mechanism underlying these changes in cerebral glucose metabolism remains a critical knowledge gap in the field. METHODS: Here, we undertook a multi-omic approach by combining single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) and stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) to define a metabolic rewiring across astrocytes, brain tissue, mice, and human subjects expressing APOE4. RESULTS: Single-cell analysis of brain tissue from mice expressing human APOE revealed E4-associated decreases in genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, particularly in astrocytes. This shift was confirmed on a metabolic level with isotopic tracing of 13C-glucose in E4 mice and astrocytes, which showed decreased pyruvate entry into the TCA cycle and increased lactate synthesis. Metabolic phenotyping of E4 astrocytes showed elevated glycolytic activity, decreased oxygen consumption, blunted oxidative flexibility, and a lower rate of glucose oxidation in the presence of lactate. Together, these cellular findings suggest an E4-associated increase in aerobic glycolysis (i.e. the Warburg effect). To test whether this phenomenon translated to APOE4 humans, we analyzed the plasma metabolome of young and middle-aged human participants with and without the Ε4 allele, and used indirect calorimetry to measure whole body oxygen consumption and energy expenditure. In line with data from E4-expressing female mice, a subgroup analysis revealed that young female E4 carriers showed a striking decrease in energy expenditure compared to non-carriers. This decrease in energy expenditure was primarily driven by a lower rate of oxygen consumption, and was exaggerated following a dietary glucose challenge. Further, the stunted oxygen consumption was accompanied by markedly increased lactate in the plasma of E4 carriers, and a pathway analysis of the plasma metabolome suggested an increase in aerobic glycolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results suggest astrocyte, brain and system-level metabolic reprogramming in the presence of APOE4, a 'Warburg like' endophenotype that is observable in young females decades prior to clinically manifest AD.

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