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DEN Open ; 4(1): e289, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37644958


Objectives: The introduction of artificial intelligence into the medical field has improved the diagnostic capabilities of physicians. However, few studies have analyzed the economic impact of employing artificial intelligence technologies in the clinical environment. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a computer-assisted diagnosis (CADx) system designed to support clinicians in differentiating early gastric cancers from non-cancerous lesions in Japan, where the universal health insurance system was introduced. Methods: The target population to be used for the CADx was estimated as those with moderate to severe gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Decision trees with Markov models were built to analyze the cumulative cost-effectiveness of using CADx relative to the pre-artificial intelligence status quo, a condition reconstructed from data in published reports. After conducting a base-case analysis, we performed sensitivity analyses by modifying several parameters. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results: Compared with the status quo as represented in the base-case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CADx in the Japanese market was forecasted to be 11,093 USD per quality-adjusted life year. The sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the expected incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were within the willingness-to-pay threshold of 50,000 USD per quality-adjusted life year when the cost of the CAD was less than 104 USD. Conclusions: Using CADx for EGCs may decrease their misdiagnosis, contributing to improved cost-effectiveness in Japan.

J Exp Child Psychol ; 237: 105764, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690347


We report two experiments on children's tendency to enhance their reputations through communicative acts. In the experiments, 4-year-olds (N = 120) had the opportunity to inform a social partner that they had helped him in his absence. In a first experiment, we pitted a prosocial act ("Let's help clean up for Doggie!") against an instrumental act ("Let's move these out of our way"). Children in the prosocial condition were quicker to inform their partner of the act and more likely to protest when another individual was given credit for it. In a second experiment, we replicated the prosocial condition but with a new manipulation: high-cost versus low-cost helping. We manipulated both the language surrounding cost (i.e., "This will be pretty tough to clean up" vs. "It will be really easy to clean this up") and how difficult the task itself was. As predicted, children in the high-cost condition were quicker to inform their partner of the act and more likely to take back credit for it. These results suggest that even 4-year-old children make active attempts to elicit positive reputational judgments for their prosocial acts, with cost as a moderating factor.

Comunicação , Julgamento , Masculino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Idioma
Food Chem ; 431: 137165, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37598652


To achieve excellent germplasm resource screening and ensure the quality control of herbal tea raw material, it is important to establish a cost-effective, rapid, and on site quantitative detection method for their bioactive constituents. We developed a smartphone-operated sensor for electrochemical detection of chlorogenic acid (CGA) using hierarchically porous carbon (DSiFPC), synthesized through a soft-hard dual template strategy with tannin acid as a carbon source, silica colloid as a hard template, and Pluronic F127 as a soft template. The DSiFPC modified glassy carbon electrode sensor showed excellent electrocatalytic ability towards CGA, with a wide linear range of 0.03-1 µM and a low limit of detection of 6.2 nM. It was successfully applied for detecting CGA in dried flowers of Lonicera japonica. Furthermore, a portable sensor utilizing a DSiFPC modified screen-printed electrode was employed for on site detection of CGA in fresh Eucommia ulmoides leaves, yielding satisfactory recoveries.

Ácido Clorogênico , Smartphone , Biomassa , Análise Custo-Benefício , Porosidade , Carbono
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125075, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37591152


This study describes the development of a novel disposable and low-cost electrochemical platform for detecting the antibiotic ceftriaxone. The screen-printed electrode has been modified with a novel hybrid nanostructure containing silicon oxide (SiO2), zirconium oxide (ZrO2), and nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (Cdot-N). Different techniques like Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy characterized the hybrid nanostructure used in the sensor surface modifier material. The hybrid nanostructure showed an excellent synergistic effect that contributed to the oxidation reaction of ceftriaxone. The screen-printed electrode modified with SiO2/ZrO2/Cdot-N nanostructure presented high sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.2 nmol L-1 in the linear range of 0.0078-40.02 µmol L-1. The measurements have been performed by square wave voltammetry technique. Studies on real samples of synthetic urine, urine, and tap water showed 95%-105% recovery without applying any sample pretreatment. The sensor demonstrated excellent selectivity in the antibiotic ceftriaxone determination in the presence of possible interferences cationic, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, and biological, glucose, caffeine, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. The developed sensor becomes a selective, sensitive, and applicable tool in determining the antibiotic ceftriaxone.

Ceftriaxona , Pontos Quânticos , Antibacterianos , Dióxido de Silício , Eletrodos
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255493, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360217


The demand for products to replace high-cost raw materials, such oil and fish meal, in the manufacture of feed for use in aquaculture, while also guaranteeing the nutritional quality of the diets, is increasing. Silage produced with fish and vegetables residues is a low-cost and efficient protein source. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses of tambaqui fingerlings fed four different levels of silage included in commercial feed with 28% crude protein, over two periods: 45 and 90 days. Each treatment was carried out over three replications, with 10 tambaqui in each 100 L experimental tank. At the end of each established period, blood samples were collected from five animals from each repetition to determine the hematological and biochemical variables. Body weight and total length, hepatosomatic and liposomal indices and hematocrit of specimens fed with diets supplemented with silage did not exhibit significant changes in both assessment period. After 45 days of feeding, the hemoglobin concentration increased when tambaqui were fed a diet including 20% silage. The red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin did not change between treatments in either period. The total protein concentrations increased significantly in the plasma of tambaqui fed with diets with the inclusion of 5 and 10% of silage, evaluated after feeding for 45 days. It was found that the groups which had silage included in their diet did not exhibit significant alterations in the evaluated parameters, and the diet was therefore not consider harmful to the health of tambaqui. Therefore, the use of silage as a feed supplement during tambaqui farming is a sustainable alternative for producers, as it leads to a reduction of impacts of fish and vegetables waste disposal.

A procura por insumos que substituam produtos de alto custo, como óleo e farinha de peixe, na fabricação de rações para uso na aquicultura é crescente, sendo necessário garantir a qualidade nutricional das dietas. A silagem produzida a partir de resíduos de pescado e de vegetais apresenta-se como uma alternativa de baixo custo e eficiente fonte proteica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas de alevinos de tambaqui alimentados com quatro níveis de inclusão de silagem em ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta, em dois períodos: 45 e 90 dias. Cada tratamento foi realizado em três repetições, com 10 tambaquis em cada caixa experimental de 100 L. Ao término de cada período estabelecido, amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas de cinco animais de cada repetição para determinação das variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas. Peso, comprimento total e índices hepatossomático e lipossomático de espécimes alimentados com silagem não mostraram alterações significativas em ambos os períodos de avaliação, bem como os valores de hematócrito. A concentração de hemoglobina de tambaqui após 45 dias de alimentação aumentou quando foi fornecida dieta com inclusão de 20% de silagem. A contagem de eritrócitos, volume corpuscular médio e hemoglobina corpuscular média não apresentaram alterações entre os tratamentos, em ambos os períodos. As proteínas totais aumentaram significativamente no plasma de tambaquis que receberam dietas com inclusão de 5 e 10% de silagem, avaliados após 45 dias de alimentação. Evidenciou-se que os grupos com inclusão de silagem na dieta não apresentaram alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados, assim não sendo prejudiciais à higidez do tambaqui. Portanto, o uso da silagem como suplemento alimentar durante o cultivo do tambaqui é uma alternativa sustentável para produtores, por promover a redução do descarte de resíduos de pescado e da agricultura.

Animais , Aquicultura , Suplementos Nutricionais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3839, ene.-dic. 2023. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1431827


Objetivo: analizar el costo-efectividad y calcular la relación costoefectividad incremental del tratamiento multicapa compresivo con respecto al inelástico (bota de Unna y estiramiento corto) según la literatura actual. Método: estudio cuantitativo de costo-efectividad a través de un modelo con ayuda del software TreeAge® para la elaboración del árbol de decisión. Los supuestos anunciados se obtuvieron mediante el uso de datos secundarios de la literatura para estimar el costo y la efectividad de los parámetros asumidos. Para ello, se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura con metaanálisis. Resultados: el árbol de decisión, después del Roll Back, mostró que la terapia multicapa prevaleció sobre las alternativas en el caso base, presentó un costo intermedio por aplicación, pero obtuvo la mayor efectividad. El gráfico del análisis de costo-efectividad también demostró que había un dominio extendido de la bota de Unna sobre el vendaje de estiramiento corto. El análisis de sensibilidad reveló que el vendaje multicapa sigue siendo la alternativa con mayor costoefectividad, dentro del umbral de disposición a pagar. Conclusión: la alternativa con mayor costo-efectividad fue el vendaje multicapa, considerado estándar de oro en la literatura. La segunda alternativa con mayor costo-efectividad fue la bota de Unna, la terapia más utilizada en Brasil.

Objective: to analyze the cost-effectiveness and calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of multilayer compressive treatment in relation to inelastic (Unna boot and short stretch) therapy according to the current literature. Method: quantitative study about cost-effectiveness through modeling with the aid of TreeAge® software for construction of the decision tree. The anticipated assumptions were obtained by using secondary literature data to estimate the cost and effectiveness of the assumed parameters. A systematic literature review with meta-analysis was performed for this end. Results: the decision tree after Roll Back showed that the multilayer therapy dominated the alternatives in the base case, representing an intermediate cost per application, although with the highest effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness analysis graph also showed extended dominance of the Unna boot in relation to the short stretch bandage. The sensitivity analysis showed that multilayer bandage remains a more cost-effective alternative, within the threshold of willingness to pay. Conclusion: the most cost-effective alternative was multilayer bandage, considered the gold standard in the literature. The second most cost-effective alternative was the Unna boot, the most used therapy in Brazil.

Objetivo: analisar a custo-efetividade e calcular a razão de custoefetividade incremental do tratamento compressivo multicamadas em relação ao inelástico (bota de Unna e curto estiramento) de acordo com a literatura atual. Método: estudo quantitativo sobre custo-efetividade por meio de modelagem com auxílio do software TreeAge® para a construção da árvore de decisão. Os pressupostos anunciados foram obtidos pelo uso de dados secundários de literatura para estimativa do custo e efetividade dos parâmetros assumidos. Para tal, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de literatura com metanálise. Resultados: a árvore de decisão, após Roll Back mostrou que a terapia multicamadas dominou as alternativas no caso-base, representando custo intermediário por aplicação, porém, com a maior efetividade. O gráfico da análise de custo-efetividade também mostrou uma dominância estendida da bota de Unna em relação à bandagem de curto estiramento. A análise de sensibilidade mostrou que a bandagem multicamadas permanece como alternativa mais custo-efetiva, dentro do limiar de disposição para pagar. Conclusão: a alternativa com maior custo-efetividade foi a bandagem multicamadas, considerada padrão ouro na literatura. A segunda alternativa mais custo-efetiva foi a bota de Unna, terapia mais utilizada no Brasil.

Humanos , Úlcera Varicosa/terapia , Cicatrização , Brasil , Bandagens Compressivas , Análise de Custo-Efetividade
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 31: e74612, jan. -dez. 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444841


Objetivo: analisar os custos operacionais de um pronto-socorro relacionados ao atendimento de pacientes COVID-19 em 2020 e 2021. Método: estudo transversal, descritivo de abordagem quantitativa. A mensuração dos custos utilizou-se da perspectiva do gestor hospitalar, por meio de microcusteio por absorção. Custos diretos, indiretos e variáveis, foram avaliados de cima para baixo (top-down). Resultados: o perfil predominante foi de homens, com idades entre 61 e 70 anos, casados, brancos e moradores de Londrina (Paraná, Brasil). O tempo médio de internação para pacientes graves foi 12,20 dias e, para os demais, 8,38 dias. O desfecho principal foi a alta hospitalar. Os custos operacionais em 2020 foram de R$28.461.152,87, já em 2021 os valores encontrados foram R$43.749.324,61. O custo médio do paciente-dia foi de R$2.614,45 em 2020 para R$3.351,93 em 2021. Conclusão: verificou-se aumento dos custos no período estudado. Conhecer os custos operacionais do pronto-socorro, possibilita o planejamento financeiro institucional contribuindo para qualificar a tomada de decisões gerenciais.

Objective: to analyze the operating costs of an emergency room related to the care of COVID-19 patients in 2020 and 2021. Method: cross-sectional, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. The measurement of costs was used from the perspective of the hospital manager, through absorption micro-costing. Direct, indirect and variable costs were evaluated from top to bottom (top-down). Results: the predominant profile was men, aged between 61 and 70 years, married, white and living in Londrina (Paraná, Brazil). The mean length of stay for critically ill patients was 12.20 days and for the others, 8.38 days. The main outcome was hospital discharge. Operating costs in 2020 were BRL 28,461,152.87, while in 2021 the values found were BRL 43,749,324.61. The average patient-day cost went from R$2,614.45 in 2020 to R$3,351.93 in 2021. Conclusion: costs increased in the study period. Be aware of the operational costs of emergency room, enablement or institutional financial planning, contributing to qualify management decision-making.

Objetivo: analizar los costos operativos de un servicio de urgencias relacionado con la atención de pacientes con COVID-19 en los años 2020 y 2021. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal con enfoque cuantitativo. Se utilizó la medición de costos desde la perspectiva del gestor del hospital, a través del microcosteo por absorción. Los costos directos, indirectos y variables se evaluaron de arriba hacia abajo (top-down). Resultados: el perfil predominante fue el de hombres, con edad entre 61 y 70 años, casados, blancos y residentes en Londrina (Paraná, Brasil). La estancia media de internación de los pacientes críticos fue de 12,20 días y, de los demás, de 8,38 días. El resultado principal fue el alta hospitalaria. Los costos operacionales en 2020 fueron de R$ 28.461.152,87, mientras que en 2021 los valores encontrados fueron de R$ 43.749.324,61. Los costos medios del paciente/día aumentaron de R$2.614,45 en 2020 a R$3.351,93 en 2021. Conclusión: se observó un aumento de los costos en el periodo estudiado. Conocer los costos operativos de un servicio de urgencias posibilita la planificación financiera institucional, contribuyendo a calificar la toma de decisiones gerenciales.

Prenat Diagn ; 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37655424


OBJECTIVE: Long cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can be found in the plasma of pregnant women and cancer patients. We investigated if droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can analyze such molecules for diagnostic purposes using preeclampsia as a model. METHOD: Plasma samples from ten preeclamptic and sixteen normal pregnancies were analyzed. Two ddPCR assays targeting a single-copy gene, VCP, and one ddPCR assay targeting LINE-1 repetitive regions were used to measure the percentages of long cfDNA >533, 1001, and 170 bp, respectively. The LINE-1 assay was developed as guided by in silico PCR analyses to better differentiate preeclamptic and normal pregnancies. RESULTS: Preeclamptic patients had a significantly lower median percentage of long cfDNA than healthy pregnant controls, as determined by the LINE-1 170 bp assay (28.9% vs. 35.1%, p < 0.0001) and the VCP 533 bp assay (6.6% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.014). The LINE-1 assay provided a better differentiation than the VCP 533 bp assay (area under ROC curves, 0.94 vs. 0.79). CONCLUSION: ddPCR is a cost-effective approach for unlocking diagnostic information carried by long cfDNA in plasma and may have applications for the detection of preeclampsia. Further longitudinal studies with larger cohorts are required to assess the clinical utility of this test.

Headache ; 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37655551


OBJECTIVE: To assess healthcare costs and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) among adult patients who newly initiated erenumab in the United States. METHODS: This retrospective, non-interventional analysis included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) newly initiating erenumab and who had three consecutive monthly claims for erenumab (11/1/2017-9/1/2019) from the Komodo Health database. Outcomes included migraine-related and all-cause costs, use of other preventive/acute migraine medications, and HCRU. All outcomes were compared during the 180-day pre- versus the 180-day post-index periods. Cost outcomes were also assessed for longer periods including post-index Days 91-270 and monthly mean post-index costs for the longest time of continuous insurance enrollment. RESULTS: Overall, 1839 patients with migraine were included for analysis. Compared to the 180-day pre-index period, an increase in total migraine-related costs (+$2639; p < 0.0001), migraine-related prescription costs (+$3435, p < 0.0001), all-cause total costs (+$2977; p < 0.001), and all-cause prescription costs (+$4102; p < 0.0001) were observed during the 180-day post-index period after adjusting for covariates. Conversely, reduction in migraine-related medical costs (-$896; p < 0.0001), and significantly lower odds of migraine-related emergency room visits (odds ratio [OR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.82; p = 0.001), migraine-related office visits (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.53-0.64; p < 0.0001), and migraine-related neurologist visits (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63-0.75; p < 0.0001) were observed during the 180-days post-index period. There were significant decreases in the odds of having overall preventive migraine medications (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.87; p < 0.0001), acute-migraine medications (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-1.00; p = 0.038), and triptan (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.85; p < 0.0001) during the 180-day post-index period. Sensitivity analyses on cost outcomes found no statistically significant differences in pre-index migraine-related costs compared to post-index migraine-related costs when assessing longer post-index follow-up periods. CONCLUSION: Initiation of therapy with a novel treatment is often associated with an increase in overall healthcare costs due to the entrance costs associated with novel therapy. For a chronic condition such as migraine, cost versus health benefits should be evaluated over a long period (e.g., ≥2 years) to better understand the true benefits of therapy. Data from this study suggest that the entrance cost for erenumab, the primary driver of the high post-index prescription costs gets mitigated by reduced medical costs over long-term follow-up. The results indicate better disease management in adult patients with migraine, which should be an important consideration for both patients and payors, as these findings have shown an offset between migraine-related prescription and medical costs.

J Comp Eff Res ; : e230107, 2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37655686


Aim: To quantify the economic burden of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among patients with and without adjuvant therapy. Methods: All-cause and NSCLC-related healthcare resource utilization and medical costs were assessed among patients with resected stage IB-IIIA NSCLC in the SEER-Medicare database (1 January 2011-31 December 2019), from NSCLC diagnosis to death, end of continuous enrollment, or end of data availability (whichever occurred first). Results: Patients receiving adjuvant therapy had the lowest mean NSCLC-related medical costs (adjuvant [n = 1776]: USD3738; neoadjuvant [n = 56]: USD5793; both [n = 47]: USD4818; surgery alone [n = 3478]: USD4892, per-person-per-month), driven by lower NSCLC-related hospitalization rates. Conclusion: Post-surgical management of early-stage NSCLC was associated with high economic burden. Adjuvant therapy was associated with numerically lower medical costs over surgical resection alone.

J Comp Eff Res ; : e230055, 2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37655691


Aim: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare blood disorder characterized by hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure and thrombosis, and is associated with high healthcare burden. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of pegcetacoplan, a proximal complement-3 inhibitor (C3i), compared with the C5i, eculizumab and ravulizumab, in complement treatment-naive adults with PNH, from the US healthcare payer perspective. Materials & methods: A de novo cost-effectiveness model based on a Markov cohort structure evaluated lifetime (55-year) PNH costs and outcomes. The 6-month cycles of the model reflected the follow-up period of PRINCE (NCT04085601), an open-label trial of pegcetacoplan compared with eculizumab in C5i-naive patients. Data from PRINCE informed the clinical, safety and health-related quality of life outcomes in the model. Results: Pegcetacoplan was associated with lifetime cost savings of USD1,176,808 and USD213,062 relative to eculizumab and ravulizumab, respectively (largely attributed to reduced drug costs and blood transfusions), and additional quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.25 and 0.24. Conclusion: In patients with PNH who are treatment-naive, the base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, scenario analysis and sensitivity analysis showed both lifetime cost savings and increased QALYs associated with pegcetacoplan compared with eculizumab or ravulizumab in the USA.

J Am Coll Radiol ; 2023 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656075


PURPOSE: The Medicare program, by law, must remain budget neutral. Increases in volume or relative value units (RVUs) for individual services necessitate declines in either the conversion factor or assigned RVUs for other services for budget neutrality. This study aimed to assess the contribution of budget neutrality on reimbursement trends per Medicare fee-for-service beneficiary for services provided by radiologists. METHODS: The study used aggregated 100% of Medicare Part B claims from 2005 to 2021. We computed the percentage change in reimbursement per beneficiary, actual and inflation adjusted, to radiologists. These trends were then adjusted by separately holding constant RVUs per beneficiary and the conversion factor to demonstrate the impact of budget neutrality. RESULTS: Unadjusted reimbursement to radiologists per beneficiary increased 4.2% between 2005 and 2021, but when adjusted for inflation, it declined 24.9%. Over this period, the conversion factor declined 7.9%. Without this decline, the reimbursement per beneficiary would have been 9 percentage points higher in 2021 compared with actual. RVUs per beneficiary performed by radiologists increased 13.1%. Keeping RVUs per beneficiary at 2005 levels, reimbursement per beneficiary would have been 12.1 percentage points lower than observed in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Given budget neutrality, a substantial decline has occurred in inflation-adjusted reimbursement to radiologists per Medicare beneficiary. Decreases due to both inflation and the decline in conversion factor are only partially offset by increased RVUs per beneficiary, meaning more services per patient with less overall pay, an equation likely to heighten access challenges for Medicare beneficiaries and shortages of radiologists.

Med Phys ; 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656065


BACKGROUND: Plan verification is one of the important steps of quality assurance (QA) in carbon ion radiotherapy. Conventional methods of plan verification are based on phantom measurement, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Although the plan verification method based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a more accurate modeling of the physics, it is also time-consuming when simulating with a large number of particles. Therefore, how to ensure the accuracy of simulation results while reducing simulation time is the current difficulty and focus. PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of using deep learning-based MC denoising method to accelerate carbon-ion radiotherapy plan verification. METHODS: Three models, including CycleGAN, 3DUNet and GhostUNet with Ghost module, were used to denoise the 1 × 106 carbon ions-based MC dose distribution to the accuracy of 1 × 108 carbon ions-based dose distribution. The CycleGAN's generator, 3DUNet and GhostUNet were all derived from the 3DUNet network. A total of 59 cases including 29 patients with head-and-neck cancers and 30 patients with lung cancers were collected, and 48 cases were randomly selected as the training set of the CycleGAN network and six cases as the test set. For the 3DUNet and GhostUNet models, the numbers of training set, validation set, and test set were 47, 6, and 6, respectively. Finally, the three models were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using RMSE and three-dimensional gamma analysis (3 mm, 3%). RESULTS: The three end-to-end trained models could be used for denoising the 1 × 106 carbon ions-based dose distribution, and their generalization was proved. The GhostUNet obtained the lowest RMSE value of 0.075, indicating the smallest difference between its denoised and 1 × 108 carbon ions-based dose distributions. The average gamma passing rate (GPR) between the GhostUNet denoising-based versus 1 × 108 carbon ions-based dose distributions was 99.1%, higher than that of the CycleGAN at 94.3% and the 3DUNet at 96.2%. Among the three models, the GhostUNet model had the fewest parameters (4.27 million) and the shortest training time (99 s per epoch) but achieved the best denoising results. CONCLUSION: The end-to-end deep network GhostUNet outperforms the CycleGAN, 3DUNet models in denoising MC dose distributions for carbon ion radiotherapy. The network requires less than 5 s to denoise a sample of MC simulation with few particles to obtain a qualitative and quantitative result comparable to the dose distribution simulated by MC with relatively large number particles, offering a significant reduction in computation time.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656182


PURPOSE: This study aimed to systematically review and critically appraise cost-effectiveness studies on Brentuximab vedotin (BV) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science core collection, and Embase databases were searched until July 3, 2022. We included published full economic evaluation studies on BV for treating patients with HL. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) checklist. Meanwhile, we used qualitative synthesis to analyze the findings. We converted the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) to the value of the US dollar in 2022. RESULTS: Eight economic evaluations met the study's inclusion criteria. The results of three studies that compared BV plus doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (BV + AVD) front-line therapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) showed that BV is unlikely to be cost-effective as a front-line treatment in patients advanced stage (III or IV) HL. Four studies investigated the cost-effectiveness of BV in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) HL after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). BV was not cost-effective in the reviewed studies at accepted thresholds. In addition, the adjusted ICERs ranged from $65,382 to $374,896 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The key drivers of cost-effectiveness were medication costs, hazard ratio for BV, and utilities. CONCLUSION: Available economic evaluations show that using BV as front-line treatment or consolidation therapy is not cost-effective based on specific ICER thresholds for patients with HL or R/R HL. To decide on this orphan drug, we should consider other factors such as existence of alternative treatment options, clinical benefits, and disease burden.

Eur J Health Econ ; 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656261


BACKGROUND: The value of a Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY) is of great importance for the healthcare system. It helps when it comes to defining a cost-effectiveness threshold for the evaluation of health technologies. No willingness-to-pay value for a QALY exists in the province of Quebec, Canada. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we empirically investigated the monetary value of a QALY for the population of Quebec. METHODS: Based on the Short-Form 6-Dimension version 2 (SF-6Dv2), we conducted an online survey with a representative adult sample living in Quebec. We used a time trade-off (TTO) combined with contingent valuation (CV), and a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess both the population's willingness to pay (WTP) for one QALY and the marginal WTP for health attributes. A health utility algorithm using hybrid regression was developed to determine a preference-based value set for health states. RESULTS: Main analysis was conducted on 993 answers for the CV and 2143 answers for the DCE. The willingness-to-pay per QALY varied from CA$ 47,048.84 (CI: 21,554.38; 72,543.30) for CV to CA$ 73,936.87 (CI: 63,105.40; 84,768.35) for DCE. Among the 6 dimensions of the SF-6Dv2, marginal WTP varied from CA$ 4499.15 (CI: 2975.06; 6023.25) for more role accomplishment in daily activities to CA$ 15,867.12 (CI: 13,825.75; 17,908.49) for less pain. Robustness check with multiple alternative samples, as well as alternative health utility algorithms, showed that the results were robust and the DCE method provided 50% larger results than the CV method, although confidence intervals overlap. CONCLUSION: This paper provides useful information for decision-makers on the monetary value of a QALY in Quebec.

Eur J Health Econ ; 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656260


BACKGROUND: The increasing burden of cancer has economic implications for the healthcare system in England. However, there is limited evidence on the cost of cancer treatment. We calculated the costs of initial cancer treatment (resection, radiotherapy, systemic anti-cancer therapy [SACT]) based on stage at diagnosis. METHODS: Data from England's National Cancer Registration Dataset were matched to English Hospital, Radiotherapy and SACT data for breast, lung, prostate, colon and rectal cancers diagnosed between 2016 and 2018. Treatment data were matched to National Schedule of Reference Costs data to calculate the cost of each treatment event. RESULTS: Breast, colon and rectal cancers treated with resection, radiotherapy or SACT had increasing costs with later stage at diagnosis; costs for lung and prostate cancers were lower at stages 1 and 4 compared to stages 2 and 3. In general, surgery and SACT were the most expensive treatments. Radiotherapy and SACT costs showed little change across stages 1-3; radiotherapy costs decreased in stage 4, while SACT costs increased. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis estimates initial treatment costs by stage based on observed data. Future research can build on this to provide more comprehensive costings associated with cancer; this is important for future planning of cancer services.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656277


BACKGROUND: Current literature states that 6.2 million adults in the United States are living with heart failure. Studies investigating the impact of congestive heart failure (CHF) following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are scarce. Hence, this research aimed to investigate whether individuals with congestive heart failure (CHF) undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) experience: (1) longer durations of in-hospital stay; (2) increased incidences of health complications; and (3) a higher financial load. METHODS: A retrospective query using the 100% Parts A and B of the Medicare claims was performed. Cohorts of interest were identified using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology. Inclusion criteria for the study group consisted of patients with CHF undergoing primary TKA, whereas patients without CHF undergoing primary TKA served as the comparison cohort. RESULTS: The query yielded 1,101,169 patients (CHF = 183,540; case-matched = 917,629). Patients with CHF had longer in-hospital LOS (5- vs. 4-days) and a higher incidence and odds of developing 90-day medical complications (49.22% vs. 7.45%) following primary TKA. CHF patients incurred higher day of surgery and total global ninety-day episode of care costs compared to their matched counterparts. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated those patients with preexisting CHF undergoing a primary TKA have longer in-hospital lengths of stay and higher rates of morbidity and financial burden. With the increasing prevalence of CHF worldwide, orthopedists and other healthcare professionals can utilize the information provided in this study to educate patients and establish comprehensive treatment plans to help mitigate postoperative effects associated with CHF.

JAMA Health Forum ; 4(9): e232798, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656469


This Viewpoint compares the research and development costs for a drug's first indication with supplemental indications to demonstrate that the cost of approval for supplemental indications may be substantially lower.