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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259259, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364517

RESUMO

Rice is a widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population. Approximately 90% of the world's rice is grown in Asian continent and constitutes a staple food for 2.7 billion people worldwide. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the devastating diseases of rice. A field experiment was conducted during the year 2016 and 2017 to investigate the influence of different meteorological parameters on BLB development as well as the computation of a predictive model to forecast the disease well ahead of its appearance in the field. The seasonal dataset of disease incidence and environmental factors was used to assess five rice varieties/ cultivars (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati, and IRRI-9). The accumulated effect of two year environmental data; maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall, was studied and correlated with disease incidence. Average temperature (maximum & minimum) showed a negative significant correlation with BLB disease and all other variables; relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed had a positive correlation with BLB disease development on individual varieties. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to indicate potentially useful predictor variables and to rule out incompetent parameters. Environmental data from the growing seasons of July to October 2016 and 2017 revealed that, with the exception of the lowest temperature, all environmental factors contributed to disease development throughout the cropping season. A disease prediction multiple regression model was developed based on two-year data (Y = 214.3-3.691 Max T-0.508 Min T + 0.767 RH + 2.521 RF + 5.740 WS), which explained 95% variability. This disease prediction model will not only help farmers in early detection and timely management of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice but may also help reduce input costs and improve product quality and quantity. The model will be both farmer and environmentally friendly.


O arroz é um alimento básico amplamente consumido por grande parte da população humana mundial. Aproximadamente 90% do arroz do mundo é cultivado no continente asiático e constitui um alimento básico para 2,7 bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O crestamento bacteriano das folhas (BLB) causado por Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae é uma das doenças devastadoras do arroz. Um experimento de campo foi realizado durante os anos de 2016 e 2017 para investigar a influência de diferentes parâmetros meteorológicos no desenvolvimento do BLB, bem como o cálculo de um modelo preditivo para prever a doença bem antes de seu aparecimento em campo. O conjunto de dados sazonais de incidência de doenças e fatores ambientais foi usado para avaliar cinco variedades/cultivares de arroz (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati e IRRI-9). O efeito acumulado de dados ambientais de dois anos; temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluviométrica foram estudados e correlacionados com a incidência da doença. A temperatura média (máxima e mínima) apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a doença BLB e todas as outras variáveis; umidade relativa, precipitação e velocidade do vento tiveram uma correlação positiva com o desenvolvimento da doença BLB em variedades individuais. A análise de regressão stepwise foi realizada para indicar variáveis preditoras potencialmente úteis e para descartar parâmetros incompetentes. Os dados ambientais das safras de julho a outubro de 2016 e 2017 revelaram que, com exceção da temperatura mais baixa, todos os fatores ambientais contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da doença ao longo da safra. Um modelo de regressão múltipla de previsão de doença foi desenvolvido com base em dados de dois anos (Y = 214,3-3,691 Max T-0,508 Min T + 0,767 RH + 2,521 RF + 5,740 WS), que explicou 95% de variabilidade. Este modelo de previsão de doenças não só ajudará os agricultores na detecção precoce e gestão atempada da doença bacteriana das folhas do arroz, mas também pode ajudar a reduzir os custos de insumos e melhorar a qualidade e a quantidade do produto. O modelo será agricultor e ambientalmente amigável.


Assuntos
Oryza , Temperatura , Pragas da Agricultura , Umidade
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364019

RESUMO

Objetivos: conhecer a atuação do enfermeiro e os cuidados desempenhados em saúde mental na Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Método: estudo descritivo e qualitativo, tendo como cenário um polo de matriciamento em saúde mental. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista individual, com questionário semiestruturado. Resultados: os resultados obtidos foram agrupados e discutidos por meio das seguintes categorias: ações de enfermagem no campo da saúde mental desenvolvidas na Estratégia de Saúde da Família e apoio matricial em Saúde Mental como elemento facilitador da prática de enfermagem. Conclusão: os enfermeiros têm desenvolvido ações de enfermagem no campo da saúde mental na Estratégia de Saúde da Família, e o apoio matricial atua como principal elemento facilitador da prática de enfermagem, reafirmando a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira. Em contrapartida, a sobrecarga de ações e a restrita formação em saúde mental são elementos que dificultam o trabalho desse profissional.


Objectives: to know the role of nurses and the care performed in mental health in the Family Health Strategy. Method: a descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative study, with a scenario of matrix support in mental health. Data collection was carried out through individual interviews and with a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: the results obtained were grouped and discussed through the following categories: Nursing actions mental health field developed in the Family Health Strategy, and Matrix Support in Mental Health as a facilitating element of nursing practice. Conclusion: nurses have developed nursing actions mental health field in the Family Health Strategy and matrix support acts as the main facilitator of nursing practice, reaffirming the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. On the other hand, the overload of actions and the limited training in mental health are elements that hinder the work of these professionals.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estratégias de Saúde Nacionais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Enfermeiros , Cuidados de Enfermagem
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226252, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366526

RESUMO

Universal health coverage is a global target included in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals agenda for 2030. Healthcare in Brazil has universal coverage through the Unified Health System (SUS), which guarantees health as basic right to the Brazilian population. Considering the principles of SUS, public oral healthcare management is a huge challenge. Aim: To identify good management practices for quality care adopted by local public oral healthcare managers and teams around Brazil. Methods: This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017051639). Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and Lilacs) as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines. Results:A total of 30,895 references were initially found, which were evaluated according to the defined eligibility criteria. Twenty qualitative studies, eight surveys and two mixed-model studies were selected. The practices (codes) were organized into three main groups (families), and the Frequency of the Effect Size (FES) of each code was calculated. Among the 20 codes identified, the most relevant ones were: Diagnosis and Health Planning (FES=80%) and Family Health Strategy(FES=66,7). The Intensity of the Effect Size of each study was also calculated to demonstrate the individual contribution of each study to the conclusions. Conclusion: The evidence emerging from this review showed that healthcare diagnosis, planning, and performance based on the family health strategy principles were the most relevant practices adopted by public oral healthcare managers in Brazil. The widespread adoption of these practices could lead to improved oral healthcare provision and management in Brazil


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Assistência Odontológica , Gestão em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Brasil
4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; : 100742, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075527

RESUMO

Despite advances in hemorrhage detection and management, postpartum hemorrhage remains the single leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Within the United States, hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death on the day of delivery and within the first week postpartum. Blood transfusion following hemorrhage represents a large proportion of severe maternal morbidity during and after delivery. Blood loss during delivery has historically been assessed visually by inspecting soiled pads, linens, and laparotomy sponges. These methods underestimate the volume of blood loss by as much as 40%, becoming increasingly inaccurate as blood loss increases. Young, healthy obstetric patients compensate for blood loss via peripheral vasoconstriction, maintaining heart rate and blood pressure in a normal range until over one liter of blood has been lost. A significant decrease in blood pressure along with marked tachycardia (>120bpm) may not be seen until 30-40% of blood volume has been lost, or 2-2.6L in a healthy term pregnant patient, after which the patient may rapidly decompensate. In resource-poor settings especially, the narrow window between the emergence of significant vital sign abnormalities and clinical decompensation may prove catastrophic. Once hemorrhage is detected, decisions regarding blood product transfusion are routinely made based on inaccurate estimates of blood loss, placing patients at risk of under-resuscitation (increasing the risk of hemorrhagic shock and end-organ damage) or over over-resuscitation (increasing the risk of transfusion reaction, fluid overload, and alloimmunization). We will review novel technologies which have emerged to assist both in the early and accurate detection of postpartum hemorrhage, and in decisions regarding blood product transfusion.

5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 139, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060841

RESUMO

Introduction: few studies exist of snake bites in the Republic of Congo. This study reports epidemiological and management data on snake bites in the Bouenza department of the Republic of Congo. Methods: this is a retrospective and descriptive study based on questionnaire and analysis of files of snakebite victims over a period of 13 years (2009-2021). We collected data on incidence, age, gender, site of the bite, the season of the bite, deaths and treatment. Results: we identified 81 cases of bites recorded in 14 healthcare facilities: 54.32% of cases (44/81) at Nkayi Base Hospital; 11.11% (9/81) at Madingou Base Hospital; 1-5% (1-4/81) at each of the remaining facilities. Eight deaths were recorded in four health facilities. The sex ratio of snakebite victims was 1 (41 males: 40 females). The age most affected was 25-55 years (54.32% or 44/81). The lower limb was the bite site most reported at 13.98% (but in 84% or 68/81 cases the site was not recorded). More bites occurred during the rainy season (80.25%; 65/81). All victims received only symptomatic treatment based on antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and analgesics, as anti-venom serums are unavailable. The recorded incidence of snake bites in Bouenza was 18.62 per 100,000 of population. Conclusion: our study offers a preliminary report from a little-studied region. The incidence of snakebites recorded in Bouenza is lower than expected compared with studies from other African countries, and with earlier (20 years ago) studies from Congo. This may reflect incomplete record-keeping in under-resourced healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Adulto , Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8453697, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046458

RESUMO

Objective: To research the influence of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) process management on the incidence of needle injury and psychological anxiety of nursing interns. Methods: This study belonged to the experimental study. A total of 180 nursing interns who practiced in the hospital from March 2020 to April 2022 were studied. A total of 135 interns from March 2020 to March 2021 were selected as the control group and 175 interns from April 2021 to April 2022 as the research group. PDCA process management was carried on in the research group. The control group did not make any intervention only following the routine teaching plan. The incidence of needle injury, theoretical knowledge, behavior score, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), professional self-efficacy questionnaire score, and nursing practice satisfaction score were evaluated before and after 12 months of management. Results: After management, the incidence of needle injury in the research group was lower compared to that in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The scores of theoretical knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the research group were higher compared to those in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05) after management. After 12 months of management, the SAS score of the research group was lower compared to that of the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The score of occupational self-efficacy questionnaire in the research group was higher compared to that in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05) after PDCA process management. After 12 months of management, the satisfaction score of nursing practice in the research group was higher compared to that in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Through PDCA process management, we can keep abreast of the situation of needlestick injuries among nursing students in practice and analyze in more detail the root cause of each nursing student's occupational exposure and the outcome of treatment. The nursing students not only learn more practical knowledge in clinical practice but also feel that the hospital values and cares for them, which greatly increases their satisfaction.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 971444, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046823

RESUMO

Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a diterpenoid quinone, is found mostly in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza) and plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, such as cell proliferation/self-renewal, differentiation and apoptosis. In particular, CTS's profound physiological impact on various stem cell populations and their maintenance and fate determination could improve the efficiency and accuracy of stem cell therapy for high-incidence disease. However, as much promise CTS holds, these CTS-mediated processes are complex and multifactorial and many of the underlying mechanisms as well as their clinical significance for high-incidence diseases are not yet fully understood. This review aims to shed light on the impact and mechanisms of CTS on the actions of diverse stem cells and the involvement of CTS in the many processes of stem cell behavior and provide new insights for the application of CTS and stem cell therapy in treating high-incidence diseases.

8.
BJOG ; 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of shoulder dystocia (SD) simulation training on the management of SD and the incidence of permanent brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Helsinki University Women's Hospital, Finland. SAMPLE: Deliveries with SD. METHODS: Multi-professional, regular and systematic simulation training for obstetric emergencies began in 2015, and SD was one of the main themes. A study was conducted to assess changes in SD management and the incidence of permanent BPBI. The study period was from 2010 to 2019; years 2010-2014 were considered the pre-training period and years 2015-2019 were considered the post-training period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the incidence of permanent BPBI after the implementation of systematic simulation training. Changes in the management of SD were also analysed. RESULTS: During the study period, 113 085 vertex deliveries were recorded. The incidence of major SD risk factors (gestational diabetes, induction of labour, vacuum extraction) increased and was significantly higher for each of these factors during the post-training period (p < 0.001). The incidence of SD also increased significantly (0.01% vs 0.3%, p < 0.001) during the study period, but the number of children with permanent BPBI decreased by 55% after the implementation of systematic simulation training (0.05% vs 0.02%, p < 0.001). The most significant change in the management of SD was the increased incidence of successful delivery of the posterior arm. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic simulation-based training of midwives and doctors can translate into improved individual and team performance and can significantly reduce the incidence of permanent BPBI.

9.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220028, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the construction of a management technology aimed at implementing the Systematization of Nursing Care in nursing services. METHOD: This is a methodological, qualitative and explanatory study, based on the normative and legal framework of COFEN Resolution 358/2009. It comprised the theoretical construction of instruments for practice anchored in the literature and expertise of a group of 40 nurses, between April 2020 and June 2021. RESULTS: The technology is outlined from the dimensions of method, personnel and nursing instruments that support the Systematization of Nursing Care tripod. It consists of an explanatory model of an operational management matrix and a checklist-type instrument for follow-up/monitoring of Systematization of Nursing Care management in services. CONCLUSION: Management technology is inserted as a solution to improve organizational performance, health care, clinical decision support, planning, administration, organization of services and professional practice, and create favorable conditions for applying the Process of Nursing at its fullest.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Enfermagem , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Tecnologia
10.
Aust J Prim Health ; 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a significant public health issue; however, there is limited understanding of the engagement in primary health care of Aboriginal people living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: To better understand the management of CHB, diagnostic reports and case note audits were conducted in six South Australian Aboriginal community controlled health services. The audits covered the initial assessment, CHB monitoring, and hepatocellular carcinoma screening. The initial assessment was reviewed by auditing client clinical records for the first 12months from the date of diagnosis, whereas CHB monitoring and hepatocellular carcinoma screening were determined by auditing a 12-month sample period (January to December 2019). Associations with CHB monitoring were determined using a Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test P-values, as appropriate. RESULTS: There were 50 current clients with a diagnosis of CHB at the time of the audit (January 2020). Testing was incomplete for the initial assessment, CHB monitoring and hepatocellular carcinoma screening. There were significant associations between the increased likelihood of accessing monitoring and the number of times a person attended an Aboriginal community controlled health service, accessing care in a more remote region, having a documented recall and having a GP management plan containing CHB. CONCLUSION: Through providing evidence of significant associations between having a recall set and GP management plans with increased uptake of disease monitoring, this study has highlighted areas for improvement in clinical management.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop multidisciplinary recommendations to improve the management of rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). METHODS: Clinical research questions relevant to the objective of the document were identified by a panel of rheumatologists and pneumologists selected based on their experience in the field. Systematic reviews of the available evidence were conducted, and evidence was graded according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. Specific recommendations were made. RESULTS: Six PICO questions were selected, three of which analysed the incidence and prevalence of RA-ILD, associated risk factors, and predictors of progression and mortality. A total of 6 specific recommendations on these topics, structured by question, were formulated based on the evidence found and/or expert consensus. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first official SER-SEPAR document with specific recommendations for RA-ILD management developed to resolve some common clinical questions and facilitate decision-making for patients.

12.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The number of prospective population-based studies on Crohn's disease(CD) is still limited from Eastern Europe. The present study is a continuation of the Veszprem IBD cohort. Our aim was to analyze incidence, prevalence, disease phenotype, treatment strategy, disease course and surgical outcomes in a prospective population-based inception cohort including CD patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2018. METHODS: 421 consecutive inception patients were included (male/female:237/184; mean age at diagnosis: 33.3±16.2years). Both in-hospital and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Demographic data was derived from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. RESULTS: Mean incidence rate was 9.9 (CI95%: 9.0-10.9)/10 5 person-years in this 12-year period. Prevalence rate was 236.8 (CI95%: 220.8-252.8) in 2015. 17.6% and 20.0% of the patients had stenosing(B2) and penetrating(B3) disease behavior at diagnosis. The probability of disease behavior progression from luminal to B2/B3 phenotype was 14.7%(SE:2.2) at 5 years after diagnosis. Distribution of maximal therapeutic steps during the total follow-up (8.5y, SD:3.3) were 5-ASA in 15.7%, corticosteroids in 14.3%, immunosuppressives in 42.5% and biologic therapy in 26.2%. The probability of receiving biological therapy after diagnosis was 20.9%(SE:2.0) at 5 years. The probability of first resective surgery was 20.7%(SE:2.0) at 1 year, 26.1%(SE:2.2) at 5 years and 30.7%(SE:2.4) at 10 years, while perianal surgery rate was 31.3% among patients with perianal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CD in Hungary was high, similar to high-incidence areas in Western Europe. Treatment strategies are reflecting the biological era. Disease behavior progression was lower, as well as long-term (10y) surgery rates decreased compared to data from previous decades.

13.
Obes Surg ; 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most popular bariatric procedures is laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), which can either cause or worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the prevalence, predictors, and management of GERD symptoms after LSG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2017 to January 2022, we looked at patients who had a primary LSG and developed GERD. Before LSG, all patients underwent a barium meal and upper endoscopy. After LSG, barium meal, endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-h pH measurements were performed for selected patients. The diagnosis of GERD is based on the GERD-HRQL questionnaire and upper endoscopy. RESULTS: The study included 1537 patients (62.5% women and 37.5% men) with a mean age of 34.4 years. The mean % TWL was 40.7% during a mean follow-up period of 15.9 months. A total of 379 patients (24.7%) experienced postoperative GERD, of whom 328 (21.3%) had postoperative de novo GERD symptoms, 25 (1.6%) had worsened preoperative GERD, and 26 (1.7%) had the same preoperative GERD symptoms. Antral preservation and gastropexy were protective factors against the development of GERD after LSG. LSG was converted to LRYGB in 15.8% of the patients with GERD. The response to medical treatment was observed in 300 (79.2%) patients with GERD. CONCLUSION: Post-LSG GERD presented in 379 patients (24.7%). Antral preservation and gastropexy were protective factors for the development of postoperative GERD after LSG. Medical treatment was the main line of treatment for GERD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT05416645.

14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Artigo em Inglês | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-56324

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Hypertension and diabetes are modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors that contribute to nearly one-third of all deaths in the Americas Region each year (2.3 million deaths). Despite advances in the detec- tion and clinical management of hypertension and diabetes, there are substantial gaps in their implementation globally and in the Region. The considerable overlap in risk factors, prognosis, and treatment of hyperten- sion and diabetes creates a unique opportunity for a unified implementation model for management at the population level. This report highlights one such high-profile effort, the Pan American Health Organization’s “HEARTS in the Americas” program, based on the World Health Organization’s HEARTS Technical Package for Cardiovascular Disease Management in Primary Health Care. The HEARTS program aims to improve the implementation of preventive CVD care in primary health systems using six evidence-based, pragmatic components: Healthy-lifestyle counseling, Evidence-based protocols, Access to essential medicines and technology, Risk-based CVD management, Team-based care, and Systems for monitoring. To date, HEARTS implementation projects have focused primarily on hypertension given that it is the leading modifiable CVD risk factor and can be treated cost-effectively. The objective of this report is to describe opportunities for inte- gration of diabetes clinical care and policy within the HEARTS hypertension framework. A substantial global burden of disease could be averted with integrated primary care management of these conditions. Thus, there is an urgency in applying lessons from HEARTS to close these implementation gaps and improve the integrated detection, treatment, and control of diabetes and hypertension.


[RESUMEN]. La hipertensión y la diabetes son los factores de riesgo modificables de las enfermedades cardiovasculares asociados a casi un tercio de todas las muertes en la Región de las Américas cada año (2,3 millones). A pesar de los avances en la detección y el manejo clínico de la hipertensión y la diabetes, existen brechas sustancia- les en la implementación a nivel regional y mundial. El considerable solapamiento en los factores de riesgo, el pronóstico y el tratamiento de la hipertensión y la diabetes crea una oportunidad única para un modelo unifi- cado de implementación para el manejo a nivel poblacional. En este informe se pone de relieve una iniciativa importante de este tipo, el programa HEARTS en las Américas de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, basado en el paquete técnico HEARTS para el manejo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la atención primaria de salud. El programa HEARTS tiene como objetivo mejorar la implementación de la atención pre- ventiva de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los sistemas de atención primaria de salud mediante seis componentes pragmáticos basados en la evidencia: Hábitos y estilos de vida saludables: asesoramiento para los pacientes; Evidencia: protocolos basados en la evidencia; Acceso a medicamentos y tecnologías esenciales; Riesgo cardiovascular: manejo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares basado en el riesgo; Tra- bajo en equipos; y Sistemas de monitoreo. Hasta la fecha, los proyectos de implementación de HEARTS se han centrado principalmente en la hipertensión, dado que es el principal factor de riesgo modificable de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y puede tratarse de una manera costo-eficaz. El objetivo de este informe es describir las oportunidades para la integración de la política y la atención clínica en el marco HEARTS para la hipertensión. Se podría evitar una significativa carga mundial de enfermedad con un manejo integrado de la atención primaria de estos problemas de salud. Por lo tanto, existe una urgencia en la aplicación de las enseñanzas de HEARTS para salvar estas brechas en la implementación y mejorar la detección, el tratamiento y el control integrados de la diabetes y la hipertensión.


[RESUMO]. Hipertensão e diabetes são fatores de risco modificáveis para doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) que con- tribuem para quase um terço de todas as mortes na Região das Américas a cada ano (2,3 milhões de mortes). Apesar dos avanços na detecção e no manejo clínico da hipertensão e do diabetes, existem lacunas impor- tantes em sua implementação mundialmente e na região. A sobreposição considerável de fatores de risco, prognóstico e tratamento da hipertensão e do diabetes cria uma oportunidade única para um modelo de implementação unificado para o manejo dessas doenças em nível populacional. Este relatório destaca um desses esforços de alto nível, o programa “HEARTS nas Américas” da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, baseado no Pacote Técnico HEARTS da Organização Mundial da Saúde para o manejo de DCV na atenção primária à saúde. O programa HEARTS visa melhorar a implementação de cuidados preventivos de DCV nos sistemas de atenção primária utilizando seis componentes pragmáticos e baseados em evidências: Hábitos saudáveis (aconselhamento a pacientes), protocolos baseados em Evidências, Acesso a medicamentos e tecnologias essenciais, manejo das DCV baseado em Risco, Trabalho de equipe como base para a atenção e Sistemas de monitoramento. Até hoje, os projetos de implementação do HEARTS têm se concentrado principalmente na hipertensão, considerando que é o principal fator de risco modificável de DCV e pode ser tratada de forma custo-efetiva. O objetivo deste relatório é descrever as oportunidades de integração do manejo clínico e de políticas para o diabetes dentro da estrutura HEARTS de manejo da hipertensão. Uma importante carga global de doença poderia ser evitada com o manejo integrado dessas duas afecções na atenção primária. Assim, há uma urgência na aplicação das lições de HEARTS para fechar estas lacunas de implementação e melhorar a detecção, o tratamento e o controle integrados do diabetes e da hipertensão.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Atenção à Saúde , América , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Atenção à Saúde , América , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Atenção à Saúde , América
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066264

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the prevalence of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy in infants presenting to hospital in Australia and New Zealand with bronchiolitis over four bronchiolitis seasons. Secondary aims were to determine temporal trends in HFNC use, and associations between HFNC, hospital length of stay (LOS) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS: A planned sub-study of a multi-centre international cluster randomised controlled trial investigating knowledge translation strategies for a bi-national bronchiolitis guideline. Demographics, management and outcomes data were collected retrospectively for infants presenting with bronchiolitis to 26 hospitals between 1 May 2014 and 30 November 2017. Prevalence data are presented as absolute frequencies (95% confidence interval (CI)) with differences between groups for continuous and categorical variables analysed using linear and logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS: 11 715 infants were included with 3392 (29.0%, 95% CI (28.1-29.8%)) receiving oxygen therapy; of whom 1817 (53.6%, 95% CI (51.9-55.3%)) received HFNC. Use of oxygen therapy did not change over the four bronchiolitis seasons (P = 0.12), while the proportion receiving HFNC increased (2014, 336/2587 (43.2%); 2017, 609/3720 (57.8%); P ≤ 0.001). Infants who received HFNC therapy were not substantially different to infants who received oxygen therapy without HFNC. HFNC use was associated with increases in both hospital LOS (P < 0.001) and ICU admissions (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Use of HFNC therapy for infants with bronchiolitis increased over 4 years. Of those who received oxygen therapy, the majority received HFNC therapy without improvement in hospital LOS or ICU admissions. Strategies to guide appropriate HFNC use in infants with bronchiolitis are required.

16.
Cancer Diagn Progn ; 2(5): 564-568, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: It is well established that around one-third of patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) go on to develop endometrial cancer (EC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 119 patients recruited from the University Hospitals of Leicester from 01/01/2015 to 01/01/2020 with a diagnosis of AEH by endometrial biopsy. Patients were divided into two groups according to the management modality: Primary surgery (n=99), and conservative treatment (n=20). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of EC in patients with AEH in University Hospitals of Leicester, UK, and to explore the reasons why patients with AEH opted for conservative management. RESULTS: EC was diagnosed in 34.4% of patients with AEH managed by primary surgery. Moreover, the incidence of EC in patients with AEH managed conservatively was 25%. The main reason for opting for conservative management was that patients were unfit for surgery when assessed in the high-risk Anaesthetic Clinic (35%). CONCLUSION: AEH is a pre-malignant lesion that has high risk of EC regardless of the mode of management. Total hysterectomy is the safest first line of treatment in AEH due to the high risk of concurrent EC and progression to EC. Currently, there is no reliable follow-up intervention to distinguish between concurrent EC and progression of AEH. Adequate discussion and counselling are essential when discussing conservative management for women with complex AEH. Patients should be counselled regarding the high risk of developing concurrent EC and risk of progression to EC.

17.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2022: 4419486, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060295

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the nutritional risk, malnutrition, severe malnutrition, and malnutrition prevalence of different stages in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with and without diabetes mellitus using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM), and to analyze the causes of malnutrition and to improve the clinical outcomes of patients for early intervention. Methods: A total of 683 patients with CKD who were hospitalized in our hospital from January 2020 to January 2021 were enrolled and divided into subgroups 1 to 5 according to whether they were complicated with diabetes and glomerular filtration rate. Using the second step of the malnutrition (GLIM) diagnostic tool and 2 previously commonly used malnutrition assessment methods (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 with poor general condition, 3 points for nutritional deficiency in nutritional risk screening), combined with clinical research on the main causes of malnutrition, the intervention measures were discussed. Results: The prevalence of malnutrition was 16.7% (114/683) in the patients included in the survey using the diagnostic criteria of malnutrition (GLIM) (excluding whole body muscle mass index). The prevalence of malnutrition in CKD patients with and without diabetes was 23.7% and 12.6%, respectively. The overall prevalence rate of severe malnutrition was 14.2%, and the prevalence rates of those with and without diabetes were 19.0% and 11.4%, respectively; the results of the two methods of malnutrition assessment showed that the prevalence of malnutrition in CKD patients with diabetes was higher than that in the uncombined group. There was no severe malnutrition in patients with CKD stages 1 and 2. From CKD stage 3 onwards, the severe malnutrition in the diabetic group was significantly higher than that in the uncombined group. Conclusion: With the progression of CKD, the incidence of malnutrition also gradually increased, indicating that malnutrition is related to primary diseases and concomitant diseases. Attention should be paid to the malnutrition of CKD patients with diabetes, and clinical medical staff need to pay early attention to various diseases that lead to the progression of CKD, such as diabetes, primary nephropathy, and other factors, to prevent complications and delay the progression of CKD.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 933972, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061539

RESUMO

Introduction: In Brazil, the Unified Health System (SUS) controls and oversees public health care, and the Family Health Strategy (FHS) is its primary access, with 60% of the population registered in it. The surveillance of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is the responsibility of the FHS. In 2010, the American Heart Association (AHA) proposed the evaluation of seven metrics (smoking, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure and blood glucose) with an aim to monitoring cardiovascular health (CVH). However, the results of the FHS regarding the CVH of the Brazilian population are unascertained. Objective: Evaluate the control of CVH among adult patients treated by the FHS in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the seven metrics recommended by the AHA to evaluate CVH among patients treated by the FHS. The city of Aracaju has a population of 571,149 inhabitants, with 394,267 > 20 years of age; therefore, it was admitted that in a simple random sample, sampling error of 5% with 95% CI, 329 individuals would be needed. Results: Among 400 patients, only 32.5% had controlled CVH. In a univariate analysis, the adjusted multivariate analysis found that being female (aOR: 2.07 IC: 1.20 to 3.60 p: 0.006) under 45 years old (aOR: 1.61 IC: 1.15 to 2.28 p: 0.006) and with the habit of following health advice from family members and neighbors (aOR: 1.28 IC: 1.15 to 2.28 p: 0.040) were associated with control of CVH. On the other hand, those ones who had a greater number of children (aOR: 0.91 IC: 0.84 to 0.95 p: 0.020) were associated with less control of CVH. Conclusions: The study showed that only 32.5% of patients have controlled CVH. Being a woman, young and following health advice from family members and neighbors have a positive influence in controlling CVH. More children reduced controlling these metrics.

19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 2093-2106, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092968

RESUMO

Purpose: There is an unmet clinical need for an accurate and objective diagnostic tool for early detection of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). DETECT (NCT03556475) was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study aiming to develop and validate multivariable prediction models for AECOPD occurrence and severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. Patients and Methods: Patients aged ≥40 years with moderate/severe COPD, AECOPD, or no COPD were consecutively enrolled between April 22, 2020, and January 18, 2021, across seven study sites in China. Multivariable prediction models were constructed to identify AECOPD occurrence (primary outcome) and AECOPD severity (secondary outcome). Candidate variables were selected using a stepwise procedure, and the bootstrap method was used for internal model validation. Results: Among 299 patients enrolled, 246 were included in the final analysis, of whom 30.1%, 40.7%, and 29.3% had COPD, AECOPD, or no COPD, respectively. Mean age was 64.1 years. Variables significantly associated with AECOPD occurrence (P<0.05) and severity (P<0.05) in the final models included COPD disease-related characteristics, as well as signs and symptoms. Based on cut-off values of 0.374 and 0.405 for primary and secondary models, respectively, the performance of the primary model constructed to identify AECOPD occurrence (AUC: 0.86; sensitivity: 0.84; specificity: 0.77), and of the secondary model for AECOPD severity (AUC: 0.81; sensitivity: 0.90; specificity: 0.73) indicated high diagnostic accuracy and clinical applicability. Conclusion: By leveraging easy-to-collect patient and disease data, we developed identification tools that can be used for timely detection of AECOPD and its severity. These tools may help physicians diagnose AECOPD in a timely manner, before further disease progression and possible hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia
20.
Mol Genet Metab ; 137(1-2): 153-163, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arginase 1 Deficiency (ARG1-D) is a rare, progressive, metabolic disorder that is characterized by devastating manifestations driven by elevated plasma arginine levels. It typically presents in early childhood with spasticity (predominately affecting the lower limbs), mobility impairment, seizures, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. This systematic review aims to identify and describe the published evidence outlining the epidemiology, diagnosis methods, measures of disease progression, clinical management, and outcomes for ARG1-D patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search across multiple databases such as MEDLINE, Embase, and a review of clinical studies in ClinicalTrials.gov (with results reported) was carried out per PRISMA guidelines on 20 April 2020 with no date restriction. Pre-defined eligibility criteria were used to identify studies with data specific to patients with ARG1-D. Two independent reviewers screened records and extracted data from included studies. Quality was assessed using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for non-comparative studies. RESULTS: Overall, 55 records reporting 40 completed studies and 3 ongoing studies were included. Ten studies reported the prevalence of ARG1-D in the general population, with a median of 1 in 1,000,000. Frequently reported diagnostic methods included genetic testing, plasma arginine levels, and red blood cell arginase activity. However, routine newborn screening is not universally available, and lack of disease awareness may prevent early diagnosis or lead to misdiagnosis, as the disease has overlapping symptomology with other diseases, such as cerebral palsy. Common manifestations reported at time of diagnosis and assessed for disease progression included spasticity (predominately affecting the lower limbs), mobility impairment, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures. Severe dietary protein restriction, essential amino acid supplementation, and nitrogen scavenger administration were the most commonly reported treatments among patients with ARG1-D. Only a few studies reported meaningful clinical outcomes of these interventions on intellectual disability, motor function and adaptive behavior assessment, hospitalization, or death. The overall quality of included studies was assessed as good according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Although ARG1-D is a rare disease, published evidence demonstrates a high burden of disease for patients. The current standard of care is ineffective at preventing disease progression. There remains a clear need for new treatment options as well as improved access to diagnostics and disease awareness to detect and initiate treatment before the onset of clinical manifestations to potentially enable more normal development, improve symptomatology, or prevent disease progression.

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