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1.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020122, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250811

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trend in infant mortality and in populational coverage by the Family Health Strategy and associated factors with infant mortality in the municipalities of the 3rd Health Regional of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Methods: Ecological time series study, with data from the Mortality Information System (Sistema de Informação Sobre Mortalidade - SIM), the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informação Sobre Nascidos Vivos - SINASC) and the Support Room for Strategic Management (Sala de Apoio à Gestão Estratégica - SAGE), from 2005 to 2016. Trends were calculated using polynomial regression. The associated factors with infant mortality were maternal, perinatal and obstetric variables. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: Between 2005 and 2016, there were 115,796 births and 1,575 deaths of children under 1 year of age. Considering the municipalities together, the populational coverage by the Family Health Strategy went from 43.8% in 2005 to 66.4% in 2016 and the infant mortality from 17.1/1,000 live births in 2005 to 10.7/1,000 live births in 2016. The trend over time of populational coverage by the Family Health Strategy was crescent and of infant mortality was decrescent, for most municipalities. The factors associated with greater chances of death in children under 1 year of age were preterm gestational age (Odds Ratio - OR=15.05; 95% confidence interval - 95CI% 13.54-16.72), low birth weight (OR=15.14; 95%CI 13.61-16.84), multiple gestation (OR=4.51; 95%CI 3.74-5.45) and mother with up to 7 years of study (OR=1.93; 95%CI 1.74-2.14). Conclusions: Crescent trend in coverage by the Family Health Strategy was accompanied by a decrescent trend in infant mortality. The results can be a source of information for the strengthening of mother-child health actions, considering local and regional specificities.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a tendência temporal da mortalidade infantil e da cobertura populacional pela Estratégia Saúde da Família e os fatores associados à mortalidade infantil, nos municípios da 3ª Regional de Saúde do Paraná. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de série temporal, com dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM), Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC) e Sala de Apoio à Gestão Estratégica (SAGE), de 2005 a 2016. As tendências foram calculadas por regressão polinomial. Os fatores associados à mortalidade infantil consistiram em variáveis maternas, obstétricas e perinatais. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: Entre 2005 e 2016, houve 115.796 nascimentos e 1.575 óbitos de menores de 1 ano. Considerando os municípios em conjunto, a cobertura populacional pela Estratégia Saúde da Família passou de 43,8% em 2005 para 66,4% em 2016, e a mortalidade infantil, de 17,1/1.000 nascidos vivos em 2005 para 10,7/1.000 nascidos vivos em 2016. A tendência ao longo do tempo da cobertura populacional pela Estratégia Saúde da Família foi crescente e a da mortalidade infantil decrescente para a maioria dos municípios. Os fatores associados a maiores chances de óbito em menores de 1 ano foram a idade gestacional pré-termo (Odds Ratio - OR=15,05; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 13,54-16,72), baixo peso ao nascer (OR=15,14; IC95% 13,61-16,84), gestação múltipla (OR=4,51; IC95% 3,74-5,45) e mãe com até sete anos de estudo (OR=1,93; IC95% 1,74-2,14). Conclusões: Tendência crescente da cobertura pela Estratégia Saúde da Família foi acompanhada de tendência decrescente da mortalidade infantil. Os resultados podem ser fonte de informações para o fortalecimento das ações em saúde materno-infantil, considerando as especificidades locais e regionais.

2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3457, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate family and community guidance in adolescence, within the scope of Primary Health Care. METHOD: an evaluative and descriptive study with a quantitative approach, developed through the application of the Primary Care Assessment Instrument (PCATool), with 70 professionals from the Family Health Strategy and 140 adolescents from the widerange areas. Data collection took place in Basic Health Units and in the adolescents' homes in a municipality of southern Brazil, from May to September 2019. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using ANOVA and Tukey's test, performed using the R Studio software. RESULTS: there was divergence in the assessment of the attributes of family and community guidance between users and responsible professionals, showing weaknesses in the communication process and in the formation of the care bond in this reality, with impacts on quality of care. CONCLUSION: there was a need for continued assessment of the care practice in primary health care, as well as for permanent education with a focus on increasing qualification of care for adolescents.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Brasil , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
3.
Georgetown; PAHO; 2021-09-09. (PAHO/GUY/21-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-54811

RESUMO

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the country for the period, implementing the Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the country, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Prioridades em Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Acesso Universal aos Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Mental , Administração Financeira , Administração em Saúde , Guiana
4.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490535

RESUMO

The official variations of status epilepticus (SE) International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE, 2015) diagnostic criteria and the non-convulsive SE (NCSE) Salzburg Consensus Criteria (2013), impose the collection of updated population-based epidemiological Italian data. In this study, we aimed at evaluating (a) the frequency of SE in our hospital adopting the new ILAE 2015 SE diagnostic criteria and NCSE Salzburg Consensus Criteria, (b) the frequency of adherence to current treatment guidelines for SE and their relationship with patients' outcome, and (c) reliability of standardized prognostic scales (Status Epilepticus Severity Score-STESS-and modified STESS) for short-term outcome prediction in the setting of the newest diagnostic criteria for SE and NCSE. Detailed clinical and electrophysiological data collected in a 1-year retrospective hospital-based single-center survey on SE at Parma Hospital, Northern Italy are provided. Non-adherence to current treatment guidelines was recorded in around 50% cases, but no relation to outcome was appreciated. Mortality in our cohort increased from 30 to 50% when follow-up was extended to 30 days. STESS score was strongly correlated with short-term mortality risk (OR 18.9, 2.2-163.5, CI), and we confirm its role as easy-to-use tool for outcome evaluation also when the new ILAE diagnostic SE criteria are applied.

5.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477951

RESUMO

Secondary immunodeficiencies are frequently observed after allo-HSCT. The efficacy of subcutaneous IgG preparations in this population is unknown. A retrospective single-institution study involved 126 adult patients transplanted in 2012-2019 for hematological malignancies. Patients were tested every 2-3 weeks for plasma IgG concentration during the 1st year after transplantation and supplemented with facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin when they either had IgG concentration < 500 mg/dl or between 500 and 700 mg/dl and recurrent infection. The IgG concentration < 500 mg/dL was diagnosed in 41 patients, while 500-700 mg/dL in 25 and altogether 53 patients received IgG supplementation. The median number of IgG administrations was 2. The median time to the first IgG administration after allo-HSCT was 4.1 months, while to the next administration (if more than one was required) 53 days (prophylactic group) and 32 days (group with infections). We did not observe any significant toxicity. Two situations were associated with increased probability of meeting criteria for IgG supplementation: diagnosis of either acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (83.8% versus 39.3% for other diagnosis, p = 0.000) and the systemic use of corticosteroids (64.2% versus 31.5% for patients without systemic corticosteroids, p = 0.005). Over 40% of the adult recipients may require at least incidental immunoglobulin supplementation during the first year after allo-HSCT. Low IgG concentrations are associated with inferior outcomes. The subcutaneous route of IgG administration appeared to be safe and may allow for long persistence.

6.
Neoreviews ; 22(9): e606-e613, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470762

RESUMO

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is common because of the ubiquitous nature of the virus and the lack of an effective prevention strategy during pregnancy. Most infants with cCMV are asymptomatic, although a notable subset can have sequelae including, most commonly, sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disability, which may not be present at birth. Timely screening for cytomegalovirus in the first weeks after birth is critical to appropriately diagnose congenital infection, evaluate affected infants, and determine the treatment course. Antiviral therapy with valganciclovir can optimize end hearing and neurodevelopmental outcomes in symptomatic infants. This review discusses the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of cCMV, targeted and universal screening approaches, and treatment and monitoring of infants with cCMV.

7.
J Med Syst ; 45(10): 92, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494167

RESUMO

The Acute Care Surgery model has been implemented by many hospitals in the United States. As complex adaptive systems, healthcare systems are composed of many interacting elements that respond to intrinsic and extrinsic inputs. Systems level analysis may reveal the underlying organizational structure of tactical block allocations like the Acute Care Surgery model. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate one method to identify a key characteristic of complex adaptive systems in the perioperative services. Start and end times for all surgeries performed at the University of Vermont Medical Center OR1 were extracted for two years prior to the transition to an Acute Care Surgery service and two years following the transition. Histograms were plotted for the inter-event times calculated from the difference between surgical cases. A power law distribution was fit to the post-transition histogram. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for goodness-of-fit at 95% level of significance shows the histogram plotted from post-transition inter-event times follows a power law distribution (K-S = 0.088, p = 0.068), indicating a Complex Adaptive System. Our analysis demonstrates that the strategic decision to create an Acute Care Surgery service has direct implications on tactical and operational processes in the perioperative services. Elements of complex adaptive systems can be represented by a power law distributions and similar methods may be applied to identify other processes that operate as complex adaptive systems in perioperative care. To make sustained improvements in the perioperative services, focus on manufacturing-based interventions such as Lean Six Sigma should instead be shifted towards the complex interventions that modify system-specific behaviors described by complex adaptive system principles when power law relationships are present.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Salas Cirúrgicas , Cuidados Críticos , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Estados Unidos
8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Laboratory test interferences can cause spurious test results and patient harm. Knowing the frequency of various interfering substances in patient populations likely to be tested with a particular laboratory assay may inform test development, test utilization and strategies to mitigate interference risk. METHODS: We developed REACTIR (Real Evidence to Assess Clinical Testing Interference Risk), an approach using real world data to assess the prevalence of various interfering substances in patients tested with a particular type of assay. REACTIR uses administrative real world data to identify and subgroup patient cohorts tested with a particular laboratory test and evaluate interference risk. RESULTS: We demonstrate the application REACTIR to point of care (POC) blood glucose testing. We found that exposure to several substances with the potential to interfere in POC blood glucose tests, including N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and high dose vitamin C was uncommon in most patients undergoing POC glucose tests with several key exceptions, such as burn patients receiving high dose IV-vitamin C or acetaminophen overdose patients receiving NAC. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from REACTIR may support risk mitigation strategies including targeted clinician education and clinical decision support. Likewise, adaptations of REACTIR to premarket assay development may inform optimal assay design and assessment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the evidence for operative and non-operative management of isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. METHODS: Using Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, a systematic review was conducted of studies investigating the treatment of isolated PCL injuries published until July 2020. Quality assessment was performed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool (level I), the Newcastle-Ottowa Scale (level II-III) and the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool (level IV). Clinical outcome measures included residual laxity, return to sports, patient-reported outcome measures, subsequent articular degeneration and complications. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies [23 case series, 2 case-control, 1 cohort study and 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT)] including 5197 patients (5199 knees) with a mean age of 29.5 ± 3.6 years (range 15-68) fulfilled the study requirements. Significantly less residual laxity was found after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (PCLR) compared to non-operative management (3.43 vs. 5.47 mm, CI: 1.84-2.23, p < 0.001). Both treatment modalities yielded satisfying functional outcomes and a high return to sports (64-77%, mean: 70.3, CI: 67.8-72.2). Osteoarthritis (OA) occurred less frequently following PCLR (21.5 vs. 44.1%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the absence of level I RCTs, this systematic review suggests that surgical management for selected isolated PCL injuries is a reasonable option to consider, especially when the surgeon aims at minimizing residual laxity and presumably secondary osteoarthritis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

11.
Am J Ther ; 28(5): e560-e572, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an established and increasingly used approach for management of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, showing similar or even superior outcomes compared with standard surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Stroke after TAVI is a relatively rare, but serious complication, associated with potential prolonged disability and increased mortality. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: The overall incidence of 30-day stroke in TAVI patients is 3%-4%, but varies between different trials. Initial data suggested a higher risk of stroke after TAVI when compared with SAVR. The association between subclinical leaflet thrombosis and cerebral embolism, presented as stroke, transient ischemic accident, or silent cerebral ischemia is not entirely elucidated yet. Moreover, TAVI for severe bicuspid aortic stenosis is a relatively new issue, bicuspid anatomy being initially excluded from the pivotal clinical trials investigating TAVI procedure. Efficient stroke prevention strategies are under investigation. DATA SOURCES: In the present manuscript, we used the available published data from the most relevant clinical trials, registries, and meta-analysis of patients from different risk categories who underwent TAVI or SAVR. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES: Predictors of acute stroke are mainly procedure related. Technological development, improvements in bioprosthesis valve delivery catheters, and implantation technique may explain the decrease of stroke over the years since the beginning of TAVI procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The overall evidences confirm similar or lower rate of stroke in TAVI versus SAVR. Risk predictors for acute stroke after TAVI are generally related to procedural factors, whereas late stroke is mainly associated with patient characteristics, with a variable impact on cognitive function. The optimal choice for the antithrombotic treatment in TAVI for stroke prevention is yet to be determined. Current data do not support routine use of cerebral embolic protection devices during TAVI.

12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00061120, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495089

RESUMO

The study analyzes interactions between drug treatment adherence, blood pressure targets, and depression in a probabilistic sample of hypertensive individuals treated in the Family Health Strategy in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study with 641 hypertensive individuals 40 years or older, residing in the urban area of Governador Valadares. Structured scripts were used to collect data in home interviews, with a focus on the following indicators: Medication Assessment Questionnaire (MAQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and blood pressure measurement. Due to the simultaneity of the target events (depression, blood pressure target, and adherence), we applied a system of recursive and simultaneous nonlinear equations. The results suggest that the odds of meeting the blood pressure target increase significantly with adherence to treatment; they also suggest that individuals that meet the blood pressure target show 2.6 higher odds of treatment adherence. Adherence has a protective effect against depression: individuals with minimal adherence show 8.4 higher odds of developing depressive symptoms when compared to those with maximum adherence. Drug treatment adherence is related simultaneously to blood pressure control and lower levels of depression. Promoting drug treatment adherence is essential for ensuring that individuals remain normotensive, with the potential for reducing levels of depression. These positive externalities can reduce pressure on the health system, with simultaneous gains in quality of life for hypertensive individuals.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Saúde da Família , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 330, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507597

RESUMO

There is ongoing demographic ageing and increasing longevity of the population, with previously devastating and often-fatal diseases now transformed into chronic conditions. This is turning multi-morbidity into a major challenge in the world of critical care. After many years of research and innovation, mainly in geriatric care, the concept of multi-morbidity now requires fine-tuning to support decision-making for patients along their whole trajectory in healthcare, including in the intensive care unit (ICU). This article will discuss current challenges and present approaches to adapt critical care services to the needs of these patients.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508671

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease globally and is estimated to affect approximately 25% of the world's population. Data about the prevalence and incidence of NAFLD in Africa are scarce, but the prevalence is estimated to be 13·5% for the general population. This is likely to be an underestimate considering the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, particularly the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, driven by the overlapping challenges of food insecurity, nutritional transition, and associated increased consumption of calorie-dense foods. Establishing the true prevalence of NAFLD, raising public awareness around the risk factors behind the increase in NAFLD, and proactively addressing all components of metabolic syndrome will be important to combat this silent epidemic, which will have long-term health-care costs and economic consequences for the region.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508818

RESUMO

CONTEXT: With global population aging, the number of older patients with cancer is increasing. However, few data are available on palliative care for these patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate differences in symptom prevalence and the need for medical interventions among patients of different ages in a palliative care unit. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, a consecutive sample of 1032 terminally ill patients with cancer were categorized into the following age ranges: < 70, 70-79, 80-89, and ≥ 90 years. We evaluated symptom prevalence, the need for palliative medicines, opioid dose on the day before death, and the need for palliative sedation. Trend tests were used to examine whether the prevalence of findings increased or decreased with age. RESULTS: As age increased, significant decreasing trends were observed in the prevalence of pain, dyspnea, fatigue, constipation, nausea, drowsiness, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, and dysuria but not in appetite loss, edema, sputum production, or delirium. As age increased, significant decreasing trends were also observed in the need for opioids, benzodiazepines, antiemetics, and anticholinergics. The median opioid doses in the < 70, 70-79, 80-89, and ≥ 90 years age groups were 118, 72, 48, and 48 mg oral morphine equivalents/day, respectively (p < 0.0001). The need for palliative sedation showed a significant decreasing trend as age increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We found age to be inversely related to symptom prevalence and medical interventions among terminally ill patients with cancer, contributing to the understanding of the experience of older patients with cancer.

16.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12276, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This secondary analysis aims to investigate the implementation of the legally required company integration management ("BEM") in case of an incapacity for work of at least six weeks and to identify predictors. METHODS: Database is the representative randomized 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey of 20 012 employed persons in Germany. RESULTS: Of the 1367 employees entitled to company integration management, 40% received an offer from their employer and 27% accepted it. In the public sector, half of those who were entitled reported an offer. Among those entitled to company integration management, employees under the age of 30, at risk of dismissal, or with fixed-term employment contract received an offer particularly rarely. Entitled employees with disabilities or in companies with works/staff councils received disproportionately often an offer of company integration management. Logistic regression analyses reveal strong associations between company integration management offer and the duration of incapacity to work. The probability of receiving an offer is almost halved for those entitled in medium-sized compared to small companies. The higher the level of educational qualification, the higher are odds ratios for an offer. In companies in which employees were less or not satisfied with their work overall, the chance of a company integration management offer is significantly reduced almost by half. The chance of an offer is more than three times higher in companies with workplace health promotion compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: Only a minority of eligible employees received an offer that is closely associated with health-promoting corporate culture and job satisfaction.

17.
Med J Malaysia ; 76(5): 691-697, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Sudan, cancer a common health challenge, is the leading cause of death after malaria and viral pneumonia. The aim of the review is to determine the risk factors associated with esophageal cancer (EC) among Sudanese population. METHODS: All published online data concerning EC epidemiology, diagnosis, and management in Sudan were studied. RESULTS: The prevalence of EC in Sudan is ranked fourth among cancer types in males and fifth in females. The squamous cell carcinoma is more predominant than adenocarcinoma. The dietary, dysplasia and teeth loss, cigarette smoking, age, sex, GERD, genetic and environmental interactions remain a risk for developing EC in clinical practice. A significant challenge for treatment is that most of EC patients were often diagnosed in advanced stages due to the lack of early clinical symptoms. Management of EC depends on patient fitness and tumor stage, endoscopic removal was used for early tumors, while chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, surgical resection, or combinations of these were used for advanced tumors. Despite improvements in the management and treatment of EC patients, the general outcome remains very poor. Furthermore, using molecular techniques to better understand the etiology of EC, it may assist in identifying complicated and critical issues and improve therapy towards a new treatment strategy. CONCLUSION: The remarkable factors associated with EC among Sudanese are geographical variation, environmental factors, ethnic differences, dietary and social habits.

18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to report the incidence, management, and outcomes of patients who developed a secondary pneumothorax while admitted for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective review of patients admitted for COVID-19 with a diagnosis of pneumothorax between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020 was performed. The primary assessment was the incidence of pneumothorax. Secondarily, we analyzed clinical outcomes of patients requiring tube thoracostomy, including those requiring operative intervention. RESULTS: From March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020, 118 of 1595 patients (7.4%) admitted for COVID-19 developed a pneumothorax. Of these, 92 (5.8%) required tube thoracostomy drainage for a median of 12 days (IQR 5-25). The majority of patients (95/118, 80.5%) were on mechanical ventilation at the time of pneumothorax, 17 (14.4%) were iatrogenic, and 25 patients (21.2%) demonstrated tension physiology. Placement of a large-bore chest tube (20 Fr or greater) was associated with fewer tube-related complications than a small-bore tube (14 Fr or less) (14 vs 26 events, P=0.011). Six patients with pneumothorax (5.1%) required operative management for a persistent alveolar-pleural fistula. In patients with pneumothorax, median hospital stay was 36 days (IQR 20-63) and in hospital mortality was significantly higher than those without pneumothorax (58% vs 13%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of secondary pneumothorax in patients admitted for COVID-19 is 7.4%, most commonly occurring in patients requiring mechanical ventilation, and is associated with an in-hospital mortality rate of 58%. Placement of large-bore chest tubes is associated with fewer complications than small-bore tubes.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(5): 755-757, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492699

RESUMO

This clinical practice guideline is a focused update on management of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in adults specifically addressing the use of fidaxomicin and bezlotoxumab for the treatment of CDI. This guideline was developed by a multidisciplinary panel representing the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). This guideline is intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for adults with CDI, including specialists in infectious diseases, gastroenterologists, hospitalists, pharmacists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for these patients. The panel's recommendations for the management CDI are based upon evidence derived from topic-specific systematic literature reviews. Summarized below are the recommendations for the management of CDI in adults. The panel followed a systematic process which included a standardized methodology for rating the certainty of the evidence and strength of recommendation using the GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). A detailed description of background, methods, evidence summary and rationale that support each recommendation, and knowledge gaps can be found online in the full text.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Doenças Transmissíveis , Adulto , Clostridioides , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
20.
Public Health ; 198: 9-16, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2018, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that almost 10 million people worldwide had tuberculosis (TB). The majority of the TB cases were concentrated in South East Asian Region (SEAR) countries. To curb this burden, the WHO has set interim targets to reduce TB incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025 (interim targets of the 'End TB' strategy). Hence, this study was conducted to determine the progress of SEAR countries towards reaching these interim targets for TB incidence and mortality. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was performed using information from the WHO Global Health Observatory and Global Health Estimates for all SEAR countries. ARIMA modelling was used to forecast TB incidence and TB mortality from 2000 to 2025. Joinpoint regression was performed to determine the average annual percent change. RESULTS: Based on the current trend, we estimated that the incidence and mortality of TB in SEAR countries will decline to 3.7 million (4.37 million in 2018) and 495,280 (650,979 in 2016) by 2025, respectively. Projected age-standardised TB incidence showed a significant decline in only four SEAR countries, with the maximal decline in Myanmar (47.3%) followed by India (23.4%) compared with 2015 estimates. Age-standardised TB mortality showed a declining trend in six SEAR countries, with the maximum decline found in Myanmar (60.3%) followed by Thailand (39.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Current study findings show that it is highly unlikely for most SEAR countries to achieve the WHO recommended interim End TB targets of 50% reduction in incidence and 75% reduction in mortality by 2025.

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