Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 169
Filtrar
Más filtros

Bases de datos
Tipo del documento
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The development of communication, speech and language follows three stages (development of the parent-child relationship, interactions and actual speech and language acquisition). Children born with cleft lip and/or palate are at increased risk of communicative problems while parents may be going through an emotionally difficult time. Early parent-implemented logopaedic intervention that supports both parents and child is important. Three systematic reviews have examined the effects of early speech and language interventions, but not their structure and content. AIMS: To investigate which early parent-implemented logopaedic interventions already exist for children with cleft lip and/or palate, and to evaluate their structure, content and time of onset against the three stages of communicative development. METHODS: Six databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, APA PsycInfo, Cinahl and Scopus) were searched between inception and 31 March 2023 to identify published articles that reported early parent-implemented logopaedic interventions in children with cleft lip and/or palate, aged 0 to 3 years, clearly describing the strategies used to train parents. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the studies. Quality assessment was conducted using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database quality assessment tool, Single-Case Experimental Design tool and the National Institutes of Health pre-post-study tools. The structure and content of the interventions were analysed taking into account the needs and difficulties of both the parents and the child according to the three stages of communicative development. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: The systematic literature search identified four studies that met the inclusion criteria. Three of them had a Level of Evidence III and one study had a Level of Evidence IV. Strategies appropriate for Stage 1 of communicative development (parent-child relationship) are well represented in only one study, but the psychosocial needs of parents are currently not included in these programmes. However, research shows that parental emotional difficulties can adversely impact a child's communicative development. Strategies appropriate for Stage 2 (promoting social interactions) are better represented. However, strategies appropriate for Stage 3 (acquiring correct speech and language patterns) are most represented in all intervention programmes. CONCLUSIONS: Three out of four intervention programmes focus on Stage 3 (actual speech and language stimulation). Stage 1 is underrepresented and the psychosocial needs of parents are currently not included in existing intervention programmes. Further research is needed in close collaboration with psychologists to construct a comprehensive, longitudinal, developmentally appropriate intervention programme that equally represents the three stages of communicative development and considers the psychosocial needs of parents. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: What is already known on the subject Children with cleft lip and/or palate are at increased risk of speech and language problems from birth. Parents of these children often have emotional problems following their child's diagnosis. The effectiveness of early intervention to facilitate the child's speech and language development has already been proven. Early intervention is recommended for both parents and child, but little is known about early parent-implemented logopaedic interventions that also provide psychosocial support for parents. What this paper adds to existing knowledge This review has shown that existing early parent-implemented logopaedic interventions for children with cleft lip and/or palate focus mainly on facilitating responsive interactions and actual speech and language development (Stages 2 and 3 of communicative development). However, Stage 1, where the parent-child relationship develops, is currently not included, even though this stage is a prerequisite of subsequent stages. If parents are struggling with emotional problems (following their child's diagnosis) this can negatively impact their mental health, the parent-child relationship, attachment and their child's development. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? A clinical implication of the findings in this review is that more attention should be paid to Stage 1 of communicative development in early parent-implemented logopaedic interventions. By working closely with the psychologist of the cleft (and craniofacial) team, any psychosocial needs of the parents can be included in the counselling. As a result, the parents and their child are seen and supported as a unit and the parent-child relationship can develop optimally.

2.
Europace ; 25(9)2023 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37772950

RESUMEN

AIMS: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a hereditary arrhythmic disease, associated with sudden cardiac death. To date, little is known about the psychosocial correlates and impacts associated with this disease. The aim of this study was to assess a set of patient-reported psychosocial outcomes, to better profile these patients, and to propose a tailored psychosocial care. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were recruited at the European reference Centre for BrS at Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Belgium. Recruitment was undertaken in two phases: phase 1 (retrospective), patients with confirmed BrS, and phase 2 (prospective), patients referred for ajmaline testing who had an either positive or negative diagnosis. BrS patients were compared to controls from the general population. Two hundred and nine questionnaires were analysed (144 retrospective and 65 prospective). Collected patient-reported outcomes were on mental health (12 item General Health Questionnaire; GHQ-12), social support (Oslo Social Support Scale), health-related quality of life, presence of Type-D personality (Type-D Scale; DS14), coping styles (Brief-COPE), and personality dimensions (Ten Item Personality Inventory). Results showed higher mental distress (GHQ-12) in BrS patients (2.53 ± 3.03) than in the general population (P < 0.001) and higher prevalence (32.7%) of Type D personality (P < 0.001) in patients with confirmed Brugada syndrome (BrS +). A strong correlation was found in the BrS + group (0.611, P < 0.001) between DS14 negative affectivity subscale and mental distress (GHQ-12). CONCLUSION: Mental distress and type D personality are significantly more common in BrS patients compared to the general population. This clearly illustrates the necessity to include mental health screening and care as standard for BrS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Brugada , Humanos , Síndrome de Brugada/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Brugada/terapia , Síndrome de Brugada/complicaciones , Salud Mental , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Electrocardiografía/métodos
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(10): 613, 2023 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37796309

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer treatment can lead to sexual dysfunction which, in general, impacts younger women more. Being well informed and having good social support are important elements in dealing with this dysfunction. AIMS: This study aims to explore how specialized breast clinics can help young women with questions or problems regarding their sexual health by fulfilling their information and social support needs. METHOD: A thematic analysis was used for 16 interviews with young women (18-45 years) diagnosed with breast cancer, in Belgium. RESULTS: Participants report a lack of information on sexual issues and find the information insufficiently tailored to young women. The empathy of healthcare providers and their communication skills play an important role in whether sexual issues can be discussed. Finally, they indicate that more attention should be paid to their partner (relationship). CONCLUSION: The breast clinic might help young women by giving more specific advice on what is sexually allowed (or not) during treatment, by informing them about lubricants and sex toys, by adapting brochures and information sessions to young women, by investing in the partner's well-being and their relationship, and by training healthcare providers better.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Conducta Sexual , Sexualidad , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Bélgica
4.
J Adv Nurs ; 79(2): 676-685, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534409

RESUMEN

AIM: To explore final year nursing students' attitudes towards euthanasia due to unbearable mental suffering by using the adapted and validated Euthanasia Attitude Scale. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Explorative, descriptive cross-sectional study conducted using an e-mail survey between October 2020 and March 2021 by a sample of final-year baccalaureate nursing students (n = 273) from eight of the eleven Flemish university colleges. The actual questionnaire contains 21 questions and was developed based on a consensus reached following independent translations. The psychometric properties of the Euthanasia Attitude Scale were assessed, including reliability and validity. Independent-sample Mann-Whitney U-test was used to investigate relation between demographic and education-related data, and domain and total score of the UMS-EAS-NL. This study received ethical approval from the Ethical Committee of the University Hospital Brussels, Belgium. RESULTS: McDonald's omega was 0.838 for the total Euthanasia Attitude Scale scores, supporting the validity of the questionnaire. A statistically significant difference in 'Naturalistic beliefs' score was found relating to the year of birth. There are clinically important results between those students who have been involved in euthanasia and those who have not. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the final-year nursing students supported the probability of patients' access to euthanasia due to unbearable mental suffering. To monitor adequate care, it is necessary to prepare nursing students adequately for this complex matter. IMPACT: To date, no large-scale study has examined nursing students' attitudes towards euthanasia because of unbearable mental suffering. It is expected that nursing students may be confronted with such a euthanasia request during an internship, or later in their professional career, in countries where euthanasia is legal. Students showed a high acceptability towards UMS-euthanasia. Clinically significant differences were found for students who had ever been involved in euthanasia.


Asunto(s)
Eutanasia , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Sex Abuse ; 35(3): 263-287, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510651

RESUMEN

It is important that therapists manage adequately their romantic and sexual feelings toward clients as it can negatively affect the psychotherapeutic relationship and may even pose a risk of sexual abuse. This study explores how psychotherapists in Flanders (Belgium) manage such feelings, by conducting both a survey (using 105 of 786 respondents for analyses, as they reported romantic feelings) and focus groups (with a total of 36 participants). Results show that most therapists never consider starting a romantic relationship with a client. They reflect profoundly on their feelings, dwell on possible consequences, while maintaining strict boundaries. Although therapists themselves highly recommend referring the client to a colleague if feelings become too intense, this rarely happens in practice. Most therapists consider talking about their romantic and sexual feelings towards clients as something very important, but only a third have disclosed their feelings in supervision, peer-supervision, or in personal therapy. Therapists indicate there is still hesitance about this due to fear of condemnation.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Bélgica , Psicoterapia/métodos , Conducta Sexual , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente
6.
Acad Psychiatry ; 47(4): 352-359, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271318

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Many therapists will one day be confronted with a patient who develops romantic or sexual feelings toward them. Studies on this topic often remain theoretical in nature and less often focus on how therapists manage such situations. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how therapists experience this occurrence and manage their feelings. METHODS: Eight focus groups were conducted with 36 participants in Flanders (Belgium). Both therapists-in-training and therapists-in-practice participated, having different educational backgrounds. The data were explored using the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: Therapists indicated that they try to dissuade any further development of their patients' romantic or sexual feelings by using strategies such as emphasizing their personal relational status, adjusting their appearance, and avoiding any physical contact with their patients. Some therapists question their own professional behavior, feeling guilty, confused, or insecure, wondering if they may have, in some way, provoked these feelings. Therapists who are at an earlier stage in their careers experience more difficulties managing their patients' romantic or sexual feelings toward them and worry they will not be considered a good professional therapist if such a situation occurs. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs in psychotherapy should be more cognizant of the incidence of patients' developing romantic or sexual feelings toward therapists and provide more comprehensive and practical instruction on how to cope with such feelings.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Conducta Sexual , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente
7.
J Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2023 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37190980

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate and sexual feelings are common within psychotherapy, with negative outcomes when not managed adequately. AIMS: This study aims to investigate the understudied topic of these intimate and sexual feelings in basic education and psychotherapy training programs. METHOD: In this convergent mixed method study, both a survey (N = 786) and 8 focus groups (N = 36) were conducted among psychotherapists in Flanders, Belgium (November 2016 - June 2018), using inferential and thematic analyses respectively. RESULTS: The majority indicates that dealing with intimate and sexual feelings towards clients was hardly part of either their basic education or psychotherapy training. Talking about such feelings with peers or supervisors remained difficult because of concerns about being judged. Therapists indicating this topic was addressed in some way in their training indicated more often that they did not perceive it as a taboo topic. Therapists advocated a more open discussion and reflection on this topic. Education and training, as well as support from renowned key figures in their field, were regarded as important incentives to initiate change. CONCLUSION: Psychotherapy training should focus on how to deal with intimate and sexual feelings, referring to introspection and exploration of these feelings in a more integrated way during training.

8.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 453-463, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031907

RESUMEN

A certain level of intimacy is necessary in psychotherapeutic relationships for them to be effective, but it can sometimes develop further into more intimate feelings and behaviors related to friendship and sexuality, into friendship, or even into sexual relationships. In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to psychotherapists in Flanders (Belgium), asking about the occurrence of these situations. It provides an overview of these occurrences and comparative data to view for generational and cultural differences with previous studies. A response rate of 40% was obtained (N = 786): 69% of respondents were female therapists and none were transgender. A total of 758 therapists stated that they had actually provided psychotherapy and were included for further analysis. Three percent started a sexual relationship with a current and/or former client, 3.7% started a friendship during therapy, and 13.4% started a friendship after therapy. About seven out of ten therapists found a client sexually attractive, a quarter fantasized about a romantic relationship, and a fifth gave a goodbye hug at the end of a session (22%). In general, more male therapists reported sexual feelings and behaviors than female therapists. Older therapists more often behaved informally and started friendships with former clients compared to younger colleagues. Psychiatrists reported sexual feelings and fantasies less often than non-psychiatrists, and behavioral therapists reported this less frequently than person-centered and psychoanalytic therapists. Overall, prevalence rates of intimate feelings and behaviors related to friendship and sexuality are lower than those in previous studies.


Asunto(s)
Psicoterapia , Conducta Sexual , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Sexualidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 390, 2022 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331222

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The international terrorism threat urges societies to invest in the planning and organization of psychosocial care. With the aim to contribute to cross-national learning, this study describes the content, target populations and providers of psychosocial care to civilians after terrorist attacks in Norway, France and Belgium. METHODS: We identified and reviewed pre- and post-attack policy documents, guidelines, reports and other relevant grey literature addressing the psychosocial care response to terrorist attacks in Oslo/Utøya, Norway on 22 July 2011; in Paris, France on 13 November 2015; and in Brussels, Belgium on 22 March 2016. RESULTS: In Norway, there was a primary care based approach with multidisciplinary crisis teams in the local municipalities. In response to the terrorist attacks, there were proactive follow-up programs within primary care and occupational health services with screenings of target groups throughout a year. In France, there was a national network of specialized emergency psychosocial units primarily consisting of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychiatric nurses organized by the regional health agencies. They provided psychological support the first month including guidance for long-term healthcare, but there were no systematic screening programs after the acute phase. In Belgium, there were psychosocial intervention networks in the local municipalities, yet the acute psychosocial care was coordinated at a federal level. A reception centre was organized to provide acute psychosocial care, but there were no reported public long-term psychosocial care initiatives in response to the attacks. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial care responses, especially long-term follow-up activities, differed substantially between countries. Models for registration of affected individuals, monitoring of their health and continuous evaluation of countries' psychosocial care provision incorporated in international guidelines may strengthen public health responses to mass-casualty incidents.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica , Terrorismo , Bélgica , Francia , Humanos , Noruega
10.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 40, 2022 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To prevent sexual boundary violations (SBV) in mental health care institutions overall governments require these institutions to report SBV incidents to a central registry and to develop institutional guidelines how to react. In Europe SBV policies are only recently developed or implemented, as is also the case in Flanders (Belgium). The implementation of a new institutional policy is always a challenge and can encounter resistance, especially when it concerns SBV, because they remain delicate and complex. METHOD: This study evaluated the extent to which mandatory policies on SBV have been implemented in mental health care institutions in Flanders, and possible factors for (non-)implementation of these policies. An online survey was sent to the executives of all mental health care institutions in Flanders (N = 162). RESULTS: In total 56 executives of mental health care institutions filled out the survey (response rate 35%). Results showed that the implementation of an SBV policy in mental health care institutions is unfortunately inadequate and not all SBV incidents were reported to the central registry. Type of institution and opinions on the SBV policy were related to the (non-)implementation of the requirements. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that governments regularly communicate with mental health care institutions to better understand the concerns and difficulties concerning implementation of the required SBV policy and to support/stimulate an organisational culture of more openness and safety on this topic.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Servicios de Salud Mental , Bélgica , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Políticas
11.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(7): 1507-1513, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641527

RESUMEN

Little is known about the association between terrorism and suicide. This study investigates suicide numbers in Flanders, Belgium before and after the Paris-attacks (13/11/2015) and Brussels-attacks (22/03/2016). Population mortality data for suicide were gathered from the Agency for healthcare. Suicides in Flanders, Belgium, were higher after both attacks. The increase was higher after the Paris-attacks, compared to the attacks in Brussels, Belgium. The effect of a close-by, but still foreign attack (the Paris-attacks in France) on suicide numbers is larger than that of an attack inside the country (the Brussels-attacks), possibly due to a difference in threat experience and coping possibilities.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio , Terrorismo , Adaptación Psicológica , Bélgica/epidemiología , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos
12.
Community Ment Health J ; 58(4): 657-665, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241739

RESUMEN

Feeling threatened by terrorism can be associated with mental health problems and behavioural changes. However, few studies look at the association in the long-term. Using a survey, the population in Brussels, Belgium was studied using a representative database delivered by the national post service. The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) assessed mental health, and self-made questions avoidance behaviour. 170 people answered: 60% women and 50% higher educated, 28.2% between 56 and 65 years and 62.4% had a partner. 43.5% felt threatened by the terrorist attacks and 45.9% experienced no mental health problems. Both terrorist threat (p < 0.001) and avoidance behaviour (p < 0.001) significantly predicted PHQ-4 scores, while controlling for gender, age, social support, education level, and traumatic events. There is a relation between terrorist threat and anxiety/depressive symptoms 2.5 years after the last study on terrorist threat in Brussels, but it has weakened. Avoidance behaviour seems to be more present than threat.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Terrorismo , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Bélgica/epidemiología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Terrorismo/psicología
13.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1807-1813, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183919

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To avoid harming or exploiting a client, sexual and non-sexual dual relationship is generally considered as unacceptable in the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, little is known about what therapists themselves constitute as (un)acceptable intimate and informal behaviour (IIB). METHODS: A survey among psychotherapists in Flanders (Belgium) was conducted. Opinions about the acceptability of IIB were asked. Based on these opinions attitude groups could be determined. RESULTS: In total, 786 therapists completed and returned the questionnaire (response rate: 39.8%). Therapists could be divided into three attitude groups. Almost half of the therapists belonged to the 'rather restrictive group', a third to the 'rather socially permissive group' and a fifth to the 'rather sexually permissive group'. Being categorised as 'rather sexually permissive' is predominantly related to being male and non-heterosexual, whereas being 'rather restrictive' or 'rather socially permissive' is mainly due to the type of psychotherapy training. The 'rather sexually permissive' therapists more often found a client sexually attractive during the last year and fantasised more often about a romantic relationship with a client, but they did not more often started a sexual relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Most therapists in Flanders are rather restrictive in their attitude to IIB, pointing to a high sense of morality. Having a rather sexually permissive attitude is predominantly related to more personal characteristics of the therapists, but these therapists did not start a sexual relationship more often.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Principios Morales , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente/ética , Psicoterapeutas/psicología , Conducta Sexual , Adulto , Bélgica , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(4): 703-709, 2021 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635314

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Compassion fatigue has not been studied among funeral directors. Yet, funeral directors have been exposed to the same risks for compassion fatigue as other caregivers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was spread two times to 287 employees of funeral home DELA, in Belgium. Once during the height of the first wave of COVID-19 in Belgium, and a second time at the end of the first wave. The professional quality of life-scale 5 (PROQOL-5) was used to measure compassion fatigue, which includes burnout, compassion satisfaction and secondary trauma. Non-parametric tests were performed. RESULTS: In total, 104 participants answered the first survey, and 107 the second. Burnout increases from survey 1 to survey 2 (P < 0.001), while compassion satisfaction (P = 0.011) and secondary trauma decrease (P < 0.001). In survey 1, only age (P = 0.007) and gender (P = 0.040) were found to be significantly associated with secondary trauma. In survey 2, having more work experience is associated with having a higher burnout (P = 0.008) and secondary trauma (P = 0.001) score. Neither for burnout (P < 0.001), nor for secondary trauma (P < 0.001) are there any respondents in the highest category. CONCLUSIONS: Although overall funeral directors do not have acute problems with compassion fatigue, burnout scores increase significantly after the first wave.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , COVID-19 , Desgaste por Empatía , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Desgaste por Empatía/epidemiología , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 63, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407319

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although schools have been identified as significant settings in the response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, limited research is available on how they can accommodate Youth Living with HIV/AIDS (YLWHA), especially in resource limited countries. In this study, we explored strategies by school stakeholders (school staff, parents/caretakers, and students) in western Uganda to care for and support YLWHA in their schools. METHODS: The article utilizes data collected between May and October, 2019 from a qualitative inquiry based on focus group discussions and interviews with 88 school stakeholders purposively selected from 3 secondary schools in western Uganda. Textual data was analyzed thematically involving both inductive and deductive coding. RESULTS: We identified 7 overarching interrelated themes in which participants reported strategies to care for and support YLWHA: counselling and guidance; social support networks and linkages; knowledge and skills; anti-stigma and anti-discrimination measures; disclosure of HIV status; treatment and management of HIV/AIDS; and affirmative actions for YLWHA. Stakeholders' strategies often differed regarding what was considered appropriate, the approach and who to take lead in supporting YLWHA. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited care and support strategies specific for YLWHA currently available in schools, our study points to optimism and high potential given stakeholders' identified avenues for improvement. We posit that promoting HIV/AIDS-care and support in schools is a gradual process requiring each school to develop a strong knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and support needs of YLWHA, develop a coherent and school-wide approach, and collaborate extensively with external stakeholders who are significant in supporting YLWHA.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/terapia , Adolescente , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Estigma Social , Uganda
16.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv31-iv35, 2021 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751367

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a disaster that has impacted lives globally. The purpose of this paper is to understand the linkage between COVID-19 and its impact on mental health. To reach this aim, we reviewed the literature on COVID-19 and mental conditions. Based on the literature, we identified COVID-19 as an unexpected, large-scale event that disrupted communities and caused death, destruction and trauma which upended normal existence. For mental conditions, effects of the pandemic are likely to manifest in different ways: development of symptoms in previously healthy individuals, new episodes in those with predisposition to mental disorders and development of symptoms that do not meet diagnostic criteria. The level of mental health problems varies depending on the stage of the pandemic, country, population groups and types of conditions. This also applies to the level of suicide, although suicides do not seem to have increased during the pandemic. Yet, we identified a net of factors contributing to mental conditions, in general. These factors include demographic factors (e.g. female gender, younger and older age), social factors (e.g. economically disadvantaged), mental factors (e.g. pre-existing mental conditions) and relationship factors (e.g. stressful relationship, lack of relationships). Additionally, we identified COVID-19-specific factors such as threat to own life and threat to life of loved ones, containment measures and interruption of services and social life. We further explored potentially additional suicide-related risk factors. Regardless of differences, health care and psychosocial systems were in many countries not prepared to respond to a viral disaster. Viral disaster requires that responses not only include direct care but also responses to populations that may need support due to known determinants of mental health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Desastres , Suicidio , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270881

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may aggravate workplace conditions that impact health-care workers' mental health. However, it can also place other stresses on workers outside of their work. This study determines the effect of COVID-19 on symptoms of negative and positive mental health and the workforce's experience with various sources of support. Effect modification by demographic variables was also studied. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study, conducted between 2 April and 4 May 2020 (two waves), led to a convenience sample of 4509 health-care workers in Flanders (Belgium), including paramedics (40.6%), nurses (33.4%), doctors (13.4%) and management staff (12.2%). About three in four were employed in university and acute hospitals (29.6%), primary care practices (25.7%), residential care centers (21.3%) or care sites for disabled and mental health care. In each of the two waves, participants were asked how frequently (on a scale of 0-10) they experienced positive and negative mental health symptoms during normal circumstances and during last week, referred to as before and during COVID-19, respectively. These symptoms were stress, hypervigilance, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, unable to relax, fear, irregular lifestyle, flashback, difficulty concentrating, feeling unhappy and dejected, failing to recognize their own emotional response, doubting knowledge and skills and feeling uncomfortable within the team. Associations between COVID-19 and mental health symptoms were estimated by cumulative logit models and reported as odds ratios. The needed support was our secondary outcome and was reported as the degree to which health-care workers relied on sources of support and how they experienced them. RESULTS: All symptoms were significantly more pronounced during versus before COVID-19. For hypervigilance, there was a 12-fold odds (odds ratio 12.24, 95% confidence interval 11.11-13.49) during versus before COVID-19. Positive professional symptoms such as the feeling that one can make a difference were less frequently experienced. The association between COVID-19 and mental health was generally strongest for the age group 30-49 years, females, nurses and residential care centers. Health-care workers reported to rely on support from relatives and peers. A considerable proportion, respectively, 18 and 27%, reported the need for professional guidance from psychologists and more support from their leadership. CONCLUSIONS: The toll of the crisis has been heavy on health-care workers. Those who carry leadership positions at an organizational or system level should take this opportunity to develop targeted strategies to mitigate key stressors of health-care workers' mental well-being.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Mental , Adulto , Ansiedad , Bélgica/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga de Trabajo
18.
Qual Health Res ; 31(5): 999-1011, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554752

RESUMEN

Talking about sexual feelings toward clients is still difficult for many mental health professionals. This is unfortunate, because exploring and talking about these feelings with peers (especially senior ones) or supervisors can help professionals to recognize, acknowledge, accept, and handle these feelings well. This focus group study explores the various factors that contribute to psychotherapists' hesitancy to talk about these feelings. The analysis revealed two important impeding factors: the psychotherapists felt discomfortable and a safe environment was lacking. Young, less experienced psychotherapists and psychiatrists seemed to be most vulnerable. Furthermore, more profound sexual feelings were "disguised" in some cases by using a more acceptable narrative, such as " intimate feelings," which possibly also impeded acknowledgment and discussion of these feelings. These insights might help to open up the way for psychotherapists to explore and come forward with their sexual feelings and experiences.


Asunto(s)
Psicoterapia , Tabú , Emociones , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Conducta Sexual
19.
Qual Health Res ; 31(10): 1937-1950, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980098

RESUMEN

We present an explanatory theory for HIV-related stigma from the perspectives of youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWHA) in Western Uganda, on which the fight against this relentless stigma in this age group and locality can be founded. A constant comparative method was used to analyze textual data from in-depth interviews with 35 YLWHA, selected from three health facilities. A stigma process model for YLWHA was developed with the stigmatizing feelings and behaviors as the core category. Concepts delineating causes, consequences, and moderators of HIV-related stigma emerged from the data to complete the stigma process. The specific focus on YLWHA and contextual characteristics adds new dimensions to the understanding of HIV-related stigma that are scant in existing HIV-related stigma models. In light of our findings, research is necessary to identify context-specific strategies to overcome the deep-rooted causes of stigmatizing views and behaviors in all social spheres of YLWHA within Western Uganda.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Adolescente , Humanos , Estigma Social , Uganda
20.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 28(6): 1472-1481, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People that experience a trauma might also experience problems in their social relationships. However, how witnessing a terrorist attack influences social relationships is still understudied. This is important, as currently, there is more focus on the individual's mental health and not on how this mental health can impact the individual's social relations. In this study, the impact of the experience of a terrorist attack on social relationships was studied. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted, with 31 directly exposed people during the 22 March 2016 attacks in Belgium. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three factors related to the impact on social relationships were found. First, participants felt that they had changed. This includes feeling more aggressive, guilty, distrusting or psychosomatic factors, such as migraine attacks, which can hamper social visits. Second, the reactions of others on the participant's expressing their feelings and behaviour also caused participants to not feel understood by their social relationships. Third, due the first two factors, participants coped in different ways (e.g. remaining silent and avoiding certain triggers), which in turn caused their social relationships to change. CONCLUSIONS: The social relationships of witnesses of terrorist attacks can be hampered due to both themselves as well as the reaction of others. More awareness seems to be needed on the possible mental health consequences of terrorist attacks for witnesses.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Terrorismo , Adaptación Psicológica , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Salud Mental
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA