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1.
J Fam Nurs ; 30(2): 145-173, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529615

RESUMEN

There is increasing evidence that highlights the benefits of Family-oriented Therapeutic Conversations (FAM-TC) for the patient and the family; however, studies show variability regarding the content and the way these interventions are offered. This may hamper its further development in clinical practice. This review systematically maps the available literature on nurse-led FAM-TC and offers a solid synthesis of the characteristic, effectiveness, and feasibility of these interventions. A systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Trip (Turning Research Into Practice), BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine), OATD (Open Access Theses and Dissertations), and ProQuest databases identified 37 studies. The interventions varied in interventionist nurses' profile, the intervention content, or the duration of the sessions offered. Most of the interventions showed beneficial effects on perceived family support and family functioning. This review offers suggestions for future studies, such as the inclusion of specific theoretical frameworks for intervention design, targeting both the patient and the family and offered by nurses with family nursing competency.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de la Familia , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Comunicación , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Familia/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años
2.
Nurs Health Sci ; 25(3): 311-322, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37271216

RESUMEN

This study aims to assess the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of a brief, peer-led alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in binge-drinking Spanish nursing students. A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted with 50 first-year nursing students who were randomly assigned either a 50-min peer-led motivational intervention with individual feedback or a control condition. Primary outcomes for testing the preliminary efficacy were alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Quantitative and content analyses of open-ended survey questions were performed. Participants in the intervention condition significantly reduced binge-drinking episodes, peak blood alcohol content, and consequences compared to the control group. Principal facilitators were completing the questionnaire during the academic schedule and providing tailored feedback through a graphic report. The main barrier was the unreliability of students' initial commitment. The findings suggest that a brief motivational intervention could be effective for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences in Spanish college students. Peer counselors and participants reported high satisfaction, indicating that the intervention is feasible. However, a full trial should be conducted taking into account the identified barriers and facilitators.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Motivación , Estudiantes , Universidades
3.
J Fam Nurs ; 29(2): 179-191, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647194

RESUMEN

Nurses' attitudes toward families play an important role in improving relationships with patients' families. It is essential to have valid and reliable instruments to assess nurses' attitudes toward involving families. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the refined Spanish version of the Families' Importance in Nursing Care-Nurses' Attitudes (FINC-NA) according to classical test theory and the Rasch model (N = 263). Cronbach's alpha values were .73 to .87 and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from .72 to .86. Rasch analysis results suggested that it was a multidimensional scale with four dimensions and a simpler response scheme than the original scale. Except for one item, the scale was free from bias regarding age and experience time. The FINC-NA is a reliable and valid measure showing a good fit to the Rasch model and is ready to map nurses' attitudes and measure the effectiveness of family nursing educational interventions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Atención de Enfermería , Humanos , Psicometría , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
J Fam Nurs ; 28(3): 277-291, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414277

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to explore nurses' attitudes and beliefs about the importance of families in nursing care, as well as the barriers and facilitators within the clinical context that influence the implementation offamily nursing in an in-patient oncology service. A cross-sectional study design, incorporating quantitative and qualitative measurements, was used with a sample of nurses in Spain from an oncology service (N = 39). In general, oncology nurses reported positive attitudes and beliefs about the importance of family in nursing care. However, they did not effectively involve the family in their daily clinical practice. This was due to the nurses' lack of clinical skills and competence to work with families as well as contextual factors such as the lack of time and workload that acted as barriers to the implementation of family-oriented care. This study identified areas of improvement that are needed to promote the effective and sustainable implementation of family nursing knowledge in clinical practice settings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de la Familia , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Competencia Clínica , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(2): 715-728, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245152

RESUMEN

AIM: To develop and psychometrically test the Nurse Health Education Competence Instrument for assessing nurses' knowledge, skills and personal attributes concerning competent health education practice. DESIGN: A psychometric instrument development and validation study. METHODS: A four-step approach was used: Step 1) operational definition based on an up-to-date concept analysis and experts' judgement; step 2) item generation and content validation by expert panel and target population; step 3) item analysis based on acceptability, internal consistency and face validity; and step 4) psychometric evaluation based on construct validity, criterion validity, internal consistency and stability, conducted from January -February 2019 with 458 hospital-care nurses. RESULTS: The operational framework and expert groups showed good content validity, resulting in the first version. From the initial 88-item pool, 58 items were retained after item analysis. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three scales concerning the cognitive (three-factor solution with 23 items), psychomotor (two-factor solution with 26 items) and affective-attitudinal (one-factor solution with nine items) competency domains, which respectively accounted for 58%, 53% and 54% of the variance. Known-group study demonstrated significant differences by years working in the service and training received in health education, providing evidence for the measure's sensitivity. The three scales correlated positively with the criterion variable. Overall Cronbach alphas for the cognitive, psychomotor and affective-attitudinal scales were 0.95, 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed Nurse Health Education Competence Instrument is an original and tested self-reporting psychometric tool, being the first to identify nurses' knowledge, skills and attributes necessary for planning and assessing health education practice competency. IMPACT: The instrument permits measurable insights into nurses' perceptions regarding their health education competence and related educational needs. This study provides a valid and specific learning tool that is appropriate to use both in clinical practice and in nursing education programmes.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Nurs Manag ; 29(5): 1130-1140, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438261

RESUMEN

AIM: To translate and psychometrically validate the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire for nurses in Spain. BACKGROUND: Nurses are one of the groups most affected by work-related stress. The combination of high job demands and low control is identified as the main source of stress among nurses. The Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for assessing psychosocial stress in the workplace. METHODS: A two-phase cross-sectional descriptive study. The instrument was translated according to Sousa and Rojjanasrirat guidelines, including forward and backward translations, consensus meetings, pilot testing and expert committee. Structural validity, convergent and discriminative validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed in a sample of 247 nurses. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis verified a three-factor solution with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α values ranged from 0.62 to 0.87) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire seems to be a brief, valid and reliable instrument to measure psychosocial stress in the workplace in nurses. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The use of the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire can be of value to inform the design and implementation of appropriate management strategies to foster a more favourable work environment that promotes the well-being of professionals.


Asunto(s)
Traducciones , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
J Fam Nurs ; 27(2): 124-135, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563068

RESUMEN

Using constructivist grounded theory, this study explored how family groups respond to Alzheimer's disease in its early stages. Seven family units (N = 22) participated in a series of 26 longitudinal interviews and 14 other family caregivers took part in three focus groups at a later stage for refinement and verification of the findings. Data analysis revealed four types of family dynamics: close dynamics at the start that were maintained throughout the experience, close dynamics at the start which became conflicting, conflicting dynamics at the start which remained problematic, and conflicting dynamic at the start which became closer over time. Factors such as prior relationships and family history, motivation to care, family organization, communication, and the family vision for future shaped the development of these dynamics. This theory of family dynamics in Alzheimer's disease has the potential to inform the development of more adequate early interventions for families living with the illness.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Relaciones Familiares , Cuidadores , Familia , Teoría Fundamentada , Humanos
8.
J Fam Nurs ; 27(4): 255-274, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420376

RESUMEN

Evidence shows that applying family nursing theory to practice benefits the patient, the family, and nursing professionals, yet the implementation of family nursing in clinical practice settings is inconsistent and limited. One of the contributing factors may be related to insufficient or inadequate educational programs focused on family nursing. This article presents a systematic review of the research that has examined the effectiveness of family nursing educational programs aimed at promoting clinical competence in family nursing. Six databases were systematically searched and 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, generating three themes: general study characteristics, educational program components, and outcome measures. These educational programs reported effectiveness in developing family nursing knowledge, skills, and attitudes, but did not evaluate the nurses' actual acquisition and implementation of family nursing clinical competencies. This review offers relevant implications for research and for family nursing education, especially when designing and evaluating future educational programs. Future research must more closely address the process and outcomes of best educational practices in family nursing education and how these are applied and evaluated in actual practice settings.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería , Enfermería de la Familia , Competencia Clínica , Humanos
9.
J Fam Nurs ; 26(3): 240-253, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715919

RESUMEN

The beliefs of nursing professionals who care for families experiencing illness are fundamental to the quality of the nurse-family relationship and the level of the nurse's involvement in the therapeutic process of Family Systems Nursing. It is essential to have valid and reliable instruments for assessing nurses' illness beliefs, especially in the Spanish context where no instruments have been identified to date. The Iceland Health Care Practitioner Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-HCP-IBQ) is a reliable and valid measure of professionals' beliefs about their understanding of the meaning of the illness experience of families. The purpose of this study was to adapt and psychometrically test the Spanish version of the ICE-HCP-IBQ (N = 249 nurses). The exploratory factor analysis showed one-factor solution with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .91) and test-retest reliability (r = .72, p < .01). This questionnaire is a promising tool for mapping nurse's illness beliefs and monitoring the effectiveness of family nursing educational interventions in the Spanish context.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Enfermería de la Familia/normas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Psicometría/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Enfermería de la Familia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Islandia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España , Traducciones
10.
Prev Sci ; 20(5): 765-775, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864054

RESUMEN

An effective strategy to quit smoking should consider demographic aspects, smoking-related characteristics and psychological factors. This study examined potential predictors of smoking cessation in Spanish college students. A total of 255 college student smokers (18-24 years old), recruited to a cessation trial (Spain, 2013-2014), comprised an observational cohort. The main outcome was biochemically verified (urine cotinine) abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. Baseline potential predictors included socio-demographic, smoking-related and psychological variables (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), expired monoxide level (CO), intention to quit, previous quit attempts, participation in previous multicomponent programmes and confidence in quitting). Logistic regression models were used to identify potential predictors, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to discriminate the capacity of the predictors and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test was used to assess model calibration. After 6 months of follow-up, variables related to high nicotine dependence, FTND and expired CO levels were associated with lower odds of quitting smoking (OR = 0.69 [95% CI 0.54-0.89] and 0.84 [0.77-0.92], respectively). Furthermore, being prepared to change (OR = 3.98 [1.49-10.64], p = 0.006) and being confident to quit (OR = 4.73 [2.12-10.55], p < 0.001) were also potential predictors of smoking cessation. The model that combined all these variables had the best predictive validity (AUC = 0.84 [0.78-0.91], p = 0.693) and showed good predictive capacity (χ2 = 10.36, p = 0.241). Findings highlight that, in this population of college student smokers, having a lower level of nicotine dependence, being prepared to quit and having the confidence in the ability to quit were associated with smoking cessation, and these factors had good predictive capacity.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España , Adulto Joven
11.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 43(5): 1204-1225, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596854

RESUMEN

ISSUES: Meta-analysis was conducted to examine standalone web-based personalised feedback interventions (PFI) delivered in non-structured settings for reducing university students' alcohol consumption. Subgroup analyses by gender-focus, type-of-content and accessibility were conducted. Characteristics of the sample, the intervention and study quality were examined as moderators. APPROACH: Ten databases were searched from 2000 to 2023. Eligible articles involved only randomised controlled trials. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the effect size on weekly alcohol consumption comparing web-PFIs and non-active controls. Meta-regressions were applied to explore effect moderators. KEY FINDINGS: Thirty-one studies were included in the narrative synthesis, 25 of which were meta-analysed. Results found significant effect size differences on weekly alcohol consumption in favour of the intervention group in the short- (SMD = 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06, 0.15) and long-term period (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15). Subgroup analyses identified that interventions which were gender-specific, multicomponent and had unlimited access had higher and significant effect sizes, although they were very similar with respect to comparative groups. Moderator analyses showed that times feedback was accessed significantly contributed to the effectiveness of the intervention. Effects diminished over time, although they remained significant. IMPLICATIONS: The meta-analysis evidences the effectiveness of web-PFI for addressing university students' alcohol use, decreasing by 1.65 and 1.54 drinks consumed per week in the short- and long-term, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results offer empirical evidence that supports the significant, although small, effect of web-PFI delivered remotely in universities. Future research should focus on increasing their impact by introducing booster sessions and content components based on students' preferences.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Estudiantes , Humanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/terapia , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Intervención basada en la Internet , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades
12.
Rev Enferm ; 36(5): 52-8, 2013 May.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23815063

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: The recent implementation in Spain of post degree in nursing has made possible the emergence of new advanced profiles, which direct clinical practice is the core competence. OBJECTIVE: To analyse and clarify the term of direct clinical practice. METHODOLOGY: A conceptual analysis was carried out based on Rogers's evolutionary approach. A review of the literature was made in the following data bases: PubMed, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Psych INFO (Ovid) and Cochrane Library. Furthermore, five books about advanced practice nursing were revised. RESULTS: 7 articles and 4 books based on the inclusion criteria were selected. After their analysis the concept of direct clinical practice is defined. CONCLUSIONS: This paper clarifies the concept of direct clinical practice and helps to have a stronger base of knowledge. This will serve as foundation to improve and perfect the conceptualization of this term.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de Práctica Avanzada , Competencia Clínica , Humanos
13.
Rev Enferm ; 36(10): 28-34, 2013 Oct.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24354130

RESUMEN

AIM: To describe the historical evolution of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) in the international arena, and to describe the characteristics and competencies of this nursing role, with the ultimate aim of encouraging reflection on the implementation of this model of nursing in the Spanish context. METHODS: A literature review in the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE and CUIDEN was conducted. In addition, several websites were reviewed. RESULTS: At the international level, there is evidence on the impact of the APN in the healthcare system, reducing the number and length of hospital stays and showing greater user satisfaction. Regarding the national context, it is clear the interest on this issue, although the implementation of this advanced practice role is a pending matter. CONCLUSIONS: In Spain, the implementation of the APN is a challenge due to the legislative, educational, organizational and political factors that are involved in the official introduction of this new nursing model.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de Práctica Avanzada , Modelos de Enfermería , España
14.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1280840, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38026297

RESUMEN

Introduction: Alcohol consumption is the main substance abused during university and is associated with physical, legal, emotional, social, and cognitive consequences. The peer-led BASICS intervention has been shown to be effective in decreasing the quantity and frequency of drinking, the estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and the number of binge drinking episodes among this population. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of the peer-led BASICS intervention to reduce risky alcohol consumption among university students in the Spanish context. Materials and methods: A two-arm randomized controlled trial in a university in northern Spain including 308 first- and second-year university students recruited between October 2022 to March 2023. The intervention was a 30-min in-person peer-led motivational interview. Participants were assessed at baseline and 1-month postintervention. The primary outcome was the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption during a typical week. The intervention effect was verified using a mixed factorial ANOVA model. Results: Compared with students in the control group, students who received the intervention reduced the number of drinks per week by 5.7 (95% CI 5.54, 5.86); the number of drinks consumed in a typical weekend by 5.2 (95% CI 5.07, 5.33); the number of drinks consumed on the occasion of greatest consumption by 4.9 (95% CI 4.78, 5.02); the number of binge drinking episodes by 1.4 (95% CI 1.37, 1.43); the peak BAC on a typical week and on the occasion of greatest consumption decreased by 0.06 (95% CI 0.058, 0.062) and 0.09 (95% CI 0.088, 0.092); the number of alcohol-related consequences by 5.8 (95% CI 5.67, 5.93); and the motivation to change their alcohol use increased by -0.8 (95% CI -0.85, -0.75). Conclusion: The peer-led BASICS intervention is effective in changing alcohol consumption and its related consequences among Spanish university students in the short term. The action of nursing students as counselors positively impacted drinking patterns among their peers. Clinical trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT05639374?intr=Effectiveness%20of%20a%20Peer-led%20Program%20to%20Prevent%20Alcohol%20Consumption&rank=1&page=1&limit=10, identifier: NCT05639374.


Asunto(s)
Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Nivel de Alcohol en Sangre , Universidades , Etanol , Estudiantes/psicología
15.
Nurse Educ Today ; 130: 105924, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37677986

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco cessation intervention has a positive impact on quality of care. For health professionals, limited competency in this area may be associated with poor training during their academic programs. There is a clear need to further develop and implement training programs to improve tobacco cessation knowledge, skills, and attitudes among healthcare students. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the innovative online training program "Brief Intervention in Smoking Cessation" for healthcare students to improve their knowledge, skills, and attitudes. DESIGN: A pre-post evaluation study with a satisfaction assessment tool was used. SETTING: Seven universities from four European countries, including Belgium, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom, participated. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand and seventy-two (1072) undergraduate students participated, with 851 completing the online program. METHODS: All participants completed the "Brief Intervention in Smoking Cessation" online program, which consisted of five theoretical modules, five videos, and three virtual simulation cases between January 2020 and June 2022. Knowledge was assessed by a multiple-choice test, and practical skills were assessed by a simulation algorithm, both of which were developed by education and smoking cessation experts. Competency was achieved when students successfully completed both assessments. Satisfaction was measured using an ad hoc 16-item questionnaire. Pre-post changes in knowledge were assessed using a paired Student's t-test. RESULTS: Eighty-six percent of the students achieved smoking cessation competency. Students significantly improved their knowledge score on a scale of 0 to 10 points, with a mean pre-program score of 3.79 vs a mean post-program score of 7.33 ([-3.7 - -3.4] p < 0.001), acquiring sufficient attitudes and skills (simulation mean of 7.4 out of 10 points). Students were highly satisfied with the program (8.2 out of 10) and recommended it to other students (8.4 out of 10). CONCLUSIONS: The "Brief Intervention in Smoking Cessation" online training program is effective for the acquisition of smoking cessation competencies among European health profession students.


Asunto(s)
Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Fumar , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Estudiantes , Escolaridad
16.
Rev Enferm ; 35(12): 46-52, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23390876

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Social and political changes have created an increased in the demand of health care enabling the emergence of diverse professional profiles under the term Advanced Practice Nurse (APN). The APN is a nurse who has acquired a basis of expert knowledge, skills for decision making, and clinical competencies for an extended practice. In Spain, due to the Bologna process and the changes within university, such as postgraduate training, these profiles have begun to emerge. OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience on the implementation of the advanced clinical nursing role in an inpatient oncology unit. DEVELOPMENT: Through the nine stages of the model known as Participatory, Evidence-Based Patient-Focused Process for Advanced Practice Nursing (PEPPA) the process of implementation of the Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) in an Oncology unit is described. For this purpose, the change project "Design of a care program for patients carrying a permanent draining catheter for malign ascitis and pleural effusion" was implemented. The project was grounded on the evidence-based theory and practice, and focused on the patient and the family. Its implementation has enabled the development of competences by the APN and the identification of barriers and facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: The changes that have taken place in society favor the development of new nursing profiles, which have a positive impact on the institutions, nursing practitioners, patients and families.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de Práctica Avanzada/normas , Neoplasias/enfermería , Enfermería Oncológica/normas , Humanos
17.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(6): e3562-e3578, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057959

RESUMEN

Risky alcohol consumption among college students is a significant public health issue. In the college setting, students can collaborate in the implementation of peer-led interventions. To date, evidence of peer-led programmes in reducing harmful alcohol consumption in this population is inconclusive. The aim of the current scoping review is to provide a broad overview by systematically examining and mapping the literature on peer-led interventions for preventing risky alcohol consumption by college students. The specific aims were to (1) identify the underlying focus of the interventions and assess their (2) effectiveness and (3) feasibility. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, DART-Europe, RCAAP, Trove and ProQuest. The inclusion criteria were peer-led interventions that exclusively addressed alcohol consumption, college students as the target population and interventional studies (randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions). The methodological quality of the articles was evaluated. From 6654 potential studies, 13 were included. Nine interventions were described within these studies: Voice of Reason programme, Brief Advice sessions, Peer Theatre, Alcohol Education programme, Perceptions of Alcohol Norms intervention, Motivational Intervention, Alcohol Skills Training programme, Lifestyle Management Class and the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students. Only the last showed significant reductions in three of the four outcome measures: quantity and frequency of drinking, estimated peak blood alcohol concentration and alcohol-related consequences. It did not significantly decrease the number of heavy-drinking episodes. Peer interventions may be effective in preventing alcohol use among college students, although the evidence is weak and scarce. Further research is needed to strengthen the findings about peer-led interventions.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Humanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Nivel de Alcohol en Sangre , Estudiantes , Universidades , Etanol
18.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 94: 131-138, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951988

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The concept of health education has traditionally focused on enabling people to change unhealthy behaviours and lifestyles. Although, at the theoretical level, there exist definitions of the concept, it remains complex and ambiguous. Furthermore, nurses often confuse the concept with other related terms, such as health information or health promotion. The aim here is to report a concept analysis of health education and elucidate a current definition. DESIGN: Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed and CINAHL for articles written in English or Spanish, published between 1986 and 2017. A manual search was performed, and grey literature was also reviewed. A pre-determined template of study inclusion-related questions assisted the process. REVIEW METHODS: Rodgers' evolutionary method guided the narrative analysis. The attributes of health education, as well as its antecedents, consequences, related terms and contextual bases were extracted and synthesized. RESULTS: Based on the review of 31 studies on health education, the attributes are a learning process, health-oriented, multidimensional, person-centred and partnership. The antecedents are professional awareness of health education, training of health professionals, available resources, individual's willingness to act, and health as an individual's priority in life. The consequences are the increase in knowledge, skills and/or attitudes; change in health-related behaviours, individual capability and empowerment; positive health outcomes; and positive social/economic impact. The related terms are health information, patient education, counselling, health coaching and health promotion. Health education is defined as a continuous, dynamic, complex and planned teaching-learning process throughout the lifespan and in different settings that is implemented through an equitable and negotiated client and health professional 'partnership' to facilitate and empower the person to promote/initiate lifestyle-related behavioural changes that promote positive health status outcomes. Health education takes into account individuals'/groups' internal and external factors that influence their health status through potentially improving their knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs in relation to their health-related needs and behaviour, within a positive health paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: The theoretical definition and conceptual framework provided in this study contribute to and extend the current knowledge base among nurses and other health care providers. The findings elucidate the clinical role of health educators, enabling them to identify the realities of its practice, building a common reference point, and highlighting the main recommendations for its use at the clinical, education, policy and research interface.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Educación en Salud , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
19.
Transl Behav Med ; 9(1): 58-66, 2019 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590861

RESUMEN

Although beliefs, self-efficacy, and intention to quit have been identified as proximal predictors of initiation or quitting in young adults, few studies have studied how these variables change after a smoking cessation intervention. To evaluate the changes in the beliefs, self-efficacy, and intention to avoid smoking and determine if these are potential mediators in quitting, following a smoking cessation intervention, aimed at tobacco-dependent college students. Single-blind, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up. A total of 255 smoker students were recruited from September 2013 to February 2014. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 133) or to control group (n = 122). The students in the intervention group received a multicomponent intervention based on the Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI). The strategies of this program consisted of a 50 min motivational interview conducted by a nurse and online self-help material. The follow-up included a reinforcing e-mail and group therapy. The smoking-related self-efficacy, belief, and intention scale was used to assess outcomes. Intention to quit smoking is partial moderator explaining 36.2% of the total effects in smoking cessation incidence. At 6 month follow-up, the differences in the mean scores of self-efficacy and intention related to stopping smoking were significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group. A multicomponent intervention based on the TTI, tailored to college students, positively increased the self-efficacy to avoid smoking and the intention to quit, suggesting intention as potential mediator of quitting.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Autoeficacia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Personal Administrativo , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Intención , Masculino , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Método Simple Ciego , Fumadores/educación , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , España/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
20.
Gac Sanit ; 31(3): 269-272, 2017.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222976

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Congresos como Asunto , Enfermedad , Salud , Planificación en Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Salud Holística , Humanos , Medicina de Precisión
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