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1.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 83-102, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941606

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms of approximately 24 h have emerged as important modulators of the immune system. These oscillations are important for mounting short-term, innate immune responses, but surprisingly also long-term, adaptive immune responses. Recent data indicate that they play a central role in antitumor immunity, in both mice and humans. In this review, we discuss the evolving literature on circadian antitumor immune responses and the underlying mechanisms that control them. We further provide an overview of circadian treatment regimens-chrono-immunotherapies-that harness time-of-day differences in immunity for optimal efficacy. Our aim is to provide an overview for researchers and clinicians alike, for a better understanding of the circadian immune system and how to best harness it for chronotherapeutic interventions. This knowledge is important for a better understanding of immune responses per se and could revolutionize the way we approach the treatment of cancer and a range of other diseases, ultimately improving clinical practice.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Neoplasias , Humanos , Ritmo Circadiano/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunidade Inata , Imunidade Adaptativa
2.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 207-233, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38211945

RESUMO

The immune system and the kidneys are closely related. Immune components mediate acute kidney disease and are crucial to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Beyond its pathogenic functions, the immune system supports immunological homeostasis in healthy kidneys. The kidneys help maintain immune equilibrium by removing metabolic waste products and toxins, thereby limiting local and systemic inflammation. In this review, we describe the close relationship between the immune system and the kidneys. We discuss how the imbalance in the immune response can be deleterious to the kidneys and how immunomodulation can be important in preventing end-stage renal disease. In addition, recent tools such as in silico platforms and kidney organoids can help unveil the relationship between immune cells and kidney homeostasis.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Humanos , Animais , Nefropatias/imunologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Homeostase , Imunomodulação , Suscetibilidade a Doenças
3.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 317-345, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941605

RESUMO

Regionalized immune surveillance relies on the concerted efforts of diverse memory T cell populations. Of these, tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are strategically positioned in barrier tissues, where they enable efficient frontline defense against infections and cancer. However, the long-term persistence of these cells has been implicated in a variety of immune-mediated pathologies. Consequently, modulating TRM cell populations represents an attractive strategy for novel vaccination and therapeutic interventions against tissue-based diseases. Here, we provide an updated overview of TRM cell heterogeneity and function across tissues and disease states. We discuss mechanisms of TRM cell-mediated immune protection and their potential contributions to autoimmune disorders. Finally, we examine how TRM cell responses might be durably boosted or dampened for therapeutic gain.


Assuntos
Memória Imunológica , Células T de Memória , Humanos , Animais , Células T de Memória/imunologia , Células T de Memória/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vigilância Imunológica
4.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 153-178, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941602

RESUMO

The intestine is the largest peripheral lymphoid organ in animals, including humans, and interacts with a vast array of microorganisms called the gut microbiota. Comprehending the symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and our immune system is essential not only for the field of immunology but also for understanding the pathogenesis of various systemic diseases, including cancer, cardiometabolic disorders, and extraintestinal autoimmune conditions. Whereas microbe-derived antigens are crucial for activating the intestinal immune system, particularly T and B cells, as environmental cues, microbes and their metabolites play a critical role in directing the differentiation of these immune cells. Microbial metabolites are regarded as messengers from the gut microbiota, since bacteria have the ability to produce unique molecules that humans cannot, and many immune cells in the intestine express receptors for these molecules. This review highlights the distinct relationships between microbial metabolites and the differentiation and function of the immune system.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/metabolismo
5.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 551-584, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941604

RESUMO

Poxviruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms to evade the immune response, and we provide an overview of the different immunomodulatory strategies. Poxviruses prevent the recognition of viral DNA that triggers the immune responses and inhibit signaling pathways within the infected cell. A unique feature of poxviruses is the production of secreted proteins that mimic cytokines and cytokine receptors, acting as decoy receptors to neutralize the activity of cytokines and chemokines. The capacity of these proteins to evade cellular immune responses by inhibiting cytokine activation is complemented by poxviruses' strategies to block natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, often through interfering with antigen presentation pathways. Mechanisms that target complement activation are also encoded by poxviruses. Virus-encoded proteins that target immune molecules and pathways play a major role in immune modulation, and their contribution to viral pathogenesis, facilitating virus replication or preventing immunopathology, is discussed.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune , Infecções por Poxviridae , Poxviridae , Humanos , Poxviridae/imunologia , Poxviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Poxviridae/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Apresentação de Antígeno/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia
6.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 289-316, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277691

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelium, which segregates the highly stimulatory lumen from the underlying tissue, harbors one of the largest lymphocyte populations in the body, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). IELs must balance tolerance, resistance, and tissue protection to maintain epithelial homeostasis and barrier integrity. This review discusses the ontogeny, environmental imprinting, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, and function of intestinal IELs. Despite distinct developmental pathways, IEL subsets share core traits including an epithelium-adapted profile, innate-like properties, cytotoxic potential, and limited TCR diversity. IELs also receive important developmental and functional cues through interactions with epithelial cells, microbiota, and dietary components. The restricted TCR diversity of IELs suggests that a limited set of intestinal antigens drives IEL responses, with potential functional consequences. Finally, IELs play a key role in promoting homeostatic immunity and epithelial barrier integrity but can become pathogenic upon dysregulation. Therefore, IELs represent intriguing but underexamined therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases and cancer.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais , Humanos , Animais , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Homeostase , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Intestinos/imunologia
7.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 259-288, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277692

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection has applied significant evolutionary pressure to the mammalian immune system and remains a global economic and human health burden. Upon infection, type 2 immune sentinels activate a common antihelminth response that mobilizes and remodels the intestinal tissue for effector function; however, there is growing appreciation of the impact GIN infection also has on the distal tissue immune state. Indeed, this effect is observed even in tissues through which GINs never transit. This review highlights how GIN infection modulates systemic immunity through (a) induction of host resistance and tolerance responses, (b) secretion of immunomodulatory products, and (c) interaction with the intestinal microbiome. It also discusses the direct consequences that changes to distal tissue immunity can have for concurrent and subsequent infection, chronic noncommunicable diseases, and vaccination efficacy.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Humanos , Infecções por Nematoides/imunologia , Nematoides/imunologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia
8.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 401-425, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360544

RESUMO

IgE-mediated food allergy (IgE-FA) occurs due to a breakdown in immune tolerance that leads to a detrimental type 2 helper T cell (TH2) adaptive immune response. While the processes governing this loss of tolerance are incompletely understood, several host-related and environmental factors impacting the risk of IgE-FA development have been identified. Mounting evidence supports the role of an impaired epithelial barrier in the development of IgE-FA, with exposure of allergens through damaged skin and gut epithelium leading to the aberrant production of alarmins and activation of TH2-type allergic inflammation. The treatment of IgE-FA has historically been avoidance with acute management of allergic reactions, but advances in allergen-specific immunotherapy and the development of biologics and other novel therapeutics are rapidly changing the landscape of food allergy treatment. Here, we discuss the pathogenesis and immunobiology of IgE-FA in addition to its diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Imunoglobulina E , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Animais , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Alérgenos/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Células Th2/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Suscetibilidade a Doenças
9.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 375-399, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360545

RESUMO

The liver's unique characteristics have a profound impact on the priming and maintenance of adaptive immunity. This review delves into the cellular circuits that regulate adaptive immune responses in the liver, with a specific focus on hepatitis B virus infection as an illustrative example. A key aspect highlighted is the liver's specialized role in priming CD8+ T cells, leading to a distinct state of immune hyporesponsiveness. Additionally, the influence of the liver's hemodynamics and anatomical features, particularly during liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, on the differentiation and function of adaptive immune cells is discussed. While the primary emphasis is on CD8+ T cells, recent findings regarding the involvement of B cells and CD4+ T cells in hepatic immunity are also reviewed. Furthermore, we address the challenges ahead and propose integrating cutting-edge techniques, such as spatial biology, and combining mouse models with human sample analyses to gain comprehensive insights into the liver's adaptive immunity. This understanding could pave the way for novel therapeutic strategies targeting infectious diseases, malignancies, and inflammatory liver conditions like metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Fígado , Humanos , Animais , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia
10.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 427-53, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360547

RESUMO

The role of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) in central immune tolerance and thymic self-representation was first described more than 20 years ago, but fascinating new insights into its biology continue to emerge, particularly in the era of advanced single-cell genomics. We briefly describe the role of human genetics in the discovery of Aire, as well as insights into its function gained from genotype-phenotype correlations and the spectrum of Aire-associated autoimmunity-including insights from patients with Aire mutations with broad and diverse implications for human health. We then highlight emerging trends in Aire biology, focusing on three topic areas. First, we discuss medullary thymic epithelial diversity and the role of Aire in thymic epithelial development. Second, we highlight recent developments regarding the molecular mechanisms of Aire and its binding partners. Finally, we describe the rapidly evolving biology of the identity and function of extrathymic Aire-expressing cells (eTACs), and a novel eTAC subset called Janus cells, as well as their potential roles in immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteína AIRE , Autoimunidade , Fatores de Transcrição , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Timo/imunologia , Timo/metabolismo , Mutação , Tolerância Imunológica , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo
11.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 647-677, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424658

RESUMO

Lymphocytes spanning the entire innate-adaptive spectrum can stably reside in tissues and constitute an integral component of the local defense network against immunological challenges. In tight interactions with the epithelium and endothelium, tissue-resident lymphocytes sense antigens and alarmins elicited by infectious microbes and abiotic stresses at barrier sites and mount effector responses to restore tissue homeostasis. Of note, such a host cell-directed immune defense system has been recently demonstrated to surveil epithelial cell transformation and carcinoma development, as well as cancer cell metastasis at selected distant organs, and thus represents a primordial cancer immune defense module. Here we review how distinct lineages of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells, innate-like T cells, and adaptive T cells participate in a form of multilayered cancer immunity in murine models and patients, and how their convergent effector programs may be targeted through both shared and private regulatory pathways for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Imunoterapia/métodos
12.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 489-519, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941607

RESUMO

Recent advances have contributed to a mechanistic understanding of neuroimmune interactions in the intestine and revealed an essential role of this cross talk for gut homeostasis and modulation of inflammatory and infectious intestinal diseases. In this review, we describe the innervation of the intestine by intrinsic and extrinsic neurons and then focus on the bidirectional communication between neurons and immune cells. First, we highlight the contribution of neuronal subtypes to the development of colitis and discuss the different immune and epithelial cell types that are regulated by neurons via the release of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. Next, we review the role of intestinal inflammation in the development of visceral hypersensitivity and summarize how inflammatory mediators induce peripheral and central sensitization of gut-innervating sensory neurons. Finally, we outline the importance of immune cells and gut microbiota for the survival and function of different neuronal populations at homeostasis and during bacterial and helminth infection.


Assuntos
Neuroimunomodulação , Humanos , Animais , Intestinos/imunologia , Homeostase , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/imunologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo
13.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 179-206, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166256

RESUMO

T cell responses must be balanced to ensure adequate protection against malignant transformation and an array of pathogens while also limiting damage to healthy cells and preventing autoimmunity. T cell exhaustion serves as a regulatory mechanism to limit the activity and effector function of T cells undergoing chronic antigen stimulation. Exhausted T cells exhibit poor proliferative potential; high inhibitory receptor expression; altered transcriptome, epigenome, and metabolism; and, most importantly, reduced effector function. While exhaustion helps to restrain damage caused by aberrant T cells in settings of autoimmune disease, it also limits the ability of cells to respond against persistent infection and cancer, leading to disease progression. Here we review the process of T cell exhaustion, detailing the key characteristics and drivers as well as highlighting our current understanding of the underlying transcriptional and epigenetic programming. We also discuss how exhaustion can be targeted to enhance T cell functionality in cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Animais , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Exaustão das Células T
14.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 347-373, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941603

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) represent a unique cell type within the innate immune system. Their defining property is the recognition of pathogen-derived nucleic acids through endosomal Toll-like receptors and the ensuing production of type I interferon and other soluble mediators, which orchestrate innate and adaptive responses. We review several aspects of pDC biology that have recently come to the fore. We discuss emerging questions regarding the lineage affiliation and origin of pDCs and argue that these cells constitute an integral part of the dendritic cell lineage. We emphasize the specific function of pDCs as innate sentinels of virus infection, particularly their recognition of and distinct response to virus-infected cells. This essential evolutionary role of pDCs has been particularly important for the control of coronaviruses, as demonstrated by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we highlight the key contribution of pDCs to systemic lupus erythematosus, in which therapeutic targeting of pDCs is currently underway.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Células Dendríticas , Imunidade Inata , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , Animais , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula
15.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 615-645, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941608

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic was caused by the recently emerged ß-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 has had a catastrophic impact, resulting in nearly 7 million fatalities worldwide to date. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infections, including the detection and response to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we discuss the innate immune mechanisms that sense coronaviruses, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2 infection and how these protective responses can become detrimental in severe cases of COVID-19, contributing to cytokine storm, inflammation, long-COVID, and other complications. We also highlight the complex cross talk among cytokines and the cellular components of the innate immune system, which can aid in viral clearance but also contribute to inflammatory cell death, cytokine storm, and organ damage in severe COVID-19 pathogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss how SARS-CoV-2 evades key protective innate immune mechanisms to enhance its virulence and pathogenicity, as well as how innate immunity can be therapeutically targeted as part of the vaccination and treatment strategy. Overall, we highlight how a comprehensive understanding of innate immune mechanisms has been crucial in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 infections and the development of novel host-directed immunotherapeutic strategies for various diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Evasão da Resposta Imune
16.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 235-258, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271641

RESUMO

The choice of developing thymocytes to become CD8+ cytotoxic or CD4+ helper T cells has been intensely studied, but many of the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent multiomics approaches have provided much higher resolution analysis of gene expression in developing thymocytes than was previously achievable, thereby offering a fresh perspective on this question. Focusing on our recent studies using CITE-seq (cellular indexing of transcriptomes and epitopes) analyses of mouse thymocytes, we present a detailed timeline of RNA and protein expression changes during CD8 versus CD4 T cell differentiation. We also revisit our current understanding of the links between T cell receptor signaling and expression of the lineage-defining transcription factors ThPOK and RUNX3. Finally, we propose a sequential selection model to explain the tight linkage between MHC-I versus MHC-II recognition and T cell lineage choice. This model incorporates key aspects of previously proposed kinetic signaling, instructive, and stochastic/selection models.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Multiômica
17.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 585-613, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424470

RESUMO

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and with no efficient curative treatment available, its medical, social, and economic burdens are expected to dramatically increase. AD is historically characterized by amyloid ß (Aß) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles, but over the last 25 years chronic immune activation has been identified as an important factor contributing to AD pathogenesis. In this article, we review recent and important advances in our understanding of the significance of immune activation in the development of AD. We describe how brain-resident macrophages, the microglia, are able to detect Aß species and be activated, as well as the consequences of activated microglia in AD pathogenesis. We discuss transcriptional changes of microglia in AD, their unique heterogeneity in humans, and emerging strategies to study human microglia. Finally, we expose, beyond Aß and microglia, the role of peripheral signals and different cell types in immune activation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Microglia , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Humanos , Animais , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo
18.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 521-550, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382538

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) induces a remarkable and durable response in a subset of cancer patients. However, most patients exhibit either primary or acquired resistance to ICB. This resistance arises from a complex interplay of diverse dynamic mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment (TME). These mechanisms include genetic, epigenetic, and metabolic alterations that prevent T cell trafficking to the tumor site, induce immune cell dysfunction, interfere with antigen presentation, drive heightened expression of coinhibitory molecules, and promote tumor survival after immune attack. The TME worsens ICB resistance through the formation of immunosuppressive networks via immune inhibition, regulatory metabolites, and abnormal resource consumption. Finally, patient lifestyle factors, including obesity and microbiome composition, influence ICB resistance. Understanding the heterogeneity of cellular, molecular, and environmental factors contributing to ICB resistance is crucial to develop targeted therapeutic interventions that enhance the clinical response. This comprehensive overview highlights key mechanisms of ICB resistance that may be clinically translatable.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/etiologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Animais , Imunoterapia/métodos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética
19.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 42(1): 455-488, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360546

RESUMO

Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are iron-dependent and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that sequentially oxidize the methyl group of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). All three epigenetic modifications are intermediates in DNA demethylation. TET proteins are recruited by transcription factors and by RNA polymerase II to modify 5mC at enhancers and gene bodies, thereby regulating gene expression during development, cell lineage specification, and cell activation. It is not yet clear, however, how the established biochemical activities of TET enzymes in oxidizing 5mC and mediating DNA demethylation relate to the known association of TET deficiency with inflammation, clonal hematopoiesis, and cancer. There are hints that the ability of TET deficiency to promote cell proliferation in a signal-dependent manner may be harnessed for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we draw upon recent findings in cells of the immune system to illustrate established as well as emerging ideas of how TET proteins influence cellular function.


Assuntos
Desmetilação do DNA , Dioxigenases , Imunoterapia , Inflamação , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética
20.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 41: 1-15, 2023 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37126416

RESUMO

I have been a scientific grasshopper throughout my career, moving from question to question within the domain of lupus. This has proven to be immensely gratifying. Scientific exploration is endlessly fascinating, and succeeding in studies you care about with colleagues and trainees leads to strong and lasting bonds. Science isn't easy; being a woman in science presents challenges, but the drive to understand a disease remains strong.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Biomédica
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