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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Galliformes , Prevalence , Animals, Wild
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Subject(s)
Soil , Seed Bank , Pakistan , Plants , Seeds , Ecosystem , Poaceae
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256425, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364525

ABSTRACT

Using inventory data, this study evaluates the species composition, growing stock volume (GSV), and biomass carbon (BMC) of the five major timber species in the sub-tropical, and temperate/sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. It was found that the stem density varies between 50 and 221 trees ha -1, with a mean of 142 trees ha-1 (13.68 million trees for entire forest area). Among the species, Pinus wallichiana showed a high species composition (27.80%) followed by Picea smithiana (24.64%). The GSV was found in the range of 67.81 to 425.94 m3 ha-1, with a total GSV value of 20.68 million m3 for the entire region. Similarly, The BMC ranged from 27.04 to 169.86 Mg ha-1, with a mean BMC value of 86.80 Mg ha-1. The total amount of stored carbon was found at 8.69 million tons for a total of 95842 ha of commercially managed forest. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between the basal area (BA) and GSV and BMC showed that BA is the best predictor of GSV and BMC. The findings provide insights to the policy makers and forest managers regarding the sustainable commercial forest management as well as forest carbon management in the recent global carbon management for climate change mitigation.


Usando dados de inventário, este estudo avaliou a composição de espécies, volume de estoque crescente (GSV) e carbono de biomassa (BMC) das cinco principais espécies madeireiras nas regiões subtropicais e temperadas/subalpinas do Paquistão. Constatou-se que a densidade do caule variou entre 50 e 221 árvores ha-1, com média de 142 árvores ha-1 (13,68 milhões de árvores para toda a área florestal). Entre as espécies, Pinus wallichiana apresentou alta composição de espécies (27,80%), seguida de Picea smithiana (24,64%). O GSV foi encontrado na faixa de 67,81 a 425,94 m3 ha-1, com um valor total de 20,68 milhões de m3 para toda a região. Da mesma forma, o BMC variou de 27,04 a 169,86 mg ha-1, com valor médio de 86,80 mg ha-1. A quantidade total de carbono armazenado foi de 8,69 milhões de toneladas para um total de 95.842 ha de floresta manejada comercialmente. Além disso, a análise de correlação entre área basal (BA), GSV e BMC mostrou que BA é o melhor preditor de GSV e BMC. As descobertas fornecem insights para os formuladores de políticas e gestores florestais sobre o manejo florestal comercial sustentável, bem como o manejo florestal de carbono no recente gerenciamento global de carbono para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Carbon , Forests , Biomass
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256565, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360220

ABSTRACT

Liupan Mountains are an important region in China in the context of forest cover and vegetation due to huge afforestation and plantation practices, which brought changes in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries are rarely been understood. The study aims to explore the distribution of soil nutrients at 1-m soil depth in the plantation forest region. The soil samples at five depth increments (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 cm) were collected and analyzed for different soil physio-chemical characteristics. The results showed a significant variation in soil bulk density (BD), soil porosity, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and electric conductivity (EC) values. More soil BD (1.41 g cm-3) and pH (6.97) were noticed in the deep soil layer (80-100 cm), while the highest values of porosity (60.6%), EC (0.09 mS cm-1), and CEC (32.9 c mol kg-1) were reflected in the uppermost soil layer (0-20 cm). Similarly, the highest contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP), total nitrogen (TN), and available potassium (AK) were calculated in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm). With increasing soil depth increment a decreasing trend in the SOC and other nutrient concentration were found, whereas the soil total potassium (TK) produced a negative correlation with soil layer depth. The entire results produced the distribution of SOCs and TNs (stocks) at various soil depths in forestland patterns were 0→20cm > 20→40cm > 40→60cm ≥ 60→80cm ≥ 80→100 cm. Furthermore, the stoichiometric ratios of C, N, and P, the C/P, and N/P ratios showed maximum values (66.49 and 5.46) in 0-20 cm and lowest values (23.78 and 1.91) in 80-100 cm soil layer depth. Though the C/N ratio was statistically similar across the whole soil profile (0-100 cm). These results highlighted that the soil depth increments might largely be attributed to fluctuations in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries. Further study is needed to draw more conclusions on nutrient dynamics, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometry in these forests.


As montanhas de Liupan são uma região importante na China no contexto de cobertura florestal e vegetação devido às enormes práticas de florestamento e plantação, que trouxeram mudanças nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, e estoques e estequiometrias do solo raramente são compreendidos. O estudo visa explorar a distribuição de nutrientes do solo a 1 m de profundidade do solo na região da floresta plantada. As amostras de solo em cinco incrementos de profundidade (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 e 80-100 cm) foram coletadas e analisadas para diferentes características físico-químicas do solo. Os resultados mostraram uma variação significativa nos valores de densidade do solo (BD), porosidade do solo, pH, capacidade de troca catiônica (CEC) e condutividade elétrica (CE). Mais DB do solo (1,41 g cm-3) e pH (6,97) do solo foram observados na camada profunda do solo (80-100 cm), enquanto os maiores valores de porosidade (60,6%), CE (0,09 mS cm-1) e CEC (32,9 c mol kg-1) foram refletidos na camada superior do solo (0-20 cm). Da mesma forma, os maiores teores de carbono orgânico do solo (SOC), fósforo total (TP), fósforo disponível (AP), nitrogênio total (TN) e potássio disponível (AK) foram calculados na camada superficial do solo (0-20 cm). Com o aumento do incremento da profundidade do solo, uma tendência decrescente no SOC e na concentração de outros nutrientes foi encontrada, enquanto o potássio total do solo (TK) produziu uma correlação negativa com a profundidade da camada do solo. Todos os resultados produziram a distribuição de SOCs e TNs (estoques) em várias profundidades de solo em padrões de floresta 0 → 20cm> 20 → 40cm> 40 → 60cm ≥ 60 → 80cm ≥ 80 → 100 cm. Além disso, as relações estequiométricas de C, N e P, as relações C / P e N / P, apresentaram valores máximos (66,49 e 5,46) em 0-20 cm, e valores mais baixos (23,78 e 1,91) em solo de 80-100 cm profundidade da camada. Embora a relação C / N fosse estatisticamente semelhante em todo o perfil do solo (0-100 cm). Esses resultados destacaram que os incrementos de profundidade do solo podem ser amplamente atribuídos a flutuações nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, estoques e estequiometrias do solo. Mais estudos são necessários para tirar conclusões adicionais sobre a dinâmica dos nutrientes, estoques de solo e estequiometria do solo nessas florestas.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Analysis , Forests , China
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255950, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364497

ABSTRACT

Aquatic insect fauna remains an important tool for bio indication of environmental disturbance, while maintaining a healthy aquatic system. The purpose of the study was to document and to identify the diversity and distribution patterns of aquatic insect, a highly ignored aspect from the Qatar. Following the standard procedures, the samples were collected from aquatic habitats during the period October 2015 to May 2017 on monthly basis. A total of 11,287 individuals, belonging to 6 orders were captured. Dipterans were the abundant with the percentages of 71.01 (n=8,015), while the lowest percentage was observed for Coleoptera 0.04 (n=05). Twelve insects families were identified, among these five were reported under Diptera, followed by Hemiptera (03), while Coleoptera, Tricoptera, Odonata, and Ephemeroptera were represented by single families. Among the selected localities, Dipterans were collected from 10 stations, followed by Hemiptera (9), Coleoptera (4), Odonota (4), Ephemeroptera (3) and Trichoptera (1) respectively. Among the water bodies samples, streams were the most preferred habitats (n=2,767), while drinking water pools were the least (27). Moreover, the highest Simpson diversity index of 1.48 and lowest of 0.47 was recorded for flooded sewage pool and plastic containers respectively, while the low evenness values were observed for ponds, and less than 1 Margalef's diversity values were seen for all habitats. This study documents the patterns of the diversity and distribution of aquatic insects, and provides a baseline for the future studies from Qatar.


A fauna aquática de insetos continua sendo uma ferramenta importante para a bioindicação de distúrbios ambientais, ao mesmo tempo em que mantém um sistema aquático saudável. O objetivo do estudo foi documentar e identificar a diversidade e os padrões de distribuição dos insetos aquáticos, um aspecto altamente ignorado no Catar. Seguindo os procedimentos padrão, as amostras foram coletadas em hábitats aquáticos durante o período de outubro de 2015 a maio de 2017, mensalmente. Um total de 11.287 indivíduos, pertencentes a seis ordens, foram capturados. Dípteros foram os mais abundantes, com as porcentagens de 71,01 (n = 8.015), enquanto a menor porcentagem foi observada para Coleópteros 0,04 (n = 05). Doze famílias de insetos foram identificadas, destas, cinco foram registradas sob Diptera, seguido por Hemiptera (03), enquanto Coleoptera, Tricoptera, Odonata e Ephemeroptera foram representados por famílias únicas. Dentre as localidades selecionadas, Dipterans foram coletados em 10 estações, seguidos por Hemiptera (9), Coleoptera (4), Odonota (4), Ephemeroptera (3) e Trichoptera (1), respectivamente. Entre as amostras de corpos d'água, os riachos foram os hábitats mais preferidos (n = 2.767), enquanto as piscinas de água potável foram os menos (27). Além disso, o maior índice de diversidade de Simpson de 1,48 e o menor de 0,47 foi registrado para piscina de esgoto inundada e recipientes de plástico, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de baixa uniformidade foram observados para lagoas e menos de 1 valores de diversidade de Margalef foram observados para todos os hábitats. Este estudo documenta os padrões de diversidade e distribuição de insetos aquáticos e fornece uma linha de base para os estudos futuros do Catar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquatic Fauna , Ecosystem , Insecta
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

ABSTRACT

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Honey , Bees , Carbohydrates
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia , Pakistan , Specimen Handling , Symbiosis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929670

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: The number of people suffering from diabetic foot infection (DFI) has increased precipitously over the years in Malaysia, owing to increased population, urbanisation, the surge of number of people with obesity and physical inactivity. As one of the most dreaded complications of diabetes mellitus, DFI is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aim to study the microbiological profile of patients with DFI at a university hospital in Kuantan, Pahang. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was carried out at at Sultan Ahmad Shah Medical Centre @IIUM (SASMEC @IIUM) from 1 January 2018 to 30 April 2019. Patients’ demographic data, types of infection and surgical intervention, and the microbiological profile were obtained from the medical records. Results: A total of 142 causative pathogens were cultured from 130 tissue samples, with an average of 1.09 pathogens per lesion. Majority of the pathogens were gram-negative pathogens (52.8%). Staphylococcus sp. was the most common pathogen isolated (22.5%). This was followed by Streptococcus sp. (10.6%), Pseudomonas sp. (9.2%), Morganella sp. (5.6%), Klebsiella sp. (4.9%), Enterobacter sp. (4.9%), and others. Among the 142 pathogens, there were 9 multidrug-resistant strains observed. Most of the antibiotics were effective against the gram-positive pathogens except benzylpenicillin, tetracyclin, fusidic acid and ciprofloxacin. Meanwhile, cefotaxime, amoxicillin and ampicillin-sulbactam were also not suitable against gramnegative pathogens. Oxacillin and sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim can be used as empirical antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens, while vancomycin should be reserved for patients with septic shock or suspected multidrug resistant strain infection. Piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime can be used as empirical antibiotics against gram-negative pathogens. Conclusion: Early initiation of empirical antibiotic(s) is paramount to stymie the infection from getting worse while waiting for the identification of causative pathogens in the management of DFI. This study provides a guide for treating physicians to initiate the most appropriate empirical antibiotic in DFI.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 98-104, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153320

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish is consumed as a rich and cheaper source of white meat and proteins all over the world. Fish farming is the leading source of income generation throughout the world. The present research study was conducted with aims to investigate the ecto and endo parasitic fauna of S. plagiostomus (snow trout) in River Swat. A total of 96 fish samples were collected on monthly basis from July-2018 to February-2019, from upper, middle and lower reaches. Fish samples were collected with the help of cast net, hand net and fishing rods. Local fishermen and experts help were also sought out for fish collection. 61 out of 96 fishes were found infected by helminth parasites. The total prevalence and intensity of 63.54% and 2.90 was observed respectively during data analysis. Highest monthly prevalence of 83.33% was recorded during July and August, while lowest prevalence of 33.33% was noted during February. Five species of helminths parasites were detected from S. plagiostomus, of which two were trematodes (Rhabdochona shizothoracis and Rhabdochona species), one species of Monogenia (Diplozoon paraddoxum), one species of Cestodes (Nippotaenia species), and one species of Acanthocephalan (Neoechynorhynchus devdevi). Highest parasite wise prevalence, intensity and relative density of 21.87%, 4.09 and 0.895 was noted for R. schizothoracis while the lowest prevalence, intensity and relative density of 4.16%, 1.25 and 0.052 was noted for N. devdevi. Highest infection of 76.08% was observed in adults host while lowest, 40% infestation rate was observed in young fish samples. 73.68% prevalence was observed in female hosts while only 56.90% prevalence was observed in male individuals. Higher infection (83.33%) was noticed during summer season, while lowest infection (44.44%) was observed during winter season. Similarly 71.79% fishes were found infected that were collected from lower reaches of the River Swat than the fish samples collected from upper reaches (52%).


Resumo O peixe é consumido mundialmente por ser uma fonte rica e barata de carne branca e proteínas. A piscicultura é a principal fonte de geração de renda em todo o mundo. O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de investigar a fauna ecto e endoparasitária de S. plagiostomus (truta da neve) no rio Swat. Foram coletadas mensalmente 96 amostras de peixes, no período de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019, nos trechos alto, médio e baixo com auxílio de redes de arrasto, redes de mão e varas de pesca. Pescadores locais e especialistas também ajudaram na coleta de peixes. Dos 96 peixes encontrados, 61 estavam infectados por parasitas helmintos. A prevalência de 63,54% e a intensidade total de 2,90 foram observadas durante a análise dos dados. A maior prevalência mensal de 83,33% foi registrada nos meses de julho e agosto, enquanto a menor, de 33,33%, em fevereiro. Cinco espécies de parasitas helmintos foram detectadas de S. plagiostomus, dos quais dois eram trematódeos (espécies Rhabdochona shizothoracis e Rhabdochona), uma espécie de monogenia (Diplozoon paradoxum), uma espécie de cestóideos (espécie Nippotaenia) e uma espécie de acantocéfalo (Neoechynorhynchus devdevi). As maiores prevalências de parasitas (21,87%), intensidade (4,09) e densidade relativa (0,895) foram observadas em R. schizothoracis, enquanto as menores prevalências de parasitas (4,16%), intensidade (1,25) e densidade relativa (0,052), em N. devdevi. A infecção mais alta (76,08%) foi constatada em adultos hospedeiros, ao passo que a taxa de infestação mais baixa (40%) foi encontrada em amostras de peixes jovens. A prevalência de 73,68% foi verificada em hospedeiros do sexo feminino, enquanto a de 56,90%, em indivíduos do sexo masculino. Maior infecção (83,33%) foi observada durante a temporada de verão, e a menor infecção (44,44%), durante o inverno. Da mesma forma, 71,79% dos peixes encontrados infectados foram coletados no trecho baixo do rio Swat, enquanto 52%, no trecho alto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Parasites , Cyprinidae , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Helminths , Pakistan/epidemiology , Rivers , Fishes
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 92-97, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153312

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish provides main source of high quality protein to more than one billion people in the world. Fish parasites directly affect the productivity of fish and indirectly on human health. This research was aimed to assess the helminth parasites in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Panjkora, KP, Pakistan. A total of 88 fish samples (n= 88) were collected from the upper, middle and lower regions of the river through cast nets, hand nets and hooks. All the collected fish samples were examined in the Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Malakand for helminth parasites during July 2018 to February 2019.Among these fishes nematodes, trematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalan were isolated and identified. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 60.22% (53/88). The intensity of the parasite was observed from 1.7% to 4.61%. Highest prevalence was reported in summer season 86.36% while lowest in the winter season 36.36%. This study shows that summer season affects the fish business and result in poor quality fish meat with risk of zoonotic diseases. Adults were highly infected 82.25% while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Female fish samples had higher prevalence 68.22% than males 48.22%. Fishes of the lower reaches had highest prevalence 60.22% than the upper reaches 40.0%. Fish samples with maximum length and weight were highly 76.92% infected than small sized fish with low body weight. Present study addresses that Rhabdochona schizothoracis in the intestine and Diplozoon paradoxum in gills of snow trout fish has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and it is zoonotic threat to human.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína de alta qualidade para mais de um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Contudo, parasitas afetam diretamente a produtividade de peixes e, indiretamente, a saúde humana. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar os parasitas helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (truta da neve) do rio Panjkora, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Foram coletadas 88 amostras de peixes (n = 88) dos trechos alto, médio e baixo do rio por meio de redes de arrasto, redes de mão e varas de pesca. Todas as amostras de peixes coletadas foram examinadas no Laboratório de Parasitologia do Departamento de Zoologia, da Universidade de Malakand, quanto a parasitas helmintos durante o período de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019. Entre esses peixes, nematódeos, trematódeos, cestóideos e acantocéfalos foram isolados e identificados. A prevalência geral de parasitas de peixes foi de 60,22% (53/88). A intensidade do parasita foi observada de 1,7 a 4,61%. A maior prevalência (86,36%) foi relatada no verão, enquanto a menor (36,36%), no inverno. Este estudo mostra que a temporada de verão afeta o ramo da pesca e resulta em carne de baixa qualidade, com risco de doenças zoonóticas. Os adultos foram altamente infectados (82,25%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em jovens. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino apresentaram maior prevalência (68,22%) do que as do sexo masculino (48,22%). Os peixes coletados no trecho baixo do rio tiveram maior prevalência (60,22%) do que os do trecho alto (40%). Amostras de peixes com comprimento e peso máximos foram altamente infectadas (76,92%) do que peixes de pequeno porte e baixo peso corporal. O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona schizothoracis no intestino e Diplozoon paradoxum em brânquias de peixes de truta da neve possuem uma estreita relação que causa uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos, sendo uma ameaça zoonótica ao ser humano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Parasites , Cyprinidae , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Helminths , Pakistan/epidemiology , Rivers , Fishes
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902308

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TPRK) to conventional alcohol assisted epithelial removal then photorefractive keratectomy (AAPRK) regarding pain, epithelial healing, visual acuity, corneal haze measured subjectively and objectively, higher order aberrations changes, contrast sensitivity and vector analysis of astigmatic correction with one year follow-up. @*Methods@#A prospective double-blind randomized study of 29 subjects (58 eyes) who underwent myopic aberration-free laser correction by smart pulse technology using Schwind Amaris 1050 Hz with 1-year follow-up. Right eye was randomly treated by AAPRK or TPRK. Postoperative assessment was performed on day 1 and 3, at 1st week, and 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Patients were assessed for pain, epithelial healing, visual acuity, corneal haze, astigmatic correction, higher order aberrations and contrast sensitivity. @*Results@#Epithelial healing was complete by the 3rd day in 62.1% of AAPRK eyes and in 89.7% of TPRK eyes. First day postoperative pain was higher in TPRK group (p = 0.0134). The decimal uncorrected visual acuity at 12 months was 1.47 ± 0.39 and 1.57 ± 0.38 in the AAPRK and TPRK groups respectively (p = 0.3719). Post-photorefractive keratectomy haze reached a final level of 0.04 ± 0.14 and 0.02 ± 0.1 in AAPRK and TPRK groups respectively (p = 0.5607). Contrast sensitivity was comparable in low and high frequency cycles per degree. Vector analysis of astigmatic correction showed correction index at one year of 0.99 and 1.05 for AAPRK and TPRK groups respectively. @*Conclusions@#Alcohol assisted and transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy have comparable results regarding safety and efficacy.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894604

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TPRK) to conventional alcohol assisted epithelial removal then photorefractive keratectomy (AAPRK) regarding pain, epithelial healing, visual acuity, corneal haze measured subjectively and objectively, higher order aberrations changes, contrast sensitivity and vector analysis of astigmatic correction with one year follow-up. @*Methods@#A prospective double-blind randomized study of 29 subjects (58 eyes) who underwent myopic aberration-free laser correction by smart pulse technology using Schwind Amaris 1050 Hz with 1-year follow-up. Right eye was randomly treated by AAPRK or TPRK. Postoperative assessment was performed on day 1 and 3, at 1st week, and 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Patients were assessed for pain, epithelial healing, visual acuity, corneal haze, astigmatic correction, higher order aberrations and contrast sensitivity. @*Results@#Epithelial healing was complete by the 3rd day in 62.1% of AAPRK eyes and in 89.7% of TPRK eyes. First day postoperative pain was higher in TPRK group (p = 0.0134). The decimal uncorrected visual acuity at 12 months was 1.47 ± 0.39 and 1.57 ± 0.38 in the AAPRK and TPRK groups respectively (p = 0.3719). Post-photorefractive keratectomy haze reached a final level of 0.04 ± 0.14 and 0.02 ± 0.1 in AAPRK and TPRK groups respectively (p = 0.5607). Contrast sensitivity was comparable in low and high frequency cycles per degree. Vector analysis of astigmatic correction showed correction index at one year of 0.99 and 1.05 for AAPRK and TPRK groups respectively. @*Conclusions@#Alcohol assisted and transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy have comparable results regarding safety and efficacy.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 523-528, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132408

ABSTRACT

Abstract Three districts viz. Lower Dir, Swat and Shangla in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, were surveyed for the collection of Pteropus vampyrus (the Indian flying fox) in Malakand division, the north western region of Pakistan from February to November 2018. A total of 35 specimens were captured. Out of the examined specimens 22 were found to be infected with ectoparasites. Three types of ectoparasites were observed including flies 20% (n=7/35), mites 28.5% (n=10/35) and bugs 14.2% (n=5/35). Male bats were more infected 57.1% (n=20/35) as compared to females 42.8% (n=15/35), however, no significant difference (p>0.05) was noted. Flies were recovered from wings membrane and head region, mites were found on wings, ears and around eyes while bugs were found attached on body surface and neck region. Body weight, circumference and wing span of male bats were greater as compared to female bats and were considered a key factor in clear cut identification of male and female Pteropus vampyrus (the Indian flyingfox). It was concluded that Pteropus vampyrus from north western part of Pakistan were parasitized by a varied parasite fauna with high infestation rates. We assume that in male bats the number of parasites is generally higher than in females. Our results revealed new insights into parasite fauna of Pteropus vampyrus.


Resumo Três distritos, Lower Dir, Swat e Shangla, em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, foram pesquisados para a recolha de Pteropus vampyrus (raposa voadora indiana) na divisão de Malakand, região noroeste do Paquistão, de fevereiro a novembro de 2018. Foram capturados 35 espécimes, dos quais 22 foram infectados com ectoparasitas. Três tipos de ectoparasitas foram observados: moscas (20%; n = 7/35), ácaros (28,5%; n = 10/35) e insetos (14,2%; n = 5/35). Os morcegos machos foram mais infectados (57,1%; n = 20/35) do que as fêmeas (42,8%; n = 15/35); porém, nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada (p > 0,05). As moscas foram recuperadas da membrana das asas e da região da cabeça; já os ácaros foram encontrados nas asas, nas orelhas e ao redor dos olhos; por sua vez, os insetos foram encontrados na superfície do corpo e na região do pescoço. O peso corporal, a circunferência e a envergadura dos morcegos machos foram maiores em comparação aos morcegos fêmeas e foram considerados um fator-chave na identificação dos machos e das fêmeas Pteropus vampyrus (raposa voadora indiana). Conclui-se que os Pteropus vampyrus da parte noroeste do Paquistão foram parasitados por uma fauna variada de parasitas com altas taxas de infestação. Assume-se que, em morcegos machos, o número de parasitas é geralmente maior que em fêmeas. Os resultados deste estudo revelaram novos insights sobre a fauna parasita de Pteropus vampyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Parasites , Chiroptera , Diptera , Pakistan , Wings, Animal
14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210936

ABSTRACT

Goats are considered as an important animal not in present scenario but also from ancient time. Due to increasing frugal interest of goat farming globally, profound animal husbandry practices are attaining importance under the target of obtaining quality products along with good animal health and welfare. During the transition phase of life, noticeable alterations in the endocrine and metabolic status of the dairy ruminants were registered. Among small ruminants i.e. goat’s hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/Pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia are the common metabolic disorders which normally precipitated during metabolic anxiety phase. The present study was conducted during the period of 1st January 2019 to 31st December 2019. During this period we had registered total 957 goats at Kalsi, Chakrata areas of district Dehradun, Chorgalia, Kotabagh, Kaladhungi areas of district Nainital and Shetlai, Pantnagar, Bazpur areas of district Uddham Singh Nagar beside this we had also included the concerned cases from Government Veterinary Hospital Outpatient departments (OPDs) of the above said areas in Uttarakhand. In the present study, we had performed a prevalence study over common occurring metabolic diseases of goats like hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia/pregnancy toxemia and hypomagnesaemia. Besides this, we had also studied the dissemination pattern of common occurring metabolic diseases on the basis of their age groups and parity

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205629

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common non-communicable disease even in a developing country like India. Diabetes in all its forms imposes unacceptably high human, social, and economic costs on countries at all income levels. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted to assess the sociodemographic and anthropometric factors influencing DM in an urban population of district Bareilly. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted from February 2014 to February 2015 among adults in the age group of 30 years and above residing in the area covered under the Urban Health Training Centre of Bareilly City. A simple random sampling technique was adopted to achieve the desired sample size. House to house survey was done for collecting data. Data tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Education status more than high school level were more prone for DM and maximum frequency of DM was also found in postgraduates and the minimum occurrence of DM was found those were having education up to primary school level. Body mass index increases the proportion of DM increases. The maximum number of diabetic individuals was found in obese Class II, followed by obese Class I and pre-obese. The pervasiveness of DM and impaired fasting glucose was more in those who were having a high waist-hip ratio. Conclusion: The study showed that in spite of having health-care facilities nearby, the indiscretion of healthiness was a major concern. The higher proportion of DM patient is prominent in who is from nuclear family, having sedentary lifestyle. There is a high proportion of obesity among them.

16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(2): 91-95, 20200000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1369331

ABSTRACT

Aim : To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three dimensional ultrasound in cases of perianal fistula compared to intra-operative findings during surgical procedure. Background: Perianal fistulae can be either low type (simple) or high type (complex) and surgical treatment options differ accordingly. Preoperative three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography (3D-EAUS) is a promising diagnostic technique that can effectively assist in choosing the most suitable treatment option for patients with anal fistula by providing the surgeon with accurate outlining of the fistula. Methods: The study is a cross sectional comparative study conducted at Al-Sadr Medical City during the period from September 2018 through September 2019, and included cases with fistula in ano, which were subjected to 3-D ultrasound, then followed up during surgery to obtain the intra-operative findings of the fistula. Results: The study included (78) patients whom their age ranged from (18-65) years. Majority of cases were males (79.49%). For assessing the concordance between 3D-EAUS and the intraoperative findings the Kappa coefficient for the internal opening was 0.9825 (P-value < 0.001), for the external opening was 0.9853 (P-value < 0.00), For the course of primary tract, Kappa = 0.9754 (P-value < 0.001) and for the course of the extension tract was 0.9761 with a P-value of < 0.001. Conclusions: Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasound is an effective and dependable tool for delineation the course of a perianal fistula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography , Rectal Fistula/diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Intraoperative Period
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837568

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Distal tibia fractures are frequently associated with an extensive soft tissue injury which then leads to a higher risk of complications such as infection, non-union and eventually poor overall outcome. The purpose of this study is to measure the outcome of distal tibia fractures treated with internal fixation, external fixator or Ilizarov external fixator(IEF). We aim to propose an algorithm for management of distal tibia fractures by evaluating the treatment options, outcomes and risk factors present. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study of all distal tibia fractures treated surgically in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang from 1st January 2016 till 30th June 2018. Patient records were reviewed to analyse the outcomes of surgical treatment and risk factors associated with it. Results: Ninety-one patients were included with a mean age of 41.5 years (SD = 16.4). Thirty-nine cases (42.9%) were open fractures. Thirty-eight patients (41.8%) were treated with internal fixation, 27 patients (29.7%) were treated with IEF and 26 patients (28.6%) were treated with an external fixator. Among open fractures cases, no significant finding can be concluded when comparing each surgical option and its outcome, although one option was seen better than the other in a particular outcome. Initial skeletal traction or temporary spanning external fixator in close fractures reduced the risk of mal-alignment (p value=0.001). Internal fixation is seen superior to IEF and external fixator in close fractures in term of articular surface reduction (p value = 0.043) and risk of mal-alignment (p value = 0.007). Conclusion: There is no single method of fixation that is ideal for all pilon fractures and suitable for all patients. This proposed algorithm can help surgeons in deciding treatment strategies in the challenging management of distal tibia fractures to reduce associated complications.

18.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 76-83, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830226

ABSTRACT

Exposure to lead (Pb) has been shown to alter the function of central nervous system and affect cholinergic neurons of the visual cortex in animal models. This study sought to investigate the withdrawal symptoms and oxidative stress on the visual cortex after lead exposure. A total of 20 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=10): group A, control, received 10 ml/kg of distilled water for 30 days orally; group B, lead treated group, received 10 mg/kg of lead nitrate solution for 30 days orally. Group B was divided into two subgroups, group B1 serves as non-recovery while B2 serves as recovery (withdrawal). Five rats from each group were sacrificed under ether anesthesia 24 hours after the last oral administration of lead, while the remaining 5 rats (withdrawal subgroup) were sacrificed 30 days after the last oral administration of lead. The visual cortex was grossed from the brain tissue and processed for histology. Blood/serum samples were obtained and markers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX]), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) were analyzed. Lead-exposed rats display a significant reduction in the SOD, CAT, and GPX level as well as increased in MDA level. However, following a recovery period, a non-significant improvement was seen in the histoarchitecture of the visual cortex.

19.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 76-83, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830221

ABSTRACT

Exposure to lead (Pb) has been shown to alter the function of central nervous system and affect cholinergic neurons of the visual cortex in animal models. This study sought to investigate the withdrawal symptoms and oxidative stress on the visual cortex after lead exposure. A total of 20 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=10): group A, control, received 10 ml/kg of distilled water for 30 days orally; group B, lead treated group, received 10 mg/kg of lead nitrate solution for 30 days orally. Group B was divided into two subgroups, group B1 serves as non-recovery while B2 serves as recovery (withdrawal). Five rats from each group were sacrificed under ether anesthesia 24 hours after the last oral administration of lead, while the remaining 5 rats (withdrawal subgroup) were sacrificed 30 days after the last oral administration of lead. The visual cortex was grossed from the brain tissue and processed for histology. Blood/serum samples were obtained and markers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX]), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) were analyzed. Lead-exposed rats display a significant reduction in the SOD, CAT, and GPX level as well as increased in MDA level. However, following a recovery period, a non-significant improvement was seen in the histoarchitecture of the visual cortex.

20.
Clinics ; 75: e2428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze mitral annulus (MA) dynamics using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with degenerative mitral insufficiency who underwent mitral valve repair (MVR). METHODS: Mitral valve imaging was performed by CMR in twenty-nine patients with degenerative mitral insufficiency who underwent MVR between July 2014 and August 2016, with quadrangular resection of the posterior leaflet without ring annuloplasty. They were prospectively followed up from the preoperative period up to 2 years postoperatively. RESULTS: We observed a significant reduction in all measurements of the MA after surgery. The mean systolic circumference of the MA was reduced from 13.28±1.95 cm to 11.50±1.59 cm, and the diastolic circumference was reduced from 12.51±2.01 cm to 10.66±2.09 cm in the immediate postoperative period, measures that remained stable 2 years after MVR (p<0.001). The mean maximum area of the MA was significantly reduced from 14.34±4.03 to 10.45±3.17 cm2 when comparing the immediate postoperative period and the 2 year follow-up (p<0.001). The same occurred with the mean minimum area of the MA, which was reduced from 12.53±3.68 cm2 to 9.23±2.84 cm2 in the same period, and this reduction was greater in the antero-posterior diameter than in the mid-lateral diameter. The mobility of the MA was preserved after surgery, ranging between 19.6% and 25.7% at 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: We observed a significant reduction in the MA size after MVR, with preservation of the MA mobility at the 2-year follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Diastole , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve/diagnostic imaging
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