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1.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373418

ABSTRACT

I surveyed the actual patterns of dietary life and work in rural communities, in which the changes are so great as to lead one to fear about their future, and checked them against health issues. In the dietary life, the intake of carbohydrate has generally dropped (the intake of rice even by farming families is on the decrease), while that of proteins-and lipids in particular-hassignificantly increased. In some rural communities, however, the conventional practice of taking in much carbohydrate is observed. As farm work has been increasingly mechanized, the types of farm work with heavy work loads have decreased, and the loads are now medium and small in range. But there are few farming families to take holidays on a regular basis. They are busy all the year and the length of working hours a day is great. Many of the farming families with nonagricultural side jobs engage in farm work on Saturdays. Few farm workers enjoy sports. In terms of health indices, anemia is on the decrease, though there used to be many cases, and there are signs of a rise in the prevalence of obesity. Then there are many patients with hypertension and other circulatory problems and there are signs of a rise in the prevalence of adult disease. It is to be hoped that health care be strengthened, but for this, is necessary first of alle to bring up farming families so that they may be able to enjoy a socially stable life.

2.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373401

ABSTRACT

Studying the causes of death among inhabitants in mountain villages located alongside the middle stream of the Tenryu River, and farming-fishing villages located along Tokyo Bay, we found that the death rate from lung cancer was high in the former, and that from stomach cancer was high in the latter. So, in those two districts, we carried out case-control studies about both kinds of cancer. Investigation was made into the dead cases from lung cancer, 84 male cases and 168 male controls, and the dead cases from stomach cancer, 83 male and 39 female cases and the same number of controls. We selected these controls, matching district, sex, age, and year of death, and studied occupation and smoking in lung cancer cases ; occupation, eating habits, kinds of food, drinking and smoking in stomach cancer cases. The odds ratio concerning to lung cancer was as low as 0.40 among people engaged in agriculture, forestry or fishery. But that was as high as 3.25 among people exposed to metal dust, and also as high as 3.10 among those exposed to wood dust. The multiplier effect could be suggested between smoking and metal or wood dust exposure. The odds ratio concerning to stomach cancer was as low as 0.69 among males engaged in agriculture, forestry or fishery. Regarding eating habits, ‘rapid eating’ was as high as 2.57 in males, 3.00 in females. Concerning the kinds of food, ‘salted fish’ was as high as 1.90 in males, and ‘white vegetables’ was as low as 0.36 in females. No assocciation was found between stomach cancer and smoking or drinking.

3.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373329

ABSTRACT

Over the three years from 1980 to 1982, investigations were carried out into the health conditions of inhabitants aged 30 to 69 in rural regions of Chiba Prefecture.<BR>The major findings are as follows:<BR>(1) Significant sex differences exist for many blood test findings.<BR>(2) Significant correlations are found among values of many blood test findings.<BR>(3) These values are analyzed by principal component analysis and some factors are extracted. First of them is found both men and women in all districts similarly and is identified as something of nutritional condition.

4.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373262

ABSTRACT

A survey concerning primary health care was taken in two mountainous villages (populations: 8, 600 and 5, 400) in Shizuoka Prefecture and two farming and fishing villages (12, 000 and 7, 100) in Chiba Prefecture. In these four communities, the aged account for more than 17% of the population. The crude death rate is high. The rate of population growth is below zero. The infant mortality rate and the stillbirth rate are low.<BR>The major causes of death are malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, and heart diseases. Pneumonia, accidents and suicide are above the national average. The annual revenue and expenditure of the national health insurance system are below the national average. Among the impatients, the rates of those suffering from mental disorder and circulatory diseases are high, while many cases of the outpatients are circulatory diseases.<BR>Medical institutions have difficulty in meeting with the demand of inhabitants. Some town cannot bear the burden of medical expenditures and gets into financial trouble. Health and Welfare services are inadequate due to the shortage of personnel. Health activities among inhabitants are in the doldrums. Clinics do not function as a provider of family medicine.<BR>These are the major findings of the survey. The establishment of primary health care is badly needed.

5.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373170

ABSTRACT

We have made a survey of living, labor and health about fishermen-122 males, 87 females-living in three coastal villages in the south of Chiba prefecture.<BR>The fisheries of this district are mainly done by using hooks and nets; the former has three types, that is, “tatenawa”, “haenawa” and “saozuri”, the latter has three types, that is, “teichiami”, “sashiami” and “aguriami”. The fishing boats are smaller than 5 tons. In men, the days of labor all the year round are 220 more or less, and women assist men in doing the fishery.<BR>On food life, both men and women intake fish & shellfish, white vegetables, and fruits in plenty, but they intake milk and dairy products scantily. The average rates of drinking and smoking are each about 70% in men, and each 15%, 8% in women.<BR>Executing health examination, we find that the average rates of hypertention arenot high, and the ones of ECG abnomality are low. The average rates of obesity about BMI-greater than 26-are 20% in men, and 24% in women.<BR>Moreover, the rate of anemia is low, the rate of hyperlipemia (serum triglyceride, greater than 150 mg/dl) is high, and the rate of the persons with high serum binding urea nitrogen (greater than 20.0 mg/dl) is high.<BR>As for Nofusho syndrome, fishermen frequently suffer from nycturia or sleeplessness, adding shoulder stiffness or lumbago.

6.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377421

ABSTRACT

It is a well-known fact that the environment has been globally contaminated with the persistent organochlorine insecticides and PCBs, and that all over the world the general populations have been polluted with them in spite of their minute quantity for some decades. These chemicals except PCBs are mainly neuropoison, and according to De Vlieger (1968), DDT and Dieldrin are translocated to human brain, and these concentrations of the tissue are greater than those of the blood. The adverse and ill effects of these residues on human central nervous system can be determined incompletely. In addition, their production and use have not yet been prohibited in some countries. Therefore, according to the previous report (1981), the contents of these compounds have been surveyed about wild yellowtails migrating around the Islands of Japan, and cultured ones fed on a sort of sardine catched near the Islands.<BR>In the case of DDT, the content of wild samples catched in 1983, showed not only low level of total DDT, but the increase of its metabolites, compared with those of two years before: i. e., the mean concentration decreased to about one-half (from 0.38 to 0.17 ppm), and the ratio of its meabolites per total DDT inversely increased from 41 to 57%. In addition, the same tendency was also observed in those of cultured samples.<BR>With regard to PCBs content, however, the fish of wild type showed the same level (0.10 ppm) as that of cultured type in 1983, and their peak patterns were observed similar. The PCBs contents have been almost unchanged in these two types since 1980 over a period of 3 years.

7.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373153

ABSTRACT

Over the three years from 1980 to 1982, investigations were carried out into the living and working conditions of fishermen and farmers aged 30 to 59 in a coastal region of Chiba prefecture. The major findings are as follows:<BR>(1) Man-years of work are less in the fishing communities than in the farming villages. Especially, women in the fishing communities work less.<BR>(2) As for food intake, Fishing people consume larger amounts of fish and shellfish (animal protein) than farmers, while farmers eat a good deal of vegetables and rice compared with fishermen.<BR>(3) Blood' tests revealed that hemoglobin, serum iron, total serum cholesterol, uric acid, GOT and GPT values are higher in fishermen than in farmers. HDL cholesterol levels were higher in the agrarian population. There was no great difference in serum protein, albumin, triglyceride, alkaliphosphatase, and cholinesterase levels.<BR>(4) The obesity rate is higher in the fishing villages than in the farming villages. Especially the obesity incidence is notably high among women in the fishing communities.

8.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377348

ABSTRACT

DDT, one of the residual organochlorine pesticides, has been still used in China and perhaps in developing countries of the equatorial hemisheric zone. Therefore, wild and cultured yellowtails were selected as the indices of DDT residue levels of the marine fishes, considered a main source of the residue in the general population of Japan.<BR>Total DDT level of wild one, large type of fishes distributed from South China Sea to nearly north end of Hokkaido in latitude, increased severalf old during two years from Feb.-Mar. 1979 to Mar. 1981. Consequently, the levels of total DDT in wild yellowtail were higher than those in cultured one in 1981. It is noteworthy that especially three wild fishes catched from Nagasaski area were not only high in the levels, but low in the ratio of pp-DDE plus pp-DDD per total DDT. It is suspected that they were going forward to North with the Japan Current. Close relations were recognized among DDT residues, PCB patterns and sea areas catched, and marked differences of the residue levels were observed on account of the areas.<BR>Furthermore, slight increase was also recognized about the level of cultured type in 1981 compared to the samples in 1979.<BR>On the other hand, the level of dieldrin was higher in the cultured one than the wild as well as in the two years before.

9.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373117

ABSTRACT

One is inclined to imagine that the incidence of respiratory diseases will be negligible among rural people who live and work in fresh and clean air. On the contrary, however, we have reports on the high incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and on the existence of a variety of specific respiratory diseases which are incidental to farm work. To clarify this situation, the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine organized a special study group and carried out various studies with grants from the Ministry of Health and Welfare. This is the study group's summary report of the four year research project prepared in conclusion of the project.<BR>The actual state of respiratory diseases among rural people, as investigated by the present study group, can be summarized as follows:<BR>1) In rural districts, in spite of its freedom air-pollution, there exist in high percentages people suffering from respiratory symptoms and patients of obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the important cause of this phenomenon, farm operations, especially thrashing, rice-hulling, compost preparation, scattering of agricultural chemicals can bementioned, which invite the development of symptoms and their aggravation.<BR>2) Pathologically, farmer's pneumoconiosis attributable to farm operation dust was evidenced, crying for the necessity of dust prevention measure during farm operations.<BR>3) In connection with atopic asthma the study group proved the antigenicity of rice-straw, wheat-straw, celiae of tea-sprout, young leaves, and chrysanthemum leaves. There are also anumber of already known antigens. It is necessary to establish measures for its prevention and treatment.<BR>4) In rural districts of Japan, esp. in stock-raising farm houses, there are in comparatively high percentages those who react positive to fungous antigens which are the causes of farmer's lung. However, there have hitherto been reported only two cases, and the study group added one more. In the future, more extensive practice of immunological tests and clinical follow-ups of the positive cases will be necessary.<BR>5) In view of the results reported above, it is considered that there are numerous questions concerning respiratory troubles and diseases in rural districts which are awaiting further study.

10.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373100

ABSTRACT

It is to be noted that in rural districts where they live and work in fresh and clean air the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is as high as in the districts of air-pollution. Besides, there are a variety of respiratory diseases particularly incidental to life-environment and farm work. To be more informed of their actual conditions, the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine organized a special study group and has carried out various studies for four consecutive years with grants from the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The major results obtained are as follows:<BR>(1) There were a variety of farm operations which produced or increased respiratory symptoms, including thrashing and scatteringof agricultural chemicals;<BR>(2) It became clear that there existed in an advanced age group certain cases of “agricultural pneumoconiosis” which could be regarded as the terminal of the so-called “thrash-bronchitis”<BR>(3) Among the cultivators of rush, raw material for Tatami, there existed cases of pneumoconiosis;<BR>(4) There were a variety of agents to produce bronchial asthma, such as rice straw, chaff, tea-leaves and chrysanthemum-leaves;<BR>(5) In Japan only two cases of farmer's lung were reported prior to this study. One more case was added to the list by this study group. Besides, cases positive to fungous agents were found among farmers in considerably high percentage.

11.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373099

ABSTRACT

It is to be noted that in rural districts where they live and work in fresh and clean air the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is as high as in the districts of air-pollution. Besides, there are a variety of respiratory diseases particularly incidental to life-environment and farm work. To be more informed of their actual conditions, the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine organized a special study group and has carried out various studies for four consecutive years with grants from the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The major results obtained are as follows<BR>(1) There were a variety of farm operations which produced or increased respiratory symptoms, including thrashing and scattering of agricultural chemicals;<BR>(2) It became clear that there existed in an advanced age group certain cases of “agricultural pneumoconiosis” which could be regarded as the terminal of the so-called “thrash-bronchitis”<BR>(3) Among the cultivators of rush, raw material for Tatami, There existed cases of pneumoconiosis;<BR>(4) There were a variety of agents to produce bronchial asthma, such as rice straw, chaff, tea-leaves and chrysanthemum-leaves;<BR>(5) In Japan only two cases of farmer's lung were reported prior to this study. One more case was added to the list by this study group. Besides, cases positive to fungous agents were found among farmers in considerably high percentage.

12.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373004

ABSTRACT

In the five communities of Urakawa, Sakuma-machi, Shizuoka Prefecture, we have taken measures to Prevent and exterminate ascaris infection, and at the same time studied the causes of infection chiefly from the point of view of environmental conditions. The percentages of ascaris egg-carriers showed a significant difference between 1) farmers and non-farmers; 2) families with and without night-soil; 3) amounts of detergent used for cleaning vegetables; 4) persons with and without experience of anthelmintic treatment.<BR>The group of families that showed extremely high rate of positivity were the farmers not provided with night-soil stores, and the farmers provided with such stores showed about the same rate of positivity as non farmers a fact evidences the appreciatng effect of night-soil stores. On the other hand, the rate of positivity among familis that have no night-soil stores but are in the habit of cleaning vegetables with detergent showed no significant difference as compared with the families provided with night-soil storesa positive evidence of the good effect of detergent.

13.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373002

ABSTRACT

Examination of feces and deworming were carried out five times every other month between May 1962 to February 1963 in 5 communities (a total of 202 households, 1, 050 inhabitants) of Urakawa, Sakumamachi, Shizuoka Prefecture. After about a year has elapsed, in which no countermeasures were taken, examination of feces was carried out again in January 1964 to study a change in the rate of positivity. Examination was carried out by the cellophane thick layer smear method (values obtained with two sheets).<BR>(1) The rate of positivity for Ascaris eggs ranged from 13.7% to 55.1%, with an average of 28.0% in the initial examination. The rate was higher in two commnities in the mountainous district. By sex and age, the rate was high among infants, school boys and adult females.<BR>(2) A study of the change in the rate of positivity during the two years has shown that the rates of reinfection and new infcction were higher in communities where the rate of positivity was higher in the initial examination, indicating how difficult it is to exterminate Ascaris infection. On the contrary, there was no substantial rise in the rate of positivity in communities where the rate of positivity in the initial examination was under 10%(3 out of 5 communities), even though no countermeasures were taken during the period of one year. This seems to show that it is not required to carry out deworming frequently.<BR>It has been found that the rate of Ascaris infection was lower in communities where persons positive for unfertilized eggs alone accounted for higher percentages among the total of persons positive for Ascaris eggs, there being a marked inverse corelation between persons positive for unfertilized eggs alone and persons positive for all kinds of Ascaris eggs. There has been a marked tendency to familial concentration of Ascaris infection.<BR>(3) The results of the present study have shown that, in taking measures to exterminate Ascaris infection, it is necessary to take into consideration the rate of positivity for Ascaris eggs, the ratio of persons positive for unfertilized Ascaris eggs to persons positive for all kinds of Ascaris eggs, and a tendency to familial concentration of infection in the community.

14.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373001

ABSTRACT

The outstanding feature of the drift of population observed in our country of late is understood in terms of the population exodus from rural areas into urban or industrial areas, which brings about. a conspicuous decrease in rural population especially in that of the younger working age bracket. with a view to clarifying an aspect of such wide-ranging migration of population, a study was made in the three remote mountain villages in the Chilbu District, where people are living on an extremely low economic level Investigation conducted for eacch respective economic level revealed an even. abnormally advanced decrease in the population of such younger generation, far advanced than in average rural areas. Thus the unfavorable topogra-phical conditions, lack of cultivating lands, low income, etc.were considered to be responsible for the acceleration of such population exodus. Attention was also drawn to the fact that not only the surplus labor power but even many of the eldest sons. who are the successors to their fathers' occupations are turning to urban areas for employ-ment, threatening the possibility of the replenishment of agricultural labor power and the development of agricultural economics, as well as the future reproduction of population in rural areas.

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