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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To understand the distribution of the average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography by investigating 1,828 exposure parameters of 8 mammography machines in three cities, by using random sampling.@*METHODS@#A survey of 8 mammography machines in three different cities, sampled using stratified random sampling methods, was performed, and 1,828 mammography exposure parameters were recorded. Incident air kerma (k) was measured by Quality-Assurance (QA) dosimeters, and AGD was calculated by series conversion coefficients based on a 3D detailed Monte Carlo breast model, published by Wang et al. RESULTS: The distribution of compressed breast thickness (CBT) fitted a normal distribution, while that of AGD fitted a skewed distribution. The mean value of CBT in a medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view was about 5.6% higher than that in the craniocaudal (CC) view, with significant statistical difference; mean value of AGD and CBT in the sample was 1.3 mGy and 4.6 cm, respectively. The AGD trended upward with increasing CBT, similar to the results of other researches.@*CONCLUSION@#The mean AGD and CBT levels in our study for mammography practice in China were 1.3 mGy and 4.6 cm, respectively. AGD is influenced by manufacturer-specific variation as machine response to CBT changes and target/filter combination. The present study can provide evidence for establishing a diagnostic reference level in China.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Female , Humans , Mammography , Middle Aged , Radiation Dosage
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690632

ABSTRACT

This study explored the association between the lncRNA HOTAIR polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in a Chinese population. We speculated that lead poisoning caused elevated levels of oxidative stress, which, in turn, activate the HOTAIR gene to cause apoptosis. Three lncRNA HOTAIR tagSNPs (rs7958904, rs4759314, and rs874945) were genotyped by TaqMan genotyping technology in 113 lead-sensitive and 113 lead-resistant Chinese workers exposed to lead. Rs7958904 was significantly associated with susceptibility to lead poisoning (P = 0.047). The rs7958904 G allele had a protective effect compared with the C allele and reduced the risk of lead poisoning (P = 0.016). Rs7958904 may act as a potential biomarker for predicting the risk of lead poisoning and distinguishing lead-sensitive individuals from lead-resistant individuals.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alleles , Asians , Genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Testing , Humans , Lead Poisoning , Genetics , Male , Occupational Diseases , Genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Long Noncoding , Genetics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311406

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Mutations in 23S rRNA gene are known to be associated with macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae). However, these mutations alone do not fully explain the high resistance rates in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate other possible mutations involved in macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The whole genomes of 10 clinical isolates of M. pneumoniae with macrolide resistance were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The role of the macrolide-specific efflux transporter was assessed by efflux-pump inhibition assays with reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in 10 clinical isolates in comparison to the reference strains M129 and FH. Strikingly, 4 of 30 SNPs causing non-synonymous mutations were clustered in macrolide-specific efflux system gene macB encoding macrolide-specific efflux pump protein of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. In assays of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of macrolide antibiotics in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitors caused a significant decrease of MICs, even under detectable levels in some strains.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study suggests that macrolide efflux pump may contribute to macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae in addition to the common point mutations in 23S rRNA gene.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Macrolides , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Genetics
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311388

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Many metals, some of which have been classified as environmental endocrine disruptors, are used extensively in everyday consumer products and are ubiquitous in our living environment. In the present study, we aimed to explore the associations between the prevalence risk of type 2 diabetes and plasma levels of 20 trace elements as well as those of heavy metals in a Han Chinese population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We conducted a case-control study to investigate the associations between plasma concentrations of 20 metals and diabetes in Jiangsu province. A total of 122 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 429 matched controls were recruited from community physical examinations in Suzhou City of Jiangsu Province. Plasma metal levels were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After adjusting for confounders, plasma vanadium, chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, strontium, palladium, cadmium, cesium, and barium were associated with diabetes risk (P < 0.05). The adjusted OR increased with increasing concentration of vanadium, manganese, copper, zinc, and cesium.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Many metals, including manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, and cadmium in plasma, are associated with the morbidity of diabetes. Monitoring of environmental metal levels and further studies are urgently needed.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood , Environmental Pollutants , Blood , Toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Metals , Blood , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311358

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing effective interventional measures and preventive strategies. From 2006 to 2015, a total of 35,308 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Jiangsu Province. Non-occupational poisoning accounted for 73.79% of all poisoning cases. A comparison of the data collected before (2006) and after (2015) this study showed a decrease in non-occupational pesticide poisoning. Pesticide poisoning showed an age central tendency of 30 to 44 years, area central tendency for northern Jiangsu, and seasonal central tendency of occupational pesticide poisoning in autumn. Pesticide poisoning remains a major health concern in China. Government agencies together with scientists should focus their efforts on the prevention of potential threats to vulnerable groups such as the elderly, women, and children.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cities , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Pesticides , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 587-591, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-692365

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the expression pattern of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in myocardial tissue from forensic routine cases and to explore its application value in the forensic determination of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods The data of 96 autopsy cases accepted by the center of Medico-legal Investigation of China Medical University between December 2008 to May 2014 were collected. There were 62 cases in SCD group cardiac and 34 cases in non-SCD group. The myocardial tissues were taken from left and right ventricular wall, respectively. The expressions of BNP protein and BNP mRNA in myocardial tissue were detected by HE staining, immunohistochemical staining, Western blot-ting and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), etc. Results The immunohistochemical staining of myocardial tissue showed diffusely positive staining in SCD group, and patchily or diffusely positive staining in non-SCD group with lighter degree. The result of Western blotting showed that the expression of BNP protein elevated in left ventricular wall of SCD group. The result of RT-qPCR showed a positive correlation between the BNP mRNA expressions in bilateral ven-tricular walls and the heart weight, bilateral lung weight, and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration. There were large differences between the BNP mRNA concentra-tions in SCD group and non-SCD group, and the former was statistically higher (P<0.05). Conclusion The expressions of BNP protein and BNP mRNA in myocardial tissue are related to the causes of death. Combined with pathological changes, the expressions of BNP protein and BNP mRNA in myocar-dial tissue have certainly practical significance for the determination of SCD and the analysis of the death mechanism in the cases related to forensic pathology.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258840

ABSTRACT

N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) is a widely used organic solvent in modern chemical industry with low to moderate hepatotoxicity to occupational health of employees. But so far, there are fewer and less conclusive data concerning its pathogenic mechanism in detail. In current study, the toxicity of DMAc was firstly investigated on human normal hepatocytes (LO-2), using a series of molecular biology measurements to ananlyze the effect and mechanism of DMAc-induced hepatic cell injury and explore effective prophylactic measures. We found that DMAc triggered LO-2 apoptosis in a obviously dose-dependent manner, caused by increased ROS generation and activation of Bcl-2 pathway. Significantly, glutathione (GSH) rather than vitamin C (Vit C) could partially inhibit DMAc-induced apoptosis thus showing potential as a effective precaution for workers.


Subject(s)
Acetamides , Toxicity , Apoptosis , Cell Line , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Glutathione , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Liver
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264617

ABSTRACT

To study the microbiological contamination of kitchen dishcloths in Chinese housholds, 1010 'in-use' kitchen dishcloths were collected from residential premises in Beijing and Shanghai, and they were sent to the laboratory for microbiological quality analysis. The aerobic plate counts for dishcloths were 10-109 cfu/cm2 in the range of 150 cfu/cm2 to 1.776×109 cfu/cm2 (Beijing) and 62.5 cfu/cm2 to 8.75×108 cfu/cm2 (Shanghai). Nineteen species of bacteria were detected in the dishcloths, most of which were conditional pathogenic bacteria. This study found a significant difference in the aerobic plate counts of dishcloths with regard to type, number of the days used, activities used for, and some family factors. The findings of the study highlight the potential for contamination of kitchen dishcloths within homes.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Diagnosis , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Mass Screening , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix , Diagnosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320371

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess and compare the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) detection efficiency and the potential clinical utility of PCR sequencing-based technology.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Four HPV consensus primer sets (GP5+/6+, MGP, MY09/11, and PGMY09/11) were used in order to amplify a broad spectrum of HPV types for HPV infection in 325 cervical samples and the PCR products were sequenced afterwards for the HPV genotyping.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The HPV-positive rate was 75.4%, of which 35.5% harbored more than one HPV genotype. A total of 36 different genotypes was found, with HPV 16 (24.1%) being the most prevalent, followed by HPV 58 (13.3%) and HPV 52 (9.6%). There were substantial to almost perfect agreements between different primer sets regarding HPV detection efficiency, with the kappa value varying from 0.751 to 0.925, MGP, and PGMY09/11 were the most effective in detecting multiple infections (P < 0.001). With each of the primer sets, a board range of HPV types could be identified, though there were several differences for a few genotypes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The substantial agreement between PCR-sequencing and HC2 for the detection of high-risk HPV (kappa=0.761) indicated that PCR-sequencing is also suitable for routine HPV screening.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alphapapillomavirus , Genetics , Female , Genotype , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections , Virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Young Adult
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343639

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an assessment index system to objectively evaluate the implementation of health promotion in enterprises.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Multi-methods, which include the reviewing references, the summarizing results of preliminary studies, the interview with experts and employers, were used in developing attentative index framework and working out the consultative questionnaires. Then the improved Delphi Method was adopted in collecting ideas from 20 experts in China, and they scored the importance of every single index by two rounds of consultation. On the basis of these data, the indicators were added , deleted or modified according to concentration and distraction levels of expert ideas. The method of the percentile weighted coefficient was conducted to decide the weighing of assessment index.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The responding rates to the two rounds of questionnaires were 90.91% and 100.00% respectively. The overall specialist authoritative coefficient was 0.69, the coordination coefficient of all indicators was 0.623 (P <0.01),and the coordination coefficient of the four kinds of first-ranking indicators was 0.313, 0.625, 0.390, 0.563, respectively (P<0.01).Eventually, an assessment index system consisting of 4 first-ranking indicators and 10 sub-indicators which were further divided into 52 grade-three indicators was set up.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The assessment index system possesses good content validity, and the liability and typicality were recognized by experts. However, it should be applied and validated in practice.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Delphi Technique , Health Promotion , Humans , Middle Aged , Occupational Health Services
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274731

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the blood lead level and its influencing factors of workers in one lead acid storage cell enterprise in Jiangsu Province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>An occupational health field investigation was done to this storage cell enterprise at the end of June 2011 to measure the air lead fume (dust) concentration of workplaces. Health-care information of 1364 person-times from 2009 - 2011 was collected, including blood lead level, general state of health, life and health habit. One way ANOVA and ordinal multi-categorical logistic stepwise regression were used to analysis the influencing factors of blood lead level.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The lead fume concentration range was 0.008-0.354 mg/m(3) among 12 measuring points, which 7 places were unqualified, while the concentration range of lead dust was 0.023 - 2.432 mg/m(3), 24 out of 27 measuring places were unqualified, both the qualified rate were low. The blood lead concentration of objects was (259.54 ± 106.62) µg/L, among which 96 people (7.04%) who ≥ 400 µg/L should be identified as suspected "observation object", blood lead concentration ≥ 600 µg/L was not found. The blood lead concentration of male (279.76 ± 114.93 µg/L) was significantly higher than female (242.44 ± 95.86) µg/L (t = 6.441, P < 0.01). The proportion of ≥ 400 µg/L in male (11.04%, 69/625) was significantly higher than female (3.65%, 27/739) (χ(2) = 28.237, P < 0.01). The blood lead concentration of workers who exposed to lead fume or dust (265.93 ± 103.70) µg/L was significantly higher than those of not exposed to lead (205.30 ± 115.62) µg/L (t = -6.037, P < 0.01), the blood lead concentration of workers who exposed to lead dust was (267.38 ± 98.02) µg/L significantly higher than those of exposed to lead fume (260.81 ± 121.80) µg/L (t = -2.408, P < 0.05). The proportion of ≥ 400 µg/L in workers who exposed to lead fume (dust) (7.60%, 93/1223) was significantly higher than those of not exposed to lead (2.13%, 3/141) (χ(2) = 4.538, P < 0.05). Ordinal multi-categorical logistic stepwise regression found that the lead fume concentration ≥ 0.03 mg/m(3), lead dust concentration ≥ 0.05 mg/m(3) (OR = 1.59, 95%CI: 1.06 - 2.39), length of service ≥ 3 years (OR = 1.82, 95%CI: 1.12 - 2.98), smoking (OR = 2.06, 95%CI: 1.27 - 3.37) can increase the level of blood lead concentration.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Lead dust concentration of the enterprise exceeded the standard. Workers exposed to lead fume (dust) have more occupational health hazard of lead, of whom the blood lead concentration was high. Higher lead fume (dust) concentration in workplace, longer length of service, smoking were risk factors of high blood lead concentration.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Female , Humans , Lead , Blood , Lead Poisoning , Blood , Epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Young Adult
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275824

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of paraoxonase-2 (PON2) gene and the susceptibility to occupational noise-induced deafness among Chinese Han population exposed to high noise levels [>85 dB (A)].</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han population exposed to high noise levels. The subjects were divided into case group (n = 127) and control group (n = 136) according to the Diagnostic criteria of occupational noise-induced deafness (GBZ 49-2007). The case group was composed of 127 workers with a mean binaural high-frequency hearing threshold not less than 40 dB, as measured using an electro-audiometer, while the control group was composed of 136 workers with a mean binaural high-frequency hearing threshold less than 40 dB, as measured using the electro-audiometer, who were on shift in the same position as the cases and matched with them for age, sex, and years of noise exposure. Peripheral venous blood (2 ml) was collected from each subject during physical examination to extract genomic DNA, and genotypes were identified using a TaqMan probe.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PON2 genotypes rs7493 CG+GG, rs7785846 CT+TT, rs12026 CG+GG, and rs7786401 GT+TT were the risk factors for occupational noise-induced deafness, and the adjusted odds ratios (95%confidence intervals) were 5.87 (3.11∼11.07), 5.92 (3.10∼11.32), 5.53 (2.93∼10.45), and 5.93 (3.10∼11.34), respectively. In addition, the higher the noise exposure levels, the higher the risk of developing occupational noise-induced deafness among the individuals carrying mutant genotypes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PON2 genotypes rs7493 CG+GG, rs7785846 CT+TT, rs12026 CG+GG, and rs7786401 GT +TT may be associated with the susceptibility to occupational noise-induced deafness among Chinese Han population exposed to high noise levels, and the effects of mutant genotypes and noise exposure levels may be mutually enhanced.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Genetics , Case-Control Studies , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noise, Occupational , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275815

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for rapid determination of airborne acrylonitrile using a portable gas chromatograph.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A single standard sample of acrylonitrile was prepared in a laboratory and sampled by the built-in constant flow pump of the portable gas chromatograph. The sample was then preconcentrated by the preconcentrator, thermally desorbed, separated by capillary columns, and detected by a micro argon ionization detector to determine the retention time. Retention time was then used to perform qualitative analysis. Under the set condition of gas chromatography, the external standard method was used to create a standard curve for quantitative analysis of acrylonitrile.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The linear range of acrylonitrile on the portable gas chromatograph was 0.25 to 3.00 mg/m(3). The regression equation was y = 10(-5) x-0.0275, r = 0.9977. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/m(3), and the lower limit of quantification was 0.25 mg/m(3). The relative standard deviation was lower than 7.09%, and the degree of accuracy was 91.09-105.54%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Portable gas chromatography is a simple, repeatable, and accurate method for rapid determination of airborne acrylonitrile.</p>


Subject(s)
Acrylonitrile , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Chromatography, Gas , Workplace
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275814

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for determining glyphosate in the air of workplaces by ion chromatography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ultra-fine glass fiber filter paper was used to collect glyphosate from the workplace air. After being ultrasonically eluted with deionized water, samples were determined by ion chromatography using a conductivity detector.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Within the range of 0.05-1.00 mg/L, a linear relationship was found with a limit of detection of 0.003 mg/m(3). The minimum detectable concentration was 0.000 41 mg/m(3) (calculated by sampling 75 L of air). For three different concentrations of glyphosate, the intra-batch relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.8%, 1.6%, and 0.8%, respectively, and the inter-batch RSDs were 1.9%, 2.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. The recovery rate ranged from 94.8% to 97.4%. The elution efficiency ranged from 94.5% to 96.7%. The sampling efficiency was 100%. Samples could be stored at room temperature for at least 7 days.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This presented method meets the requirements of Guide for establishing occupational health standards-Part 4: Determination methods of air chemicals in workplace and is feasible for determination of glyphosate in the air of workplaces.</p>


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational , Chromatography, Gas , Glycine , Workplace
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326249

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the chromium (Cr) levels in blood and urine among general population in China between 2009 and 2010, and thereby to analyze its prevalent features.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From year 2009 to 2010, a total of 11 983 subjects of general population aged between 6 and 60 year-old were recruited from 24 districts in 8 provinces in eastern, central and western China mainland, by cluster random sampling method. The information about their living environment and health status were collected by questionnaire, and 11 983 blood samples and 11 853 urine samples were also collected. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to test the Cr level both in blood and urine; and the Cr distribution in blood and urine among groups of population in different ages, genders and districts, were then analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among general population in China, the geometric mean (GM) of Cr concentration in blood was 1.19 µg/L, with median at 1.74 µg /L and 95% percentile at 5.59 µg/L. The Cr concentration in blood among males and females were separately 1.18 µg/L and 1.20 µg/L(P > 0.05); while its GM in the groups of population aged 6 - 12, 12 - 16, 16 - 20, 20 - 30, 30 - 45 and 45 - 60 years old were 1.00, 1.22, 1.01, 1.40, 1.27 and 1.30 µg/L (P < 0.01), respectively; and the figures in populations from eastern, central and western China were 1.00, 1.70 and 1.98 µg/L (P < 0.01), respectively. Among general population, the GM of Cr concentration in urine was 0.53 µg/L, with median was lower than 0.42 µg/L and 95% percentile at 3.53 µg/L. The Cr concentration in urine among males and females were separately 0.52 µg/L and 0.53 µg/L (P > 0.05);while its GM in the groups of population aged 6 - 12, 12 - 16, 16 - 20, 20 - 30, 30 - 45 and 45 - 60 years old were 0.56, 0.60, 0.52, 0.50, 0.52 and 0.46 µg/L (P < 0.01), respectively;and the figures in populations from eastern, central and western China were 0.58, < 0.42 and 0.60 µg/L (P < 0.01), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The study reported the Cr levels in blood and urine among general population in China, and thereby provided basic data evidence for the following Cr biological monitoring studies in near future.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , China , Chromium , Blood , Urine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Young Adult
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324230

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the clinical characteristics of 267 cases with occupational chronic carbon disulfide (CS(2)) poisoning and to provide the basis for revising the items of periodical medical examination of workers occupationally exposed to CS(2).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The subjects of present study were 267 patients with mild CS(2) poisoning diagnosed according to "Diagnostic Criteria of Occupational Chronic Carbon Disulfide Poisoning (GBZ4-2002)" from April in 2006 to May in 2010. All patients were from the same chemical fiber factory. When a subject was diagnosed as patient with CS(2) poisoning, who should interview with questionnaire which included the illness and occupational history, symptoms, individual habits. The physical examination, nervous test, cardiovascular test, biochemical test and electromyogram were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rate of decreased motor conduction velocity was 87.3% (233/267 roots). The highest detection rate of slowing conduction velocity was the common peroneal motor nerve which was 48.6% (138/248 roots) and the second was median motor nerve with delay rate of 37% (155/419 roots). The main symptoms of the patients were neurasthenia, numbness and paresthesia. The rates of abnormal achilles tendon reflex and knee jerk reflex in patients were were 79.4% and 49.8%, respectively. The detected rates of patients with ST-segment changes and hypertension were 19.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The rates of hypertension, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were 27.3%, 22.5% and 21.1%, respectively. The rates of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were high. The detected rates of urine acid, indirect bilirubin and total bilirubin in male patients were higher than those in female patients. In addition, the abnormal detected rate of urea nitrogen and indirect bilirubin increased with exposure years.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Occupational chronic CS(2) poisoning mainly affects the nervous system, as well as liver and kidney function. Detecting the median and common peroneal motor nerve conduction velocities could be the screening indicators for the peripheral nerve injury induced by CS(2) in the occupational exposure population during the periodical occupational medical examinations.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carbon Disulfide , Poisoning , Chemical Industry , Female , Humans , Kidney , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Multiphasic Screening , Nervous System , Neural Conduction , Occupational Exposure
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324229

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of carbon disulfide (CS(2)) on the health of workers, and to provide the basis for the further preventive measures.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The occupational health examination of 881 workers exposed to CS(2) in a chemical fiber factory was carried out according to the national technical standard of occupational health surveillance. The time weighted average concentrations (TWA) of CS(2) in the workshops of short silk and long silk exceeded the national standard, The workers in these two workshops served as the high exposure group. The workers of the other workshops were classified as low exposure group, in which TWA met the national standard. All exposed workers were also divided into long-term exposure group and short-term exposure group on the basis of average exposure years (16 years). The statistical analysis was used by t test, χ(2), and fisher exact test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The symptom rates of numbness, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia and headache were 12.5%, 8.5%, 8.2%, 7.5%, and 7.2% respectively. The abnormal rates of superficial sensation, three fibrillation, achilles tendon reflex, patellar reflex, EMG, hypertension, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B were 33.0%, 26.1%, 20.8%, 18.6%, 10.8%, 33.4%, 24.5%, 17.0% and 9.3% respectively. Among the high exposure group, the abnormal detectable rates of dizziness, headache, fatigue, insomnia, numbness, achilles tendon reflex, superficial and deep sensation, EMG, hypertension, ECG, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein in long-term exposure group were significantly higher than those in short-term exposure group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, among the low exposure group, the abnormal rates of the insomnia achilles tendon reflex and superficial sensation in long term exposure group were significantly higher than those of short term exposure group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The detected rates of hypertension, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, creatinine and uric acid were in males significantly greater than those in females (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Long-term exposure to high concentrations of CS(2) could lead to the damage of nervous system, elevate blood pressure and promote the development and progression of hyperlipemia and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, CS(2) had greater effects on blood pressure and lipid in males than in females.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Carbon Disulfide , Cardiovascular System , Chemical Industry , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiphasic Screening , Nervous System Diseases , Epidemiology , Occupational Exposure , Young Adult
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273583

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for rapid detecting nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide(NO2) in the workplace air with infrared spectrometer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The method of infrared spectrometer was developed to detect nitrogen oxide in laboratory, then applied to detect the concentration of nitrogen oxide in workplace air. The present method was compared with National Standard Methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>NO and NO2 in air were detected simultaneously with the infrared spectrometer, not interfering each other. In standard condition, the minimum detectable concentrations of NO and NO2 were 0.67 and 1.03 mg/m3, the inferior limits of concentrations were 0.67 and 1.03 mg/m3 respectively. When the concentrations of NO and NO2 were 0.67-133.93 mg/m3 and 1.03-102.68 mg/m3, the accuracy and precision of detection were higher. As compared with National Standard Methods, the ratio of the results of two methods was 86.96% and 112.56%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method of infrared spectrometer is a rapid, simple and accurate method for detecting the concentrations of nitrogen oxide in the workplace air.</p>


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational , Environmental Monitoring , Methods , Nitrogen Oxides , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Methods , Workplace
19.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 92-98, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349966

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the relationship between p27Kip1 low expression in breast cancer and its prognostic implication in breast carcinoma patients. Methods All data that were associated with the study of the relationship between p27Kip1 and the prognosis for breast cancer was pooled from Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase and Medlinebase. The outcome was measured using the risk ratio (RR). Data pooling was performed by RevMan 4. 2. Results 6457 patients from 20 studies were included in this meta-analysis. RR estimate of overall survival (OS) for patients with low level p27Kip1 was 2.07 [1.66,2.60] (P<0.01). For disease free survival (DFS), the pooled RR was 1.27 [1.10,1.47] (P<0.05). The combined RR estimate of relapse free survival (RFS) for patients with low level of p27Kip1 was 1.49 [0.92, 2.42] (P >0.05). In patients with lymph node negative breast carcinoma, the combined RR for OS and RFS were 1.98 [1.34,2.91] (P <0.01) and 1.28 [0.45,3.65] (P > 0.05), respectively. Among the patients with lymph node positive breast carcinoma, the combined RR for OS and RFS was 1.92 [1.31, 2.82] (P=0.0009) and 1.35 [0.96,1.89] (P>0.05) respectively. Conclusions Low level of p27Kip1 appears to be an independent prognostic factor to OS and DFS of breast cancer patients but not to RFS. Additional studies with large patient number and widely accepted practical methods are required to derive the precise prognostic significance of p27Kip1 expression in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Carcinoma , Diagnosis , Genetics , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 , Genetics , Metabolism , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetics , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging , Methods , Prognosis
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