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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(6): e2022, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520245

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purposes: To describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with keratitis in patients with corneal foreign bodies in Colombia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on a clinical records review of patients who had corneal foreign bodies and were admitted to the emergency department between June 2018 and June 2019 in Cali, Colombia. The primary outcome was the presence of keratitis diagnosed based on clinical criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify associated factors. Results: A total of 381 corneal foreign bodies in 372 patients were analyzed (median age, 40.0; interquartile range, 29.0-53.0 years; male, 94.7% (n=352). Ninety-five patients developed keratitis (24.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20.8%-29.5%). In the multivariate analysis, age 30 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.15, 95% CI 1.06-4.36), finding of aqueous flare (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.39-5.66]), and a foreign body in the peripheral cornea (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.19-3.50] were associated with an increased risk for keratitis. Sex, time between injury and admission, and corneal edema were not related to keratitis (p>0.05). Conclusion: In Cali, Colombia, a high proportion of keratitis was reported in patients with corneal foreign body. Age, an aqueous flare, and a foreign body in the peripheral cornea were the factors associated with keratitis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas e os fatores associados à presença de ceratite em pacientes com corpos estranhos na córnea em uma população colombiana. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal baseado na revisão dos registros clínicos de pacientes com corpos estranhos na córnea admitidos em um departamento de emergência em Cali, Colômbia, entre junho de 2018 e junho de 2019. O desfecho primário foi a presença de ceratite diagnosticada através de critérios clínicos. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão logística univariada e multivariada para identificar os fatores associados. Resultado: Neste estudo, foi analisado um total de 381 corpos estranhos na córnea em 372 pacientes (idade média: 40,0 anos, intervalo interquartil: 29,0-53,0; sexo masculino: 94,7% [352 casos]). Noventa e cinco casos desenvolveram ceratite (24,9%, intervalo de confiança de 95% — IC 95%: 20,8%-29,5%). Na análise multivariada, para idade ≤30 anos (razão de chances — RC: 2,15, IC 95%: 1,06-4,36), o achado de flare aquoso (RC: 2,81, IC 95%: 1,39-5,66]) e a presença de corpo estranho na periferia da córnea (RC: 2,05, IC 95%: 1,19-3,50) foram associados a um risco aumentado de ceratite. Sexo, tempo entre a lesão e a internação, e edema da córnea não foram relacionados à ceratite (p>0,05). Conclusão: Há uma proporção elevada de ceratite em casos de corpos estranhos na córnea em Cali, Colômbia. Os três fatores associados à ceratite foram a idade, o achado de flare aquoso e a presença de corpo estranho na periferia da córnea.

2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 22(9): 3045-3052, Set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890438

ABSTRACT

Abstract Given the context and the number of armed conflict victims in the Colombian Pacific coast and their difficulties to access psycho-social care, Narrative Community-based Group Therapy appears as a viable mental health intervention. The objective of this study is to describe the process of implementation and results of the intervention in Afro-Colombian victims of violence, in the municipalities of Buenaventura and Quibdó. More specifically, we will be looking at the perspectives of workers and supervisors, through evaluative case studies and individual in-depth interviews. The therapy allows us to identify support and coping systems through coexistence, communication and interaction. It requires an adaptation process to the diversity of knowledge and expressions of victims of Colombian violence, greater empathy from care providers and rigor in their profiles selection, facilities ensuring security and confidentiality, and links with other educational, employment and recreational organizations. It is important to include these results while improving current and future intervention processes.


Resumo Dado o contexto e os números das vítimas de conflitos armado na costa do Pacífico da Colômbia, e as dificuldades de acesso aos cuidados psicossociais, a Terapia Narrativa de grupo Baseado na Comunidade aparece como uma intervenção de saúde mental viável. O objetivo do estudo é descrever o processo de implementação e os resultados da intervenção em vítimas afro-colombianas de violência, nos municípios de Buenaventura e Quibdó - Colômbia, a partir da perspectiva de trabalhadores e supervisores, através de estudos de avaliação e entrevistas em profundidade individuais. A terapia permite a identificação sistemas de apoio para o enfrentamento e o luto e através de convivência, comunicação e interação. Ele requer um processo de adaptação à diversidade necessária de conhecimento e expressões populares de vítimas da violência colombiana, maior empatia por parte dos prestadores de cuidados e rigor na seleção de seus perfis, instalações para garantir a segurança e confidencialidade, e links para outras organizações educacionais, trabalho e lazer. É importante incluir esses resultados na melhoria da intervenção processo atual e futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychotherapy, Group/methods , Violence/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Crime Victims/psychology , Professional-Patient Relations , Colombia , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Confidentiality , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Black or African American/psychology , Empathy , Health Services Accessibility , Mental Health Services/organization & administration
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 22(9): 3053-3059, Set. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890444

ABSTRACT

Abstract Armed conflict has positioned Colombia as the country with the second highest internal displacement of citizens. This situation has forced government projects and international cooperation agencies to intervene to mitigate the impact of violence; however, the coping strategies implemented by the country's minorities are still unknown. The study objective is to describe the coping strategies and their relation with mental health within Afro-descendant culture in Colombia and the effects that armed conflict has on these coping mechanisms, through a phenomenological study involving focus groups and interviews with experts. Rituals and orality have a healing function that allow Afro-Colombian communities to express their pain and support each other, enabling them to cope with loss. Since the forced displacement, these traditions have been in jeopardy. Armed conflict prevents groups from mourning, generating a form of latent pain. Afro-Colombians require community interventions that create similar spaces for emotional support for the bereaved persons in the pre-conflict period. Thus, it is essential to understand the impact of this spiritual and ritualistic approach on mental health issues and the relevance of narrative and community interventions for survivors.


Resumo O conflito armado posiciona a Colômbia como o país com o segundo maior deslocamento interno em todo o mundo. Esta situação obrigou projetos do governo e agências de cooperação internacional a intervir; no entanto, as estratégias de enfrentamento implementadas por minorias do país ainda são desconhecidas. O objetivo do estudo é descrever as estratégias de enfrentamento e sua relação com a saúde mental dentro da cultura afro-descendente na Colômbia e os efeitos que o conflito armado tem sobre esses mecanismos de enfrentamento, por meio de um estudo fenomenológico envolvendo grupos focais e entrevistas com especialistas. Rituais e oralidade têm uma função de cura que permite que as comunidades afro-colombianas para expressar sua dor e apoiar uns aos outros, permitindo-lhes lidar com a perda. Em razão do deslocamento forçado, essas tradições têm estado em perigo; o conflito armado impede-os de realizar o luto, gerando uma forma de dor latente. Elas exigem intervenções comunitárias que criem espaços de apoio emocional para as pessoas enlutadas similares aos do período pré-conflito. Assim, é essencial compreender o impacto dessa abordagem ritualista em questões de saúde mental, bem como a pertinência das intervenções comunitárias e narrativa para os sobreviventes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Violence/psychology , Survivors/psychology , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Adaptation, Psychological , Focus Groups , Colombia , Cultural Characteristics , Black or African American/psychology , Middle Aged
4.
Colomb. med ; 47(3): 148-154, Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-828600

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Trauma information systems are needed to improve decision making and to identify potential areas of intervention. Objective: To describe the first year of experience with a trauma registry in two referral centers in southwest Colombia. Methods: The study was performed in two referral centers in Cali. Patients with traumatic injuries seen between January 1 and December 31, 2012, were included. The collected information included demographics, mechanism of trauma, injury severity score (ISS), and mortality. A descriptive analysis was carried out. Results: A total of 17,431 patients were registered, of which 67.8% were male with an average age of 30 (±20) years. Workplace injuries were the cause of emergency consultations in 28.2% of cases, and falls were the most common mechanism of trauma (37.3%). Patients with an ISS ≥15 were mostly found in the 18-35-year age range (6.4%). Most patients who suffered a gunshot wound presented an ISS ≥15. A total of 2.5% of all patients died, whereas the mortality rate was 54% among patients with an ISS ≥15 and a gunshot wound. Conclusion: Once the trauma registry was successfully implemented in two institutions in Cali, the primary causes of admission were identified as falls and workplace injuries. The most severely compromised patients were in the population range between 18 and 35 years of age. The highest mortality was caused by gunshot wounds.


Resumen Introducción: Los sistemas de información en trauma son requeridos para mejorar la toma de decisiones e identificar potenciales áreas de intervención. Objetivo: Describir el primer año de experiencia del registro de trauma en dos centros de referencia de trauma del suroccidente Colombiano. Métodos: Estudio realizado en dos centros de referencia de Cali. Se incluyeron pacientes con trauma o lesiones externas entre el 1-Ene y el 31-Dic-2012. Se recolectó información demográfica, relacionada con mecanismos de trauma, severidad (ISS) y mortalidad. Se presenta un análisis descriptivo. Resultados: Se registraron 17,431 pacientes. El 67.8% de los pacientes eran de género masculino con edad promedio de 30 (±20) años. Las lesiones laborales fueron causa de consulta a urgencias en un 28.2%, y las caídas el mecanismo de trauma más frecuente (37.3%). Los pacientes con ISS ≥15 en su mayoría se encontraban en el rango de edad de 18-35 años (6.4%). El 28% de los pacientes que sufrieron lesión por arma de fuego presentaron un ISS ≥15. El 2.5% de los pacientes murieron y aquellos pacientes con ISS ≥15 y lesión por arma de fuego presentaron mortalidad del 54%. Conclusión: una vez se logró implementar el registro de trauma en dos instituciones en Cali, se identificó que la principal causa de ingreso fue secundaria a caídas y las lesiones laborales. Los pacientes más severamente comprometidos están en el rango de población entre 18 a 35 años. La mayor mortalidad se presentó secundario a lesiones de causa externa por arma de fuego.


Subject(s)
Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Injury Severity Score , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
5.
Colomb. med ; 47(3): 172-175, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Case Description: It is presented the phenotype of a new compound heterozygous mutation of the genes R384X and Q356X encoding the enzyme of 11-beta-hydroxylase Clinical Findings: Severe virilization, peripheral hypertension, and early puberty. Treatment and Outcome: Managed with hormone replacement therapy (corticosteroid) and antihypertensive therapy (beta-blocker), resulting in the control of physical changes and levels of arterial tension. Clinical Relevance: According to the phenotypic characteristics of the patient, it is inferred that the R384X mutation carries an additional burden on the Q356X mutation, with the latter previously described as a cause of 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency. The description of a new genotype, as in this case, expands the understanding of the hereditary burden and deciphers the various factors that lead to this pathology as well as the other forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), presenting with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. This study highlights the importance of a complete description of the patient's CAH genetic profile as well as their parents' genetic profile.


Resumen Descripción del Caso: Se presenta el fenotipo de una nueva mutación heterocigota compuesta en los genes Q356X y R384X que codifican la enzima 11-beta-hidroxilada Hallazgos Clínicos: Virilización severa, pubertad precoz periférica e hipertensión. Tratamiento y Resultados: Manejo con terapia de reemplazo hormonal con corticoide y antihipertensivo con beta-bloqueador con lo que se logró controlar los cambios físicos y los niveles de tensión arterial. Relevancia Clínica: Según las características fenotípicas del paciente se infiere que la mutación R384X acarrea una carga adicional a la mutación Q356X, esta última descrita como causa de deficiencia de 11-beta-hidroxilasa. La descripción de nuevos genotipos, como en este caso, permite ampliar la comprensión de la carga hereditaria y descifrar los diversos factores que llevan a que esta patología, así como las demás formas de hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita (HSC), se presenten con un amplio espectro de cuadros clínicos. Esto permite resaltar la importancia de una descripción completa del perfil genético del paciente con HSC y de sus padres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Child, Preschool , Chromosome Mapping , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 , Desoxycorticosterone Acetate , Genotype
6.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 33(2): 362-367, abr.-jun. 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-795387

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La necesidad de gobernabilidad para generar desarrollo en los países, se ha venido convirtiendo en foco de interés de los gobiernos. América Latina cuenta con sistemas políticos en crisis de gobernabilidad, dada la incapacidad de los actores estratégicos para resolver los conflictos basándose en reglas y procedimientos establecidos. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo mostrar cómo la creación de sistemas de vigilancia en violencia (observatorios) contribuye al fortalecimiento de la gobernabilidad y a la generación de políticas públicas efectivas. Se realizó un análisis de los componentes necesarios para la existencia de gobernabilidad y su relación con el papel que cumplen los observatorios para proporcionar información confiable, oportuna y representativa. La gobernabilidad se enriquece con la legitimidad otorgada por la ciudadanía a partir de los resultados de los gobiernos, en la formulación, implementación, evaluación de políticas públicas y la toma de decisiones en salud pública basadas en evidencia.


ABSTRACT The need for good governability to promote countries development has been becoming the focus of governments. Latin America has political systems in crisis of governability caused by the inability of strategic actors to solve conflicts based on rules and procedures. The present review aims to describe how the creation of violence surveillance systems (observatories) contributes to strengthening governability and the creation of effective public policies. It was developed an analysis of the required components for the existence of governability and its relationship with the role of observatories in cities to provide reliable, timely and representative information that allows the formulation of strategies and policies. Governability is enriched with the legitimacy granted by the public from the results obtained by the governments in the formulation, implementation, evaluation of public policies and the evidence-based decisions in public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Violence , Public Health , Decision Making , Latin America
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 21(6): 1947-1956, Jun. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783928

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW), supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW’s performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users’ well-being.Colombian Pacific’s scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific.


Resumo Devido à carência de serviços em saúde mental destinados aos Afro-colombianos vítimas de violência, a intervenção CETA (Common Elements Treatment Approach) foi implementada no pacífico da Colômbia. Dada a importância em melhorar essas intervenções, é necessário caracterizar o seu processo de execução. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a realização da intervenção CETA para Afro-colombianos vítimas de violência em Buenaventura e Quibdó, Colômbia. Trata-se de estudo de caso com elaboração de entrevistas aprofundadas a Trabalhadores Comunitários Psicossociais (TCP), supervisores e coordenadores responsáveis pela execução CETA. Obtiveram-se seis categorias Núcleo: 1. Efeito do conflito armado e pobreza; 2. Severidade do trauma; 3. Mudanças percebidas com a intervenção CETA; 4. Características e desempenho dos TCP; 5. Enfoque na cultura Afro-colombiana; e 6. Estratégias para promover bem estar dos usuários. O contexto do pacífico colombiano está relacionado a múltiplos fatores, como o conflito armado ativo, crise econômica, e carência de serviços em saúde mental, afetando o processo de implementação e seus efeitos. Isto gera a necessidade de fortalecimento e estabelecimento de alianças institucionais, visando garantir a saúde mental das vítimas dessa região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Black or African American , Mental Disorders/therapy , Colombia
8.
Colomb. med ; 45(3): 132-135, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730955

ABSTRACT

Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.


Las lesiones son el resultado de la exposición aguda a energía o consecuencia de la insuficiencia de un elemento vital que sobrepasan los umbrales fisiológicos e impiden la vida. Se clasifican en intencionales o no intencionales. Son consideradas un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial debido a que causan más de 5 millones de muertes por año en el mundo y por la carga de enfermedad que generan, afectando principalmente a población de bajos recursos en países de bajos y medianos ingresos. Un error común existe cuando las lesiones son consideradas como accidentes, sin embargo los accidentes están dados por el azar mientras que las lesiones son prevenibles. Esta es una revisión en torno a las lesiones y los accidentes para la comprensión de las lesiones en el tránsito como eventos prevenibles en pro de la estandarización de la terminología en salud pública y en seguridad vial para una cultura de prevención.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accident Prevention/methods , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Wounds and Injuries/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Terminology as Topic , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
10.
Colomb. med ; 39(3): 210-219, jul.-sept. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-573200

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las quemaduras oculares son un problema de salud pública debido a la poca conciencia sobre protección ocular, la morbilidad y la severidad de las secuelas cuando se presentan. El objetivo de este estudio es caracterizar las quemaduras oculares intencionales y no intencionales en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Universitario del Valle (SO-HUV). Metodología: Serie de casos de 330 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de quemadura ocular atendidos en el SO-HUV entre el año 2005 y 2006. Se realizó un analisis descriptivo univariado utilizando el programa Epi2000. Resultados: Se hallaron 249 personas con 342 ojos afectados; la mayoría de la población estaba entre los 19 y 45 años de edad con una media de 28 (DE±16.6). La relación hombre:mujer fue 2:1. Las quemaduras por lesiones no intencionales fueron 97.2% y por lesiones intencionales 2.8%. En el hogar se presentó 50.2% de las quemaduras y en el trabajo 39.4%. Las lesiones causadas por químicos fueron 62.7%, por térmicos 28.9% y por radiación ultravioleta 6.8%. Se hizo el manejo específico a cada tipo de quemadura y refirieron mejoría 97.7% de los pacientes que acudieron a los controles. Las secuelas mßs comunes fueron disminución de la agudeza visual en 25 (10%) pacientes y la córnea blanca en 7 (2.8%) pacientes; la causa principal fueron los químicos. Conclusiones: Las quemaduras oculares son producidas por eventos prevenibles en su mayoría y es importante orientar programas de promoción y prevención en torno a estas lesiones.


Introduction: Ocular burns are a public health problem due to the little conscience about ocular protection, the morbility and the severity of the sequelae that present. The objective is to characterize intentional and no intentional ocular burns of patients that entered to the Ophthalmology Service of the Hospital Universitario del Valle (SO-HUV). Methodology: A series of cases of 330 clinical charts of patients with ocular burn diagnosis that entered to the Ophthalmology Service of the HUV, between January 2005 and December 2006 were reviewed. The statistical analysis was made in Epi2000.Results: 249 patients were presented with 342 affected eyes; most of the population was between 19 and 45 years, with a mean of 28 (SD±16.6). The men: women ratio was 2:1. The burns due to no intentional injuries were 97.2% and due to intentional injuries 2.8%. The 50.2% of the burns occurred in home and 39.4% in the work environment. The lesions caused by chemicals were 62.7%, by thermal 28.9%, and by ultraviolet radiation the 7.6%. The proper manage to each type of burn, was carried out, and referred improvement 97.7% of the patients that assisted to control appointments. The most common sequels were the decrease of visual acuity in 25 patients (10%) and corneal scar in 7 patients (2.8%); the main cause was chemicals.Conclusions: Ocular burns are mostly produced by preventable injuries that can be reduced through promotion and prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Eye Burns , Visual Acuity , Wounds and Injuries
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