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Tropical Biomedicine ; : 1092-1106, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751361


@#Avian Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease which can cause huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Forty five IB viruses (IBV) were isolated from poultry in Malaysia during 2014-2016. Phylogenetic analysis of the spike glycoprotein 1 (S1) gene revealed that all isolates were clustered into five distinct groups. The predominant type of IBV isolated was QX strains (47%), second was 4/91 type (27%), followed by Malaysian strain MH5365/95 (13%), Massachusetts type (11%) and finally Taiwanese strains (2%). Four types of S1 protein cleavage recognition motifs were found among the isolates which includes HRRRR, RRSRR, RRFRR and RRVRR. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the motif RRVRR and are unique to Malaysian strains. Six IBVs were grouped in Malaysian MH5365/95 strains. Among these, one isolate was different from others where it only shared 82% identity with MH5365/95 and to others. It formed its own branch in the Malaysian cluster suggesting it may be a variant unique to Malaysia. Alignment analysis of the S1 amino acid sequences indicated that point mutations, insertions and deletions contribute to the divergence of IB variants. This study indicated at least five groups of IBV are circulating in Malaysia with most of the isolates belonged to QX strains. As new IBV variants continue to emerge, further study need to be carried out to determine whether the current available vaccine is able to give protection against the circulating virus.

Tropical Biomedicine ; : 627-638, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750431


@#Delayed wound healing due to extraneous bacterial contamination, antibacterial resistance and other associated factors are of great concern in dealing patients having chronically infected wound. Medicinal properties of certain maggots of Calliphoridae family are known for its effective wound debridement therapy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the wound healing potential of maggots of Lucilia sericata in an experimentally infected cutaneous wound model in Wistar rat. The study was carried out by using male Wistar rats (n=48) by creating excisional wounds and later contaminated with mixed population of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Animals were divided randomly in to four groups with 12 individuals each, being denominated as control, antibiotic treated, maggot treated, and antibiotic plus maggot combination treated group. Ten pre-sterilized maggots were applied per centimetre square wound bed for 24 hours. Different wound kinetics in L. sericata maggot treated wounds revealed significant reduction in wound area with maximum contraction, early elimination of bacterial bioburden as compared to group of infected control and group of rats receiving only antibiotic treatment. The histopathological examination of wounded tissue of maggot treated groups showed early and better epithelialization, collagenation and neovascularization with complete healing of wound in two weeks. The maggot effects on healing when used singly or in combination with antibiotic were recorded to be similar. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that the maggots of L. sericata possesses a definite antibacterial action along with removal of dead tissues and effectively reduced the bacterial bio-burden in infected wound and induced wound healing quickly.

Tropical Biomedicine ; : 65-70, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-630162


Abstract. A comparative seroprevalence study on bovine trypanosomiasis and anaplasmosis was conducted. Sera of adult cattle and buffaloes of different breeds from farms from five different states in Malaysia were collected and tested for the presence of Trypanosoma evansi antibodies by CATT and Anaplasma marginale antibodies by c-ELISA. Of the 116 samples, 14.7% tested positive for bovine trypanosomiasis and 77.6% for bovine anaplasmosis.