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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830961

ABSTRACT

Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world by illegal drug users. Addiction to MA is a serious public health problem and effective therapies do not exist to date. It has also been reported that behavior induced by psychostimulants such as MA is related to histone deacetylase (HDAC). MeBib is an HDAC6 inhibitor derived from a benzimidazole scaffold. Many benzimidazole-containing compounds exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activity. In this study, we investigated whether HDAC6 inhibitor MeBib modulates the behavioral response in MA self-administered rats. Our results demonstrated that the number of active lever presses in MA self-administered rats was reduced by pretreatment with MeBib. In the hippocampus of rats, we also found MA administration promotes GluN2B, an NMDA receptor subunit, expression, which results in sequential activation of ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway, however, MeBib abrogated it. Collectively, we suggest that MeBib prevents the MA seeking response induced by MA administration and therefore, represents a potent candidate as an MA addiction inhibitor.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830110

ABSTRACT

Methamphetamine (METH) acts strongly on the nervous system and damages neurons and is known to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds present in green tea, red wine and several fruits exhibit antioxidant properties that protect neurons from oxidative damage and promote neuronal survival. Especially, epicatechin (EC) is a powerful flavonoid with antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor and antimutagenic effects as well as antioxidant effects. We therefore investigated whether EC could prevent METH-induced neurotoxicity using HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells. EC reduced METH-induced cell death of HT22 cells. In addition, we observed that EC abrogated the activation of ERK, p38 and inhibited the expression of CHOP and DR4. EC also reduced METH-induced ROS accumulation and MMP. These results suggest that EC may protect HT22 hippocampal neurons against METH-induced cell death by reducing ER stress and mitochondrial damage.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719642

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely generated in biological processes such as normal metabolism and response to xenobiotic exposure. While ROS can be beneficial or harmful to cells and tissues, generation of ROS by diverse anti-cancer drugs or phytochemicals plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. We recently identified a derivative of naphthalene, MS-5, that induces apoptosis of an ovarian cell, CAOV-3. Interestingly, MS-5 induced apoptosis by down-regulating the ROS. Cell viability was evaluated by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular ROS (H₂O₂), mitochondrial superoxide, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and effect on cycle were determined by flow cytometry. Protein expression was assessed by western blotting. The level of ATP was measured using ATP Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay kit. MS-5 inhibited growth of ovarian cancer cell lines, CAOV-3, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. MS-5 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest in CAOV-3 cells, while MS-5 decreased intracellular ROS generation. In addition, cells treated with MS-5 showed the decrease in MMP and ATP production. In this study, we found that treatment with MS-5 in CAOV-3 cells induced apoptosis but decreased ROS level. We suspect that MS-5 might interfere with the minimum requirements of ROS for survival. These perturbations appear to be concentration-dependent, suggesting that MS-5 may induce apoptosis by interfering with ROS generation. We propose that MS-5 may be a potent therapeutic agent for inducing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell through regulation of ROS.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Apoptosis , Biological Phenomena , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Flow Cytometry , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms , Phytochemicals , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89896

ABSTRACT

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by diverse anti-cancer drugs or phytochemicals has been closely related with the induction of apoptosis in cancers. Also, the downregulation of ROS by these chemicals has been found to block initiation of carcinogenesis. Therefore, modulation of ROS by phytochemicals emerges as a crucial mechanism to regulate apoptosis in cancer prevention or therapy. This review summarizes the current understanding of the selected chemical compounds and related cellular components that modulate ROS during apoptotic process. Metformin, quercetin, curcumin, vitamin C, and other compounds have been shown to downregulate ROS in the cellular apoptotic process, and some of them even induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cellular components mediating the downregulation of ROS include nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 antioxidant signaling pathway, thioredoxin, catalase, glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and uncoupling proteins. The present review provides information on the relationship between these compounds and the cellular components in modulating ROS in apoptotic cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Ascorbic Acid , Carcinogenesis , Catalase , Curcumin , Down-Regulation , Glutathione , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Metformin , Negotiating , Phytochemicals , Quercetin , Reactive Oxygen Species , Thioredoxins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in therapy, colorectal cancer still has a grim prognosis. Although licorice has been used in East Asian traditional medicine, the molecular properties of its constituents including dehydroglyasperin D (DHGA-D) remain unknown. We sought to evaluate the inhibitory effect of DHGA-D on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and identify the primary signaling molecule targeted by DHGA-D. METHODS: We evaluated anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The target protein of DHGA-D was identified by Western blot analysis with a specific antibody, and direct interaction between DHGA-D and the target protein was confirmed by kinase and pull-down assays. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and further Western blot analysis was performed to identify the signaling pathway involved. RESULTS: DHGA-D significantly suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent HT-29 colorectal cancer cell proliferation. DHGA-D directly suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity and subsequent Akt phosphorylation and bound to the p110 subunit of PI3K. DHGA-D also significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest, together with the suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and retinoblastoma phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: DHGA-D has potent anticancer activity and targets PI3K in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to detail the molecular basis of DHGA-D in suppressing colorectal cancer cell growth.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cyclin D1 , Flow Cytometry , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Glycyrrhiza , HT29 Cells , Humans , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositols , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Prognosis , Retinoblastoma
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic approach by treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) like gefitinib or erlotinib to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients has been limited due to emergence of acquired drug resistance. Our study was aimed to investigate whether the inhibition of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) could be an alternative strategy capable of overcoming acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs for treatment of NSCLCs. METHODS: The anticancer effect of USP8 inhibitor was determined by testing anchorage-dependent or independent growth of gefitinib-sensitive or resistant NSCLCs. The immunoprecipitation and western blotting were conducted to check molecular interaction and signaling pathway followed by USP8 inhibition. RESULTS: Inhibition of USP8 induced overall degradation of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR and Met, leading to a suppression of anchorage-dependent or independent cell growth of gefitinib-sensitive or resistant NSCLCs. Also, treatment with the USP8 inhibitor markedly induced apoptosis in HCC827GR cells. Notably, treatment with the USP8 inhibitor was more effective in suppressing cell growth and inducing apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant HCC827GR cells than that of gefitinib-sensitive HCC827 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of USP8 could be an effective strategy for overcoming gefitinib resistance in NSCLCs.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Resistance , Epidermal Growth Factor , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Phosphotransferases , Tyrosine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081

ABSTRACT

The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.


Subject(s)
A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164516

ABSTRACT

Under hypoxia, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lose their self-renewal activity and display an early differentiated morphology mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Previous studies have demonstrated that PKC-delta is activated by hypoxia and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha in human cancer cells. Furthermore, activation of PKC-delta mediates cardiac differentiation of ESCs and hematopoietic stem cells. However, the role of PKC-delta in hypoxia-induced early differentiation of mESCs remains largely unknown. Here, we show the inhibition of PKC-delta activity prevents the early differentiation of mESCs under hypoxia using PKC-delta inhibitors, GF 109203X and rottlerin. Reduction of PKC-delta activity under hypoxia effectively decreased HIF-1alpha protein levels and substantially recovered the expression of LIF-specific receptor (LIFR) and phosphorylated-STAT3 in mESCs. Furthermore, PKC-delta inhibitors aid to sustain the expression of self-renewal markers and suppress the expression of early differentiation markers in mESCs under hypoxia. Taken together, these results suggest that PKC-delta inhibitors block the early differentiation of mESCs via destabilization of HIF-1alpha under hypoxia.

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