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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882026

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups (χ2 = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease-type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow-up is required.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829578

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. Methods On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. Results Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. Conclusions The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818983

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic trend of schistosomiasis in China from 2010 to 2017 so as to provide the scientific evidence for schistosomiasis elimination. Methods The information of schistosomiasis control nationwide from 2010 to 2017 was collected, including the endemic of population, status of livestock control, and Oncomelania hupensis snail control. Microsoft Excel was applied for datum management and analysis. Results From 2010 to 2017, the epidemic of schistosomiasis in China dropped significantly. The decreasing amplitude of estimated number of patients nationwide was 88.46%. Seventy-one acute schistosomiasis patients were reported and 12.68% (9/71) of them were imported. The decreasing rate of cultivated cattle was 50.09%, and the accumulative number of schistosome-infected cattle was 17 239, and the average positive rate of stool examinations decreased from 1.04% to 0.000 22%. The area with snails nationwide was 373 596.18 to 363 068.95 hm2, and the new detected area with snails was 46.71 to 1 346.73 hm2. The area with schistosome-infected snails was 171.68 hm2 in 2012 and it was 9.25 hm2 in 2013. In 72 key monitoring points of 7 endemic provinces, there were 17 schistosome positive points of water body in 2010 and 6 points in 2016. There were some high risk-factors related to schistosomiasis transmission including schisto-some-infected cattle, dogs, and field rats, and the field stools, and the pasture in the area with snails in schistosomiasis monitoring points. Conclusions The endemic status of schistosomiasis in China has dropped significantly, and the transmission level is very low. However, the infectious source and risk factors in the endemic environments have not be eliminated. Therefore, the infectious source control, health education, snail control, and transmission monitoring should be strengthened, so as to promote the progress of schistosomiasis elimination.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818938

ABSTRACT

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Although great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly areas, there is a risk of re-emerging schistosomiasis in local areas. Hereby, we described the emergency treatment of two schistosomiasis outbreaks that occurred in transmission-interrupted areas of Yunnan Province in 2011 and 2013, pointed out the risk of schistosomiasis rebounding in mountainous and hilly areas and proposed some suggestions.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818736

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is an old and geographically widespread parasitic disease that severely damages human health and affects socioeconomic development in China. The implementation of the integrated strategy with emphasis on controlling the source of Schistosoma japonicum infection and the National Mid- and Long-Term Plan for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control (2004–2015) in China greatly facilitated the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Since transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in 2015, the goal of the national schistosomiasis control program has moved to transmission interruption and elimination in China. Because of the impacts of natural and social factors, and the new situation, new task and new demands following the continuous decline in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis, several challenges exist to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination nationwide. This paper analyzed the current endemic status of schistosomiasis, progress and challenges of schistosomiasis elimination, and proposed some suggestions for the national chistosomiasis elimination program in China.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818735

ABSTRACT

The Three-year Tough Action Plan for Endemic Diseases Control (2018–2020), which was formulated by 10 ministries of China, was issued on November 29, 2018. Schistosomiasis control is an important part of this plan, and the implementation of the plan provides an important basis for the health poverty alleviation and the fight against schistosomiasis in China. This paper describes the objective and principle of the plan and proposes "six actions" and supporting measures to implement the three-year tough action targeting schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the scientific implementation of the three-year tough action against schistosomiasis and facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in China.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818531

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic trend of schistosomiasis in China from 2010 to 2017 so as to provide the scientific evidence for schistosomiasis elimination. Methods The information of schistosomiasis control nationwide from 2010 to 2017 was collected, including the endemic of population, status of livestock control, and Oncomelania hupensis snail control. Microsoft Excel was applied for datum management and analysis. Results From 2010 to 2017, the epidemic of schistosomiasis in China dropped significantly. The decreasing amplitude of estimated number of patients nationwide was 88.46%. Seventy-one acute schistosomiasis patients were reported and 12.68% (9/71) of them were imported. The decreasing rate of cultivated cattle was 50.09%, and the accumulative number of schistosome-infected cattle was 17 239, and the average positive rate of stool examinations decreased from 1.04% to 0.000 22%. The area with snails nationwide was 373 596.18 to 363 068.95 hm2, and the new detected area with snails was 46.71 to 1 346.73 hm2. The area with schistosome-infected snails was 171.68 hm2 in 2012 and it was 9.25 hm2 in 2013. In 72 key monitoring points of 7 endemic provinces, there were 17 schistosome positive points of water body in 2010 and 6 points in 2016. There were some high risk-factors related to schistosomiasis transmission including schisto-some-infected cattle, dogs, and field rats, and the field stools, and the pasture in the area with snails in schistosomiasis monitoring points. Conclusions The endemic status of schistosomiasis in China has dropped significantly, and the transmission level is very low. However, the infectious source and risk factors in the endemic environments have not be eliminated. Therefore, the infectious source control, health education, snail control, and transmission monitoring should be strengthened, so as to promote the progress of schistosomiasis elimination.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818486

ABSTRACT

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Although great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly areas, there is a risk of re-emerging schistosomiasis in local areas. Hereby, we described the emergency treatment of two schistosomiasis outbreaks that occurred in transmission-interrupted areas of Yunnan Province in 2011 and 2013, pointed out the risk of schistosomiasis rebounding in mountainous and hilly areas and proposed some suggestions.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815887

ABSTRACT

China is one of the schistosomiasis-endemic countries with the highest burden of disease across the world. Following the control efforts for over 60 years, great successes have been achieved in schistosomiasis control in the country, and the control program is moving towards transmission interruption and elimination. To commemorate the 60th anniversary of publishing Chairman Mao Zedong’s two poems entitled “Farewell to the God of Plague”, a series of activities that disseminate schistosomiasis control achievements have been conducted in China throughout 2018, including the development of Chinese spirit on schistosomiasis control in the new era. After extensive discussion, collection and screening, and “Integration of all efforts, scientific control, willingness to dedication and swearing to wipe out the 'God of Plague' “ was proposed as Chinese spirit on schistosomiasis control in the new era. Integration of all efforts is a summary of administrative policy-making and population participation in Chinese schistosomiasis control programs; scientific control is the refinement of the Chinese national schistosmiasis control strategy that is developed and implemented tailoring to time and circumstances; willingness to dedication is a valuable spiritual wealth and inexhaustible source of power for Chinese schistosomiasis control professionals in the new era; and swearing to wipe out the “God of Plague” is a sacred mission assigned to Chinese professionals participating in the national schistosomiasis control program in the new era. Chinese spirit on schistosomiasis control in the new era will further strengthen our belief in achieving the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China eventually.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818858

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is an old and geographically widespread parasitic disease that severely damages human health and affects socioeconomic development in China. The implementation of the integrated strategy with emphasis on controlling the source of Schistosoma japonicum infection and the National Mid- and Long-Term Plan for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control (2004–2015) in China greatly facilitated the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Since transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in 2015, the goal of the national schistosomiasis control program has moved to transmission interruption and elimination in China. Because of the impacts of natural and social factors, and the new situation, new task and new demands following the continuous decline in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis, several challenges exist to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination nationwide. This paper analyzed the current endemic status of schistosomiasis, progress and challenges of schistosomiasis elimination, and proposed some suggestions for the national chistosomiasis elimination program in China.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818857

ABSTRACT

The Three-year Tough Action Plan for Endemic Diseases Control (2018–2020), which was formulated by 10 ministries of China, was issued on November 29, 2018. Schistosomiasis control is an important part of this plan, and the implementation of the plan provides an important basis for the health poverty alleviation and the fight against schistosomiasis in China. This paper describes the objective and principle of the plan and proposes "six actions" and supporting measures to implement the three-year tough action targeting schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the scientific implementation of the three-year tough action against schistosomiasis and facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in China.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818835

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the professional theory, prevention and control practice, experimental diagnosis and other technical skills of parasitic diseases among technicians of all levels of disease control and prevention institutions, so as to provide the evidence for strengthening the capacity building of Chinese professional personnel. Methods According to the method of recommendation at all levels, the subjects from disease control and prevention institutions at province, prefecture or county levels were chosen to assess the theory of parasitic diseases and test operation skills by using the method of answering the questions together with on-site operations in China. A database was built consisting of subjects’ basic information and assessment scores. By using the method of hierarchical classification, the scores by gender, age, professional title, institutions and places of participants were analyzed. Results A total of 124 professions in prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases in 31 provinces (cities and regions) were evaluated in China. The average total score of all the subjects was 125.0 ± 35.2, with a passing rate of 54.8%. The average scores of male subjects and female subjects were 120.8 ± 34.2 and 126.6 ± 35.4 respectively; the average scores of the subjects aged under 30 years, between 30 and 40 years, and above 40 years were 125.6 ± 33.6, 124.9 ± 35.8, and 119.3 ± 45.9 respectively; the average scores of persons with junior, intermediate and senior professional titles were 119.8 ± 35.8, 136.0 ± 32.5 and 127.1 ± 40.9 respectively. The average theoretical assessment score of all the subjects was 67.4 ± 15.6, with a passing rate of 68.5%. The average practical skill assessment score of all the subjects was 57.6 ± 21.8, with a passing rate of 46.0%. The average detection rates of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae in endemic and non-endemic areas were 64.1%, 72.8%, 57.0%, 58.3% and 35.9%, 46.9%, 33.3%, 43.8%, respectively. The detection ability of professionals in endemic areas was significantly higher than that in non-endemic areas (χ2 = 767.10, 462.12, 134.97 and 360.80, respectively, all P < 0.01). The total detection rate of schistosome eggs was 48.7%, and the detection rates of schistosome eggs were 67.4% and 36.8% in endemic and non-endemic areas, respectively. The detection ability of professionals in endemic areas was significantly higher than that in non-endemic areas (χ2 = 817.74, P < 0.01). The detection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis were 85.7%, 78.6%, 91.7%, and 61.8%, 23.5% and 74.4% in the technicians in southern region and northern region of China, showing significant differences (χ2 = 622.58, 301.70 and 588.71, respectively, all P < 0.01). Conclusions The overall results of the subjects are good, but the technical operation capability of them is relatively low. Therefore, the specific training based on daily work needs should be enhanced. In addition, we should attach importance to talent cultivation and technical reserve, and strengthen the construction of the team, so as to meet the needs of the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818713

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the professional theory, prevention and control practice, experimental diagnosis and other technical skills of parasitic diseases among technicians of all levels of disease control and prevention institutions, so as to provide the evidence for strengthening the capacity building of Chinese professional personnel. Methods According to the method of recommendation at all levels, the subjects from disease control and prevention institutions at province, prefecture or county levels were chosen to assess the theory of parasitic diseases and test operation skills by using the method of answering the questions together with on-site operations in China. A database was built consisting of subjects’ basic information and assessment scores. By using the method of hierarchical classification, the scores by gender, age, professional title, institutions and places of participants were analyzed. Results A total of 124 professions in prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases in 31 provinces (cities and regions) were evaluated in China. The average total score of all the subjects was 125.0 ± 35.2, with a passing rate of 54.8%. The average scores of male subjects and female subjects were 120.8 ± 34.2 and 126.6 ± 35.4 respectively; the average scores of the subjects aged under 30 years, between 30 and 40 years, and above 40 years were 125.6 ± 33.6, 124.9 ± 35.8, and 119.3 ± 45.9 respectively; the average scores of persons with junior, intermediate and senior professional titles were 119.8 ± 35.8, 136.0 ± 32.5 and 127.1 ± 40.9 respectively. The average theoretical assessment score of all the subjects was 67.4 ± 15.6, with a passing rate of 68.5%. The average practical skill assessment score of all the subjects was 57.6 ± 21.8, with a passing rate of 46.0%. The average detection rates of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae in endemic and non-endemic areas were 64.1%, 72.8%, 57.0%, 58.3% and 35.9%, 46.9%, 33.3%, 43.8%, respectively. The detection ability of professionals in endemic areas was significantly higher than that in non-endemic areas (χ2 = 767.10, 462.12, 134.97 and 360.80, respectively, all P < 0.01). The total detection rate of schistosome eggs was 48.7%, and the detection rates of schistosome eggs were 67.4% and 36.8% in endemic and non-endemic areas, respectively. The detection ability of professionals in endemic areas was significantly higher than that in non-endemic areas (χ2 = 817.74, P < 0.01). The detection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis were 85.7%, 78.6%, 91.7%, and 61.8%, 23.5% and 74.4% in the technicians in southern region and northern region of China, showing significant differences (χ2 = 622.58, 301.70 and 588.71, respectively, all P < 0.01). Conclusions The overall results of the subjects are good, but the technical operation capability of them is relatively low. Therefore, the specific training based on daily work needs should be enhanced. In addition, we should attach importance to talent cultivation and technical reserve, and strengthen the construction of the team, so as to meet the needs of the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815917

ABSTRACT

To assess the risk of imported leishmaniasis in China, offering scientific evidences for leishmaniasis prevention and control.The expert consultation method was used to establish a risk index system, and the risk matrix was used to evaluate the risk scales of leishmaniasis.This risk assessment indicator system included 3 first-grade indexes and 13 second-grade indexes to the aspect of risk probability. Five indexes were also included on the aspect of the risk hazard severity in this system. The transmission risk matrix assessment showed that the risk of imported leishmaniasis transmission in China was in low risk level.This risk matrix assessment is applied for the transmission of imported leishmaniasis in China in the first time, indicating the potential risk of imported leishmaniasis in China.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704277

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of death cases of echinococcosis in China from 2008 to 2016,so as to provide an important reference for the prevention and control of echinococcosis.Methods The death in-formation registration and management system data were selected to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the death cas-es of echinococcosis.The data were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 and the map was drawn by ArcGIS 10.1 software.Results From 2008 to 2016,a total of 367 death cases of echinococcosis were reported in China,and the number of deaths in turn was 33,30,21,32,35,54,55,and 81 in each year,with an annual average crude mortality of 129.29/105.The average age of death was(56 ± 18)years;the sex ratio of male to female was 100:94.There was no statistical difference between the male and fe-male death cases(Χ2=0.33,P>0.05).The death cases of echinococcosis were mainly distributed in endemic areas of Qinghai,Sichuan,Ningxia,Xinjiang,Gansu,Inner Mongolia,Yunnan and non-endemic areas of Heilongjiang,Jiangsu,Henan and Shandong.The death cases in the first eleven provinces accounted for 87.5%(321/367)of the total death cases,among which the highest proportions of the nationality,occupation,educational level,highest diagnostic units,and the place of death were Han(52.0%,191/367),farmer(46.6%,171/367),junior high school or below(57.2%,210/367),provincial or three-level hospitals(46.6%,171/367),and at home(59.9%,220/367).Conclusions Since 2014,the death cases of echinococcosis in China have been increasing year by year,indicating that the prevention and treatment of echinococcosis is still very serious.The causes for the rise of the fatality rate remain to be further studied.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704251

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the unhealthy related behaviors of echinococcosis patients in Tibetan region in Sich-uan Province,so as to provide the references for the health education of echinococcosis.Methods The echinococcosis patients who were registered in the Tibetan region in Sichuan Province were selected as target population. The basic situation and un-healthy related behaviors of them were surveyed by individual interviews.Results Totally 368 echinococcosis patients were in-vestigated.The proportion of patients who lived with dogs was 53.3%,who did not wash hands before meals was 23.4%,who ate raw food was 15.5%,who fed dogs with diseased livestock visceral organs was 9.8%,who drank unboiled water was 8.7%,and who played with dogs was 5.4%.The proportion of nomads'unhygienic behaviors was higher than that of sedentary residents'un-hygienic behaviors.The proportion of playing with dogs and feeding dogs with diseased livestock visceral organsin students was higher than that in nomads.Conclusion There are some unhealthy related behaviors in echinococcosis patients in Garzê Prefec-ture,and the different health education modes for echinococcosis patients with different characteristics should be applied.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704241

ABSTRACT

Health education and health promotion are important measures for comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China,which can improve the compliance rate of residents involved in schistosomiasis control activities,reduce the water con-tact behavior of the target population,thus avoiding or decreasing the infection of schistosome in endemic areas.In recent years, the comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China has achieved remarkable results.China has reached the goal of transmis-sion control and is moving toward the transmission interruption or even elimination of schistosomiasis.This article analyzes the role of health education and health promotion in schistosomiasis control programme and the current challenges.Meanwhile,sug-gestions are also put forward on how to conduct health education and health promotionin the stage of schistosomiasis elimination.

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