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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829575

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Elaphurus davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas and evaluate the impact of the project of “E. davidianus released to wild environments for natural reproduction and growth” “(E. davidianus return home project”) on the transmission of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake areas. Methods During the period from April 2018 to December 2019, the population distribution, inhabiting activity and natural reproduction of E. davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas were investigated by means of GPS and artificial observations. The S. japonicum infection was identified in animal feces in E. davidianus inhabitats using a hatching test, and snail distribution was surveyed in E. davidianus inhabiting grass islands using a systematic sampling method. Results A total of 51 E. davidianus were released to the Poyang Lake areas in 2018, which subsequently produced 5 E. davidianus habitats in Yinlong Lake, Longkou, Nanchi Lake, Lianzi Lake and Zhu Lake. E. davidianus was found to predominantly inhibit in grass islands, farmlands and forest lands in hilly regions around the Poyang Lake areas. The natural reproduction rate of E. davidianus was 25% in the habitats in 2019, and the mean density of snails was 0.009 to 0.039 snails/0.1 m2 in E. davidianus inhabitats; however, no S. japonicum infection was identified in snails. In addition, the mean densities of wild E. davidianus and bovine feces were 4.6 samples/hm2 and 2.1 samples/hm2, Conclusions The E. davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas may get infections with S. japonicum, and cause schistosomiasis transmission through fecal contamination in grass islands. The impact on and the prevalence of S. japonicum infection was 4.35% and 13.16% (P = 0.236), respectively; however, the intensities of S. japonicum infections were “+++” and “+”, respectively. Conclusions The E. davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas may get infections with S. japonicum, and cause schistosomiasis transmission through fecal contamination in grass islands. The impact on local schistosomiasis transmission and the response strategy requires to be investigated following the release of E. davidianus to lake regions, to ensure the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination and the successful implementation of the “E. davidianus return home project” in Poyang Lake areas.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819004

ABSTRACT

Acute schistosomiasis is a clinical type of schistosomiasis with severe symptoms. The number of acute schistosomiasis cases is not only a sensitive indicator to assess the endemic situation and control effects, but also an important indicator to define schistosomiasis outbreaks and evaluate the achievements of infection control or transmission control. Acute schistosomiasis control is therefore of great significance to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China. This paper analyzes the features and causes of acute schistosomiasis, and proposes some suggestions for future acute schistosomiasis control in China.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818972

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the situation of Schistosoma japonicum infections in wild animals in transmission-controlled schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Jiangxi Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for implementing precision control interventions and achieving the goal of transmission interruption and elimination of schistosomiasis. Methods Five endemic villages from Ruichang City and Pengze County that were heavily endemic for schistosomiasis in Jiangxi Province, were selected as the study villages. Wild animals like wild mice were captured, and the livers of wild animals were purchased from the snail habitats in the study villages for detection of S. japonicum infections. In the study villages, S. japonicum human infections were screened using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) followed by parasitological examinations with miracidial hatching test and Kato-Katz method, and the S. japonicum infection in livestock was tested using a miracidial hatching test with a plastic tube. In addition, snail survey was conducted in the study villages by means of systematic sampling combined with environmental sampling, and the S. japonicum infection in snails was detected using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Results A total of 240 liver specimens were sampled or purchased from 5 species of wild animals in the study villages, including wild mice, weasels, pigs, deer and rabbits. A total of 172 wild mice were captured, with a 2.91% rate of S. japonicum infection, and there was no S. japonicum infection detected in other wild animals. The prevalence of Capillaria hepatica infection was 12.21%, 1.96% and 12.50% in wild mice, deer and pigs, respectively. In addition, there was no S. japonicum infection found in either humans or livestock in the study villages, and the mean snail density varied from 0.13 to 0.80 snails/0.1 m2 in the study villages. LAMP assay detected S. japonicum infection in 2 tubes in a study village. Conclusions The role of wild animals in schistosomiasis transmission and their potential risks can not be neglected in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Jiangsu Province after transmission control. Intensified surveillance and targeted control measures should be implemented to consolidate schistosomiasis control achievements.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818737

ABSTRACT

Jiangxi Province was once one of schistosomiasis heavy endemic provinces in China. Thanks for more than 60 years’ unremitting effort, great achievements have been obtained in schistosomiasis control in this province. This paper reviews the control history of schistosomiasis, and demonstrates the current epidemic situation of the disease in Jiangxi Province, and its contribution to national schistosomiasis control achievements. The difficulties and challenges of schistosomiasis elimination in this province are analyzed and the countermeasures are also put forward accordingly.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818584

ABSTRACT

Acute schistosomiasis is a clinical type of schistosomiasis with severe symptoms. The number of acute schistosomiasis cases is not only a sensitive indicator to assess the endemic situation and control effects, but also an important indicator to define schistosomiasis outbreaks and evaluate the achievements of infection control or transmission control. Acute schistosomiasis control is therefore of great significance to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China. This paper analyzes the features and causes of acute schistosomiasis, and proposes some suggestions for future acute schistosomiasis control in China.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818520

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the situation of Schistosoma japonicum infections in wild animals in transmission-controlled schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Jiangxi Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for implementing precision control interventions and achieving the goal of transmission interruption and elimination of schistosomiasis. Methods Five endemic villages from Ruichang City and Pengze County that were heavily endemic for schistosomiasis in Jiangxi Province, were selected as the study villages. Wild animals like wild mice were captured, and the livers of wild animals were purchased from the snail habitats in the study villages for detection of S. japonicum infections. In the study villages, S. japonicum human infections were screened using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) followed by parasitological examinations with miracidial hatching test and Kato-Katz method, and the S. japonicum infection in livestock was tested using a miracidial hatching test with a plastic tube. In addition, snail survey was conducted in the study villages by means of systematic sampling combined with environmental sampling, and the S. japonicum infection in snails was detected using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Results A total of 240 liver specimens were sampled or purchased from 5 species of wild animals in the study villages, including wild mice, weasels, pigs, deer and rabbits. A total of 172 wild mice were captured, with a 2.91% rate of S. japonicum infection, and there was no S. japonicum infection detected in other wild animals. The prevalence of Capillaria hepatica infection was 12.21%, 1.96% and 12.50% in wild mice, deer and pigs, respectively. In addition, there was no S. japonicum infection found in either humans or livestock in the study villages, and the mean snail density varied from 0.13 to 0.80 snails/0.1 m2 in the study villages. LAMP assay detected S. japonicum infection in 2 tubes in a study village. Conclusions The role of wild animals in schistosomiasis transmission and their potential risks can not be neglected in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Jiangsu Province after transmission control. Intensified surveillance and targeted control measures should be implemented to consolidate schistosomiasis control achievements.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818859

ABSTRACT

Jiangxi Province was once one of schistosomiasis heavy endemic provinces in China. Thanks for more than 60 years’ unremitting effort, great achievements have been obtained in schistosomiasis control in this province. This paper reviews the control history of schistosomiasis, and demonstrates the current epidemic situation of the disease in Jiangxi Province, and its contribution to national schistosomiasis control achievements. The difficulties and challenges of schistosomiasis elimination in this province are analyzed and the countermeasures are also put forward accordingly.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818829

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is one of the major infectious diseases that seriously endanger the health of people, and social and economic development. Before the year of 1949, Yujiang County of Jiangxi Province was one of hyper-endemic regions for schistosomiasis. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, under the leadership and high attention of the Chinese Communist Party and the government, after the arduous struggle with schistosomiasis, Yujiang County became the first county that reached the standard of eradication of schistosomiasis in 1958. Moreover, Chairman Mao Zedong gladly wrote the famous poem of "Farewell to the God of Plague". Since then, the work of schistosomiasis control has been greatly inspired by the poem. In 2016, Yujiang County became the first county of schistosomiasis elimination in Jiangxi Province. In this paper, the experience and process of eradication and elimination of schistosomiasis in Yujiang County are systematically reviewed and summarized by analyzing the endemic situation of schistosomiasis before and after the eradication and elimination in Yujiang County, to expound the significance and enlightenment of the schistosomiasis control in Yujiang County. This paper commemorates the 60th anniversary of the publication of Mao Zedong’s poem.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818707

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is one of the major infectious diseases that seriously endanger the health of people, and social and economic development. Before the year of 1949, Yujiang County of Jiangxi Province was one of hyper-endemic regions for schistosomiasis. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, under the leadership and high attention of the Chinese Communist Party and the government, after the arduous struggle with schistosomiasis, Yujiang County became the first county that reached the standard of eradication of schistosomiasis in 1958. Moreover, Chairman Mao Zedong gladly wrote the famous poem of "Farewell to the God of Plague". Since then, the work of schistosomiasis control has been greatly inspired by the poem. In 2016, Yujiang County became the first county of schistosomiasis elimination in Jiangxi Province. In this paper, the experience and process of eradication and elimination of schistosomiasis in Yujiang County are systematically reviewed and summarized by analyzing the endemic situation of schistosomiasis before and after the eradication and elimination in Yujiang County, to expound the significance and enlightenment of the schistosomiasis control in Yujiang County. This paper commemorates the 60th anniversary of the publication of Mao Zedong’s poem.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815911

ABSTRACT

To grasp the status of Oncomelania hupensis snail-infested environments in schistosomiasis endemic areas of Jiangxi Province, and establish the spatial database of snail-infested environments with the administrative village as the unit.The spatial and temporal distributions of the historical snail environments, existing snail environments, and suspicious snail-infested environments were analyzed by the historical data review and field investigations.The distribution of snail-infested environments in Jiangxi Province included two popular types of lakeshore and hills. The O. hupensis snail-infested environments were mainly concentrated in the Poyang Lake area, which accounting for 66.97% of the total snail-infested areas. The potential snail-infested environment area was 204 745.48 hm2, among which the potential snail-infested environment areas in the lakeshore and hills were 146 548.58 hm2 and 58 196.90 hm2, accounting for 71.58% and 28.42%, respectively. The real existing snail area was 83 234.50 hm2, among which the real existing snail areas in the lakeshore and hills were 80 890.81 hm2 and 2 343.69 hm2, accounting for 97.18% and 2.82%, respectively. The compressed snail area was 114 253.30 hm2 with a compression rate of 57.85%, of which the compression rates in the lakeshore and hills were 46.51% and 94.97%, respectively. In the four types of snail-infested environments, the areas of Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV accounted for 55.77%, 25.75%, 13.91% and 4.57% of the total area, respectively.The spatial database of O. hupensis snail-infested environments is established comprehensively and systematically, that will be conducive to tracking and performing the dynamic updates of the data of snails, so as to provide an important technical support for investigation and monitoring in the future.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-666886

ABSTRACT

Objective To grasp the distribution status of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Poyang Lake area,so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting the schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy in lake areas. Methods The vec-tor grid was created and sampled randomly by 200 m × 200 m in the spatial database of grassland,and the distribution of snails was investigated in the selected grid by using the method of mechanical sampling by 50 m × 50 m. At the same time,the eleva-tion of investigation points was extracted based on the topographic map of Poyang Lake. Results Totally 949 and 210 investiga-tion points were collected from the south and north of Poyang Lake areas,accounting for 3.04%and 3.21%of all the investiga-tion points in the respective region. The number of investigation points,the appearance rate of snail frame,and the average den-sity of alive snails were 15231,8.15%,and 0.463/0.1 m2,respectively. The elevation of snail distribution area of the south and north Poyang Lake areas were 11-16 m and 9-16 m respectively. The elevation of concentrated snail belts of the south Poyang Lake area were 12-13 m and 15-16 m,and the elevation of concentrated snail belts of the north Poyang Lake area was 12-14 m. Conclusions The distribution of snails is in the range of 9-16 m. The suitable habitats of snail breeding are moving from the south Poyang Lake area to the north Poyang Lake area,and from high elevation to low elevation. In the future,the schistosomia-sis prevention and control measures could be formulated based on the geographical characteristics of current snail distribution in order to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-665524

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the role of new strategy in the transmission control of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake re-gion. Methods The information and epidemic data of schistosomiasis control were collected and analyzed in Poyang Lake re-gion from 2005 to 2016. Results After eleven years of carrying out the new strategy,thirteen counties achieved the objective of transmission control in Poyang Lake region. In 2016,the number of schistosomiasis cases and human infection rate were 10301 and 0.03%,decreased by 89.64%and 99.45%compared with those in 2005,respectively. The number of cattle and schistosome-infected cattle were 68152 and 5,decreased by 50.84%and 99.83%compared with those in 2005,respectively. The average density of Oncomelania hupensis snails was decreased by 61.52%. No schistosome-infected snails were found since 2014. Con-clusion The new strategy accurately locates the key points and targets of schistosomiasis transmission chain ,which has con-trolled the human and animal's fecal eggs from polluting grassland,and cut off the transmission chain,reduced both the infec-tion rates of human and animal and the re-infection risk,and promoted to achieve the target of schistosomiasis transmission con-trol in Poyang Lake region.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-635657

ABSTRACT

Background Peripheral refraction of retina brings about influence on myopia development,and different corrective methods will play different roles on the peripheral refraction.Objective This study was to measure the peripheral refraction with progressive addition lenses (PALs) and single-vision spectacle lenses (SVLs) corrected in adolescent myopic eyes and to investigate the difference between them.Methods This was a selfcontrolled cross-sectional study.Forty corrected myopic eyes with PALs were recruited for the study.Twenty-three male and seventeen female subjects aged 10-15 years (mean 12.54 years±1.45 years) enrolled in this study.The refractive errors of the subjects ranged form-1.50 D to-6.00 D (mean-3.74 D±1.09 D) and the astigmatism was less than-1.50 D with the corrected visual acuity at least 20/25.1% Tropicamide eye drops was topically administered for the cycloplegia and then Grand Seiko WAM-5500 Auto-refractor was used to measure the peripheral refraction.The measured points were determined follows as:fovea (0°),peripheral temporal (T30°,T20°,T10°) and nasal (N30°,N20°,N10°) visual fields from the right eyes.The mean of the six measuring points for each position was calculated.Peripheral refraction was measured from each subject under the wearing of PALs or SVLs (randomly in succession),and the statistic analyse perimeters included M value,relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE),J45,J180.Written informed consent was obtained from each subject before examination.Results The corrected visual acuity was 4.98 ± 0.65 and 4.97 ± 0.53 under the PALs and SVLs conditions respectively,showing in significant difference between them (t =0.222,P =0.639).Hypermetropic shift in peripheral M value and RPRE value were found with the increase of visual angle field,in contrast,the peripheral J180 showed a myopic shift,and significant difference was found among the six peripheral points with all of the above three perimeters (P<0.05).Negative J45 values in the temporal visual filed and positive J45 values in the nasal filed showed less shift.Some peripheral angles of the peripheral refractions in M value,RPRE value,J180,J45 showed significantly difference from the fovea refraction(P<0.05).Compared with SVLs correction,PALs induced relatively myopic shifts in M value and RPRE value in all of the peripheral angle fields,showing significant differences(P<0.05).Conclusions PALs causes relatively myopic shift at the peripheral retina in adolescent myopic eyes in comparison with SVLs,and the important parameters are M value and RPRE value.The effect of PALs on controlling the onset and progression of myopia may be interpreted by peripheral refraction.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282281

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To discuss the land surface temperature's effect on supervising the areas with snails, comparing the land surface temperature (LST) of the areas with snails with the LST of those without snails.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Choosing the lake areas of farmland in Jiangxi Province and the beach in the bank of Ganjiang, dividing into four areas according to snails. Picking up the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST from the remote sensing data to find the difference between the areas with snails and the areas without snails, so as to illuminate the effects of the LST on distinguishing the areas with snails.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The NDVI of Dongfeng Wei (an area from farmland to lake) was 0 - 0.20, the NDVI of the areas with snails was 0.20 - 0.40. The NDVI of four areas is different (chi(2) = 104.69, P < 0.01). The LST of Dongfeng wei was 24 - 30 degrees C, Wuzhoutou without snails is 23 - 28 degrees C, Wuzhoutou with snails is 22 - 26 degrees C, Changjiangzhou was 20 - 24 degrees C. The LST of four areas is different (chi(2) = 115.23, P < 0.01). The analysis farther indicates the NDVI of areas without snails was lower than that of areas with snails, but the LST was higher.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The NDVI and (or) the LST should be significantly different between the areas with snails and the areas without, it might be concluded that the LST should be a indication to some extent on judging whether some areas may be fit for snails.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Environmental Monitoring , Geographic Information Systems , Snails , Physiology , Spacecraft , Temperature
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 253-256, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348856

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a minimum medical geographic information systems (GIS) database as a spatial decision supporting system (SDSS), and to use the database into public health practice in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Spatial data collected from different sources were standardized as decimal degree format, including: (1) satellite images covering areas of China; (2) digital maps of China in vector files; (3) diseases database and relevant models.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Necessary satellite images for the database have been collected from NOAA AVHRR, Landsat TM, etc., including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images from AVHRR, earth surface temperature images from AVHRR, GTOPO30 DEM images from USGS and landuse images from USGS. The digital vector files for GIS analysis were collected including political (county, provinces, country) boundaries file, environmental (drainage, land cover, soil type) vector file, population data and climate data; Data on diseases mainly generated from survey or case reporting. Relevant models on transmission of Schistosoma japonicum and Plasmodium vivax, and models of Oncomelania hupensis and Anophores sinansis were developed, and the relevant environmental factors related to incidence of cancers were mapped, to test and verify those database.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The database unified the data from different sources for users. Minimum medical data included in the database could be used in the practice of public health. It is expected that this database be used in a wider range.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Parasitology , China , Epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Disease Reservoirs , Disease Vectors , Ecology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Malaria , Epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax , Satellite Communications , Schistosomiasis japonica , Epidemiology , Snails , Parasitology
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