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Braz. dent. j ; 33(3): 47-54, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384034


Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and biological properties of an experimental tricalcium silicate-based repair cement containing diclofenac sodium (CERD). For the physicochemical test, MTA, Biodentine and CERD were mixed and cement disc were prepared to evaluate the setting time and radiopacity. Root-end cavity were performed in acrylic teeth and filled with cements to analyze the solubility up to 7 days. Polyethylene tubes containing cements were prepared and calcium ions and pH were measured at 3h, 24h, 72h and 15 days. For the biological test, SAOS-2 were cultivated, exposed to cements extracts and cell proliferation were investigated by MTT assay at 6h, 24h and 48h. Polyethylene tubes containing cements were implanted into Wistar rats. After 7 and 30 days, the tubes were removed and processed for histological analyses. Parametric and nonparametric data were performed. No difference was identified in relation to setting time, radiopacity and solubility. Biodentine released more calcium ion than MTA and CERD; however, no difference between MTA and CERD were detected. Alkaline pH was observed for all cements and Biodentine exhibited highest pH. All cements promoted a raise on cell proliferation at 24h and 48h, except CERD at 48h. Biodentine stimulated cell metabolism in relation to MTA and CERD while CERD was more cytotoxic than MTA at 48h. Besides, no difference on both inflammatory response and mineralization ability for all cement were found. CERD demonstrated similar proprieties to others endodontic cements available.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as propriedades físico-químicas e biológicas de um cimento reparador experimental à base de silicato de tricálcio contendo diclofenaco de sódio (CERD). Para o teste físico-químico, MTA, Biodentine e CERD foram manipulados e discos de cimentos foram preparados para avaliar o tempo de presa e a radiopacidade. Retrocavidades foram feitas em dentes de acrílico e preenchidas com cimentos para análise de solubilidade por 7 dias. Tubos de polietileno contendo cimentos foram preparados e os íons cálcio e o pH foram mensurados às 3h, 24h, 72h e 15 dias. Para o teste biológico, SAOS-2 foram cultivadas, expostas aos extratos de cimentos e a proliferação celular foi investigada pelo ensaio de MTT às 6h, 24h e 48h. Tubos de polietileno contendo cimentos foram implantados em ratos Wistar. Após 7 e 30 dias, os tubos foram removidos e processados para análises histológicas. Dados paramétricos e não paramétricos foram realizados. Nenhuma diferença foi identificada em relação ao tempo de presa, radiopacidade e solubilidade. Biodentine liberou mais íons de cálcio do que MTA e CERD; no entanto, nenhuma diferença entre MTA e CERD foi detectada. O pH alcalino foi observado para todos os cimentos e o Biodentine exibiu o pH mais alto. Todos os cimentos promoveram aumento na proliferação celular às 24h e 48h, exceto o CERD às 48h. Biodentine estimulou o metabolismo celular em relação ao MTA e CERD, enquanto CERD foi mais citotóxico do que MTA em 48h. Além disso, nenhuma diferença foi encontrada na resposta inflamatória e na capacidade de mineralização para todos os cimentos. CERD demonstrou propriedades semelhantes a outros cimentos endodônticos disponíveis.

J. res. dent ; 10(2): 1-6, mar.-apr2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395871


Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue and torsional fatigue resistance of three thermally treated rotary instruments, such as: Logic 2 25.05 (LOG 25.05), Edge Taper Platinum 25.06 (EDT 25.06) and ProTaper Gold 25.08 (PTG 25.08).Methods: A total of 60 rotary instruments of LOG 25.05, EDT 25.06 and PTG 25.08 were used (n=20). Cyclic fatigue tests were performed at 36°C using an artificial stainless steel canal with a 60ºangle and a 5-mm radius of curvature. The time (in seconds) and number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was recorded. The torsional test evaluated the torque and angle of rotation to failure at 3 mm from the tip according to ISO 3630-1. The fractured surface of each fragment was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak's tests for multiple comparison, the level of significance was set at 5%.Results: EDT 25.06 had highest cyclic fatigue resistance (time and NFC), followed by LOG 25.05 and PTG 25.08 (P<0.05). There were no significantly difference between LOG 25.05 and ETP 25.06 regarding the NCF (P>0.05). In relation the torsional test, the LOG 25.05 and ETP 25.06 presented similar torque (P>0.05). The PTG presented greater torque than the other groups (P<0.05). The PTG 25.08 presented the lowest angular rotation to fracture than the other groups (P<0.05). The SEM images demonstrated typical features of cyclic and torsional fracture.Conclusion: In conclusion, the LOG 25.05 and ETP 25.06 presented similar cyclic and torsional properties. The PTG 25.08 showed greater torsional strength.

J. res. dent ; 10(1): 14-19, jan.-feb2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378183


Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the dentinal tubule penetration of an endodontic bioceramic sealer, Sealer Plus BC, after three final irrigation protocols. Methods: Thirty distobuccal roots of maxillary molars were selected. Root canal preparation was performed up to an #40.06 instrument (X1 Blue) under 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n=10), according to the final irrigation protocol: G-NaOCl (2.5% sodium hypochlorite + PUI), G-SS (0.9% saline solution + PUI) and G-H20 (Deionized water + PUI). After final irrigation protocols, all specimens were irrigated with phosphate buffer solution. Root canal obturation was performed using the single cone technique and Sealer Plus BC, stained with a specific fluorophore. Specimens were transversely sectioned and each root third was evaluated in a confocal scanning laser microscopy. Images obtained were analyzed for sealer penetration in the dentinal tubules. Results: Dentinal tubule penetration of Sealer Plus BC was not observed in any root third, regardless of the final irrigation protocol investigated. Conclusions: Sealer Plus BC dentinal tubule penetration was not observed after none of the protocols tested. Dentinal tubule penetrability of Sealer Plus BC may be related to other factors rather than the final irrigation protocol.

Humans , Male , Female , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Endodontics
J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20220108, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386007


Abstract Filling materials should be restricted to the root canal space. However, sometimes it is impossible to control the apical extrusion, in this case, the fate of the filling material and the result of the treatment will depend on its physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. Objective To evaluate the tissue response and bone repair capacity of endodontic sealers that were implanted in the calvaria of Wistar rats, forming the groups (n=16): AH Plus and Sealer Plus, compared to the clot group. Methodology On days 30 and 60, the animals were euthanized, the calvaria was removed and processed for hematoxylin-eosin, immunohistochemistry for collagen type I, Picrosirus red and microtomographic analysis. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tuckey tests (p<0.05). Results At 30 days, all groups showed an intense inflammatory reaction (p>0.05). At 60 days, the AH Plus and Sealer Plus maintained an intense inflammatory infiltrate compared to the clot group (p<0.05). We observed immunopositive areas for type I collagen in all groups at 30 days and 60 days (p>0.05). We observed more red collagen fibers for the Sealer Plus compared to the clot group at 30 days (p<0.05). Considering the total fibers, the clot group at 30 days compared to 60 days after surgery showed an increase in the amount of matrix (p<0.05). There were no statistical differences between groups for green and yellow fibers (p>0.05). Regarding morphometric parameters, at 30 days, the newly formed bone volume and number of bone trabeculae were higher in the groups with sealers compared to the clot group (p<0.05). At 60 days, AH Plus and Sealer Plus showed greater bone neoformation compared to the clot group (p<0.05). Conclusions Despite AH Plus and Sealer Plus induced an intense inflammatory reaction, they can be considered biocompatible materials, since they allowed bone repair.

J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210056, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360567


The association of scaffolds to repair extensive bone defects can contribute to their evolution and morphophysiological recomposition. The incorporation of particulate biomaterials into three-dimensional fibrin bioproducts together with photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) has potential and can improve regenerative medicine procedures. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of PBM therapy on critical size defects filled with xenogenic bone substitute associated with fibrin biopolymer. Methods: A critical defect of 8 mm was performed in 36 Wistar male adult rats that were divided into four groups. Groups BC and BC-PBM were defined as controls with defects filled by a clot (without or with PBM, respectively) and groups XS and XS-PBM that comprised those filled with biocomplex Bio-OssTM in association with fibrin biopolymer. PBM was applied immediately after the surgery and three times a week every other day, with the parameters: wavelength of 830 nm, energy density 6.2 J/cm2, output power 30 mW, beam area of 0.116 cm2, irradiance 0.258,62 W/cm2, energy/point 0.72 J, total energy 2.88 J. Fourteen and 42 days after the surgery, animals were euthanatized and subjected to microtomography, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Results: The BC-PBM and XS-PBM groups had a similar evolution in the tissue repair process, with a higher density of the volume of new formed bone in relation to the groups without PBM (p = 0.04086; p = 0.07093, respectively). Intense vascular proliferation and bone deposition around the biomaterial particles were observed in the animals of the groups in which biocomplex was applied (XS and XS-PBM). Conclusion: PBM therapy allowed an improvement in the formation of new bone, with a more organized deposition of collagen fibers in the defect area. Biocomplex favored the insertion and permanence of the particulate material in bone defects, creating a favorable microenvironment for accelerate repair process.(AU)

Biocompatible Materials , Biopolymers , Collagen , Low-Level Light Therapy
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e068, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1374736


Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the penetration of endodontic cement following the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) dressing using the XP-endo Finisher in association with different irrigating solutions. Sixty premolars were instrumented and applied with a Ca(OH)2 dressing. To remove Ca(OH)2, the teeth were divided into six groups, each with a different volume of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), as well as solution stirring time with XP-endo Finisher (0, 30, and 60 sec). Root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. Fluorescein dye was added to the cement for microscopic laser scanning analysis. In the generated images, linear measurements were taken in micrometers, and their averages were calculated. To analyze the perimeter penetration ratio of the cement, the total perimeter of the canal and the segment of the total perimeter of the canal where the endodontic cement penetrated into the dentinal tubules were measured in micrometers. We found that using an XP-endo Finisher in irrigation was more effective than using a needle and syringe during the extension and penetration of endodontic cement. Shaking with XP-endo Finisher with 17% EDTA increased the extent and perimeter of the penetration of the endodontic cement into the dentinal tubules. However, using the XP-endo Finisher with EDTA only was more efficient than using the instrument interchangeably in NaOCl and EDTA. Although XP-endo Finisher contributes to the removal of Ca(OH)2, none of the protocols or instruments used removed all Ca(OH)2 from the root system.

Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e080, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384188


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the root canal real length (RL) changes due to the mechanical instrumentation use with different flaring magnitudes. After access cavity, 60 mesial root canals of mandibular molars were randomly separated in three groups: Hyflex EDM (HF; #25/.12, #10/.05 e #25/~), Reciproc Blue (RB; R25), and MTwo (M2; #10/.04, #15/.05, #20/.06 e #25/.06). The RL was defined as the apical limit, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution was chosen. After the access cavity (RL 1), cervical flaring (RL 2), and complete chemical-mechanical preparation (RL 3), the RL was evaluated. The RL was evaluated by a blind examiner with the aid of a microscope (16x) placing the endodontic file stop at the coronary reference. When comparing length measurements, the RL was shorter before instrumentation than that after instrumentation. A reduction of 0.65 mm (HF), 0.61 mm (RB), and 0.48 mm (M2) was observed. However, among groups, no statistical differences were found (p > 0.05). Under the conditions tested, it can be inferred that all mechanical systems provoked RL variations, which emphasizes the need for constant verification of the odontometry, mainly before root canal obturation.

Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e085, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384205


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of curved root canal preparation, torsional fatigue, and cyclic fatigue of rotary systems manufactured with different NiTi alloys. Ninety single-rooted canals with curvatures of 15° to 30o were scanned and divided into three groups according to the rotary system used: BT-Race (BTR) - 10.06, 35.00, 35.04; SequenceRotaryFile (SRF) - 15.04, 25.06, 35.04; and ProDesignLogic (PDL) - 25.01, 25.06, 35.05. Each system was used on three specimens. The teeth were prepared, scanned, and analyzed to assess increase in volume, transportation, and centering ability of the root canal. Torsional fatigue of glide path instruments (BTR 10.06, SRF 15.04 and PDL 25.01) and cyclic fatigue of the finishing instrument (BTR 35.04, SRF 35.04 and PDL 35.05) were obtained by analyzing completely new instruments (n = 10) and instruments after they had been used three times (n = 10). After the torsional and cyclic fatigue tests, the fractured surface of the new and used instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Increase in volume, canal transportation, and centering ability showed no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The torsional test showed that SRF 15.04 produced the highest torque values for both new and used instruments, followed by PDL 25.01 and BTR 10.06 (p < 0.05). PDL 25.01, both new and used, exhibited higher values of angular deflection followed by SRF 15.04 and BTR 10.06 (p < 0.05). As regards cyclic fatigue, use of PDL 35.05, both new and used, required a longer time and larger number of cycles than did SRF 35.04 and BTR 35.04 (p < 0.05). Clinical use affected the torsional fatigue of BTR; however, cyclic fatigue was not significantly affected (p < 0.05). All rotary systems were able to prepare the curved canals satisfactorily and were used safely on the three specimens. Relative to torsional fatigue, SRF 15.04 exhibited a higher torque, and PDL 25.01, higher angular deflection. BTR 10.06 was the most affected by clinical use. PDL 35.05 showed greater resistance to cyclic fatigue.

J. res. dent ; 9(3): 12-18, sep.-dec2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358579


Background: Infection control is mandatory for revascularization procedures, enabling to eliminate patient's clinical symptoms and signs. Despite presenting a complex morphology when compared to anterior teeth, if a strict disinfection protocol is adopted and the revascularization procedure's biological principles are followed, the therapy can be successful in molar teeth. Methods: This case report aims to present a clinical case of successful revascularization in an immature permanent necrotic second lower molar. Clinical decisions and explanations regarding possible mechanisms related to the treatment's success in a tooth with complex morphology are discussed. Results: Revascularization procedures were performed on a 12-year-old male patient diagnosed with symptomatic periapical periodontitis in a tooth 37. The case highlights the need for infection control and biological principles that surrounds the success of this therapy. Follow-up times presented in this case were six months, 1, 2, 4 and 4.5-years, respectively. Continued root development was observed, and the tooth remains intact and without symptoms. Conclusion: The association of infection control and the biological principles of revascularization procedures allow the maintenance and continuation of tooth development, even when these present complex morphologies.

Dent. press endod ; 11(3): 83-86, Sept-Dec.2021. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379839


Introdução: Muitas substâncias têm sido utilizadas como irrigantes e curativos intracanal nos tratamentos de dentes com rizogênese incompleta, visando obter a regeneração pulpar. A clorexidina a 2% em associação com hidróxido de cálcio P.A. pode ser uma alternativa. Métodos: No presente caso clínico, o dente #45 com periodontite apical, em um paciente com 13 anos de idade, foi tratado com solução de clorexidina a 2% como irrigante. A clorexidina na forma de gel a 2% foi utilizada como auxiliar da instrumentação e, em associação com o hidróxido de cálcio, foi utilizada como curativo durante 14 dias. Após esse período, o canal foi irrigado com solução fisiológica e, sob anestesia alveolar mandibular, uma lima K #70 foi utilizada ultrapassando levemente o ápice, para causar sangramento. Após observar que o sangue dentro dos canais alcançou a porção cervical, o cimento biocerâmico MTA Branco foi colocado na porção cervical do canal. Resultados: A apicificação e o desenvolvimento da raiz em comprimento e largura puderam ser observados já no controle de três meses, e continuaram até a última revisão, no controle de um ano. Alterações de cor não foram observadas nese período de acompanhamento. Conclusões: A clorexidina associada ao hidróxido de cálcio pode ser uma alternativa aos procedimentos de regeneração pulpar (AU).

Introduction: Many substances have been used as irrigating solutions to promote pulp regeneration and root development in teeth with incomplete rhizogenesis. The use of 2% chlorhexidine as an irrigating solution in association with Calcium Hydroxide could be an alternative. Methods: In the case of the patient, a 13-year-old boy, here presented, tooth 45 with apical periodontitis was treated with 2% Chlorhexidine solution as irrigant adjuvant to instrumentation, in association with Calcium Hydroxide used as a dressing for 14 days. After this period, the canal was cleaned with a physiological solution and under mandibular alveolar anesthesia, a # 70 K file was used slightly over the apex to cause bleeding. After observing that blood inside the canals had reached the cervical portion. White MTA was placed in the cervical portion of the canal. Results: Induced apexification and development of increasing root length and width could already be observed in the three-month control exam, and this continued until the last review in the one-year control exam. No color changes were observed in this follow-up period. Conclusions: Chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide could be used as an alternative to pulp regeneration procedures (AU).

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Calcium Hydroxide , Chlorhexidine , Regenerative Endodontics , Research Report
Dent. press endod ; 11(3): 5-5, Sept-Dec.2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378751


Será o exame de tomografia computadorizada realmente de alto custo para o paciente, ou existe uma resistência por grande parte dos profissionais em indicá-lo? Paradigmas já foram quebrados com relação à dose de radiação. Ela é tão pequena que, em muitas universidades nos EUA, o paciente não utiliza avental de chumbo durante o exame. Isso se dá porque o exame usado para Endodontia tem algumas diferenças em relação à tomografia médica (AU).

Is the CT scan really a high cost for the patient, or is there a resistance on the part of most professionals to indicate it? Paradigms have already been broken with regard to the radiation dose. In many universities in the USA, the patient does not wear a lead apron during the exam because the dose is so small. The reason for this is that the exam used for Endodontics has some differences in relation to medical tomography (AU).

Humans , Radiation Dosage , Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Endodontics , Radiation , Lead
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212098, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281101


Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pH, Ca2+ release, solubility, and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes in association with different substances. Methods: Sixty acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with pastes that associated Ca(OH)2 with the following substances: benzalkonium chloride 5% (G1) and 50% (G2) both in propylene glycol, arnica glycolic extract (G3), green tea glycolic extract (G4), Calen/PMCC™ (G5), and Calen™ (G6). In the group G1 to G4 were used 1g of Ca(OH)2 powder with 0,8g of vehicle. pH and Ca2+ release was measured after 7, 15, and 30 days. For solubility, micro-CT was used immediately and at the periods of 7, 15, and 30 days. For the antimicrobial analysis, a biofilm of E. faecalis was induced in vitro on bovine dentin discs. Live/dead viability dye and confocal scanning microscopy were used. Results: The highest pH values occurred on the first 7 days, and the G6, G1, G3, and G5 presented the highest pH values at this period (P <0.05). Ca2+ release was higher in all groups at 7 days, with the highest values observed in G1, G5, and G6. The volume of all pastes showed no significant difference in the intragroup analysis at 7 and 15 days (P <0.05). G1 and G2 showed the highest antimicrobial action (P <0.05). For the biovolume, there was difference between the G6 and the other groups (P >0.05) with G1 presenting the lowest values. Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride 5% increases the antimicrobial action of the Ca(OH2), without impairs physicochemical properties

Root Canal Filling Materials , Calcium Hydroxide , Biofilms , Chemical Phenomena , Anti-Infective Agents
Dent. press endod ; 11(2)maio-ago.2021. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377855


Introdução: A solubilidade é uma propriedade relaciona- da à dissociação dos constituintes do material, pela ação do contato com o líquido circundante. Introdução: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da hidratação durante a varredura com microtomografia (micro-TC) sobre a alteração volumétrica do MTA HP. Métodos: foram utilizados 20 dentes incisivos superiores de acrílico com cavidade retrógrada. O cimento MTA HP foi inserido na cavidade com um condensador Paiva. As amostras foram inspecionadas visualmente com uma lupa de 5x, para garantir que não permanecessem espaços vazios ou lacunas. Os espécimes foram divididos em dois grupos (n=10). Os dentes foram escaneados logo após o manuseio do MTA. Para o grupo com imersão em água, Eppendorf hidratado foi mantido com 1mL de água durante a varredura; no outro grupo, os dentes foram escaneados sem água. Nos dois grupos, os dentes foram imersos em água durante sete dias. Em seguida, os dentes foram escaneados novamente em micro-TC usando os mesmos parâmetros e condições de cada grupo. Foi realizada a reconstrução das imagens pelo software Nrecon e o volume de solubilidade, determinado pelo software CTan, analisando-se a variação volumétrica. Resultados: O grupo de corpos de prova escaneados imersos na água apresentou maior variação volumétrica, com diferenças estatisticamente significativas em relação ao grupo escaneado sem imersão. O escaneamento do corpo de prova imerso em água favorece uma maior perda volumétrica do material. Conclusão: Os estudos para avaliar a variação volumétrica de cimentos de silicato de cálcio devem ser feitos com imersão em água.

Introduction: Solubility is a property related to the dissocia- tion of the constituents of the material by the action of contact with the surrounding liquid, for this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the hydration during the scanning in the microtomography on the volumetric alteration of the MTA HP. Methods: Twenty acrylic teeth upper incisor with retrograde cavity were utilized. The MTA HP cement was inserted into the cavity using a Paiva condensor. The specimens were visually inspected with a 5x magnifying glass to ensure they did not remain void or gaps. The specimens were divided into 2 groups (n=10). The teeth were scanned shortly after handling the MTA. For the group with water immersion, hydrated Eppendorf was kept with 1mL the water during the scanning and the other group, the teeth were scanning without water. In the two groups the teeth were immersed into water during 7 days. Next the teeth were newly scanned in the Micro-CT using the same parameters and conditions of each group. Reconstruction of images by the Nrecon software and the solubility volume determined by the CTan, analyzing the volumetric change. Results: The group of specimens scanned immersed into the water presented higher volumetric change with statistically significant differences in relation the group scanned without immersion. The scanning of the specimen immersed in water favors the greater volumetric loss of the material. Conclusion: Studies to evaluate volumetric change of calcium silicate cements should be made immersed in wate

Pemetrexed , Immersion , Minerals , Solubility , Methods
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 10-20, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345504


Abstract The host defense response to microbial challenge emerging from the root canal system leads to apical periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and Nitric Oxide (NO) by macrophages after interaction with Enterococcus faecalis in the: plankton and dislodged biofilm mode; intact biofilm mode stimulated by calcium hydroxide (CH), CH and chlorhexidine (CHX) or Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP). For this purpose, culture of macrophages from monocytes in human peripheral blood (N=8) were exposed to the different modes of bacteria for 24 hours. Subsequently, the cytokines, such as, Tumor Necrotic Factor- alfa (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10; and NO were quantified by Luminex xMAP and Greiss reaction, respectively. In addition to the potential therapeutic effects of the intracanal medication, their antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm were also tested in vitro by confocal microscopy. The experiments` data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn post hoc test (α < 0.05). Bacteria in dislodged biofilm mode were shown to be more aggressive to the immune system than bacteria in plankton mode and negative control, inducing greater expression of NO and TNF-α. Relative to bacteria in intact biofilm mode, the weakest antimicrobial activity occurred in Group CH. In Groups CH/CHX and TAP the percentage of dead bacteria was significantly increased to the same extent. Interestingly, the biofilm itself did not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines - except for NO - while the biofilm treated with TAP and CH based pastes enhanced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α; and IL-1 β, respectively. In contrast, the levels of a potent anti-inflammatory (IL-10) were increased in Group TAP.

Resumo A resposta de defesa do hospedeiro ao desafio microbiano que emerge do sistema de canais radiculares leva à periodontite apical. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a expressão de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias e Óxido Nítrico (NO) por macrófagos após interação com Enterococcus faecalis no modo: planctônio e de biofilme desalojado; biofilme intacto estimulado por hidróxido de cálcio (CH), CH e clorexidina ou Pasta Tri Antibiótica (TAP). Para isto, a cultura de macrófagos originados de monócitos do sangue periférico de humanos (N=8) foi exposta aos diferentes tipos de bactéria por 24 horas. Então, a quantificação da produção de of Fator de Necrose Tumoral- alfa (TNF-α), interleucina (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 e NO por macrófagos se deu por meio do Luminex xMAP e reação de Greiss, respectivamente. Além dos potenciais efeitos terapêuticos desses compostos, sua atividade antimicrobiana contra E. faecalis também foi testada através microscopia confocal. Os dados dos experimentos foram analisados através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis com Dunn`s post hoc (α < 0.05). Bactéria em modo de biofilme desalojado se mostrou mais agressivo ao sistema imune que as bactérias planctônicas e controle negativo induzindo a maior excreção de NO e TNF-α. Em relação ao biofilme intacto, a atividade antimicrobiana mais fraca ocorreu no grupo de CH. Os grupos CHX e TAP aumentaram significativamente a porcentagem de bactérias mortas na mesma extensão. Interessantemente, o biofilme por ele mesmo não induziu a liberação de citocinas pro-inflamatórias - exceto por NO - enquanto que o biofilme tratado com TAP ou pastas a base de CH aumentaram os níveis de IL-6; e TNF-α e IL-1 β respectivamente. Em contraste, os níveis da potente citocina anti-inflamatória (IL-10) foram aumentados pelo grupo TAP.

Humans , Plankton , Biofilms , Root Canal Irrigants , Bacteria , Calcium Hydroxide , Chlorhexidine , Enterococcus faecalis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 63-71, Jan-Apr2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348216


Objetivo: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à fadiga cíclica e torcional de instrumentos rotatórios de níquel-titânio com secções transversais semelhantes e confeccionados com diferentes tipos de tratamentos térmicos: Hyflex CM (HCM 25/.06), Vortex Blue (VB 25/.06), Sequence Rotary File (SRF 25/.06) e EdgeSequel (EDF 25/.06) (n=20). Métodos: O teste de fadiga cíclica avaliou o tempo e o número de ciclos para a fratura (NCF) dos instrumentos em canal artificial com 60° de curvatura e 5mm de raio (n=10). O teste de torção avaliou o torque máximo e a deflexão angular para a fratura dos 3mm da ponta dos instrumentos (n=10). Após o teste de torção e de fadiga cíclica, os instrumentos foram avaliados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) (n=10). Os dados foram analisados empregando-se os testes ANOVA e de Tukey, sendo selecionado um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: HCM apresentou o maior tempo e NCF entre todos os instrumentos avaliados (p<0,05). O SRF apresentou um tempo semelhante (p>0,05) e menor NCF (p<0,05) do que o VB. Em relação ao teste torcional, o HCM apresentou menor valor de torque e maior deflexão angular entre os grupos avaliados (p<0,05). Não houve diferenças significativas entre VB, SRF e EDF em relação à deflexão angular (p>0,05). Conclusão: O HCM apresentou maior resistência à fadiga cíclica e deflexão angular. Entretanto, o VB apresentou maior resistência torcional para a fratura (AU).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cyclic and torsional fatigue resistance of Nickel-Titanium rotary instruments with similar cross-sectional design and manufactured by different thermal treatments: Hyflex CM (HCM 25/.06) Vortex Blue (VB 25/.06), Sequence Rotary File (SRF 25/.06) and EdgeSequel (EDF 25/.06) (n=20). Material and Methods: Cyclic fatigue test evaluated the time and number of cycles to failure (NCF) in an artificial stainless steel canal with 60° and 5-mm radius of curvature (n=10). The torsional test (ISO 3630-1) evaluated he maximum torque and distortion angle to failure at 3 mm from the tip (n=10). After the torsional and cyclic fatigue test the instruments were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The HCM presented the longest time and highest NCF to fatigue than all the groups (P<0.05). The SRF presented similar time (P>0.05) and lower NCF (P<0.05) to fatigue than VB. Regarding to the torsional test, HCM presented the lowest torque load and the highest distortion angle of all the groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was found among VB, SRF and EDF regarding the distortion angle (P>0.05). Conclusion: The HCM presented the highest cyclic fatigue resistance and distortion angle to failure. However, the VB showed higher torsional load to failure. (AU).

Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Torque , Dental Instruments , Endodontics , Titanium , Analysis of Variance , Fatigue , Nickel
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 632-638, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134550


ABSTRACT: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) associated with the benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the adhesion and formation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms attached to coated dentin. Discs standard bovine dentin blocks were treated with the coating materials evaluated: Saline solution (control), 17 % EDTA, 17 % EDTA associated with 1 % BAK for 5 minutes and subsequently washed with saline solution. Afterwards, biofilms of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) were grown on the surface of coated dentin blocks for time intervals of 1 hour and 7 days (n = 20) and were subsequently washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bacterial viability and total biovolume were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using the Live/Dead technique. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn tests were used to determine statistical differences (a = 5 %). The 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK group showed significantly lower biovolume and bacterial viability values at the end of 1 hour (p < 0.05). After 7 days of contamination, the 17 % EDTA and 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK groups showed similar results that differed statistically from those of the control group (p < 0.05). The saline solution group showed higher values. The use of BAK associated with EDTA on dentin blocks surfaces before exposure to contamination was able to interfere in the adhesion of E. faecalis to dentin. Also, dentin treatment by BAK associated with a chelating agent influences the secondary biofilm formation, which could have important effects on the long-term success of root canal treatment.

RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio consistió en investigar in vitro, la influencia del ácido etilendiamino-tetraacético (EDTA) con cloruro de benzalconio (BAK) en la adhesión y formación de biopelículas de Enterococcus faecalis a la dentina. Discos de dentina bovina fueron tratadas con solución salina (control), 17 % de EDTA, 17% de EDTA asociado con 1 % de BAK durante 5 minutos y lavadas con solución salina. Las biopelículas de E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) se cultivaron sobre los discos de dentina durante intervalos de tiempo de 1 hora y 7 días (n = 20), lavados con solución salina tamponada con fosfato (PBS). La viabilidad bacteriana y el biovolumen total se analizaron mediante microscopía de barrido por láser (CLSM) utilizando la técnica Live / Dead. Se realizó prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, seguida por Dunn con una diferencia estadística (a = 5 %). El grupo de 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostró valores significativamente menores de biovolumen y viabilidad bacteriana al final de 1 hora (p < 0,05). Después de 7 días de contaminación, los grupos de 17 % EDTA y 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostraron resultados similares que diferían estadísticamente del grupo control (p < 0,05). La solución salina mostró valores más altos. La asociación de BAK con EDTA antes de la contaminación interfirió en la adhesión de E. faecalis. Además, el tratamiento de la dentina por BAK asociado con EDTA influye en la formación de biopelículas secundarias, lo que podría tener efectos importantes sobre el éxito a largo plazo del tratamiento del conducto radicular.

Animals , Cattle , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dentin/microbiology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Microscopy, Confocal , Saline Solution
Dent. press endod ; 10(2): 86-93, maio-ago.2020. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344683


Introdução: Acidentes e complicações podem acontecer em qualquer fase do tratamento endodôntico. Podem ocorrer devido a diversos fatores, como falhas dos instrumentos, dificuldades anatômicas e limitações do profissional, o que, muitas vezes, pode alterar o prognóstico de um caso. Objetivo: O presente relato de caso aborda uma situação em que uma paciente se apresentava com dois instrumentos fraturados e uma perfuração radicular em um dente molar inferior com periodontite apical. Relato do caso: Os fragmentos foram removidos por meio de técnica mecanizada e ultrassônica padronizada, e a perfuração foi tratada e selada com material à base de silicato de cálcio. Conclusão: O emprego de recursos tecnológicos atuais favoreceu a resolução do caso, melhorando seu prognóstico. O restabelecimento da condição de normalidade do dente e tecidos adjacentes foi confirmado por exames radiográficos e tomográficos (AU).

Introduction: Accidents and complications may happen at any endodontic treatment stage. These are likely to change the prognosis of treatment and can be due to factors related to instrumental failure, anatomic difficulties and the professional's limitations. Objective: This case report addresses a case where a patient presenting two separated instruments and a root perforation in a lower molar with apical periodontitis. Case report: The separated instruments have been removed by mechanical and ultrasonic standardized method and the perforation was treated and sealed by silicate cement-based material. Conclusion: The use of technological resources favored the resolution of the case, increasing its predictability. The reestablishment of the normal condition of the tooth and surrounding tissues was confirmed by radiograph and computed tomography exams (AU).

Humans , Female , Root Canal Therapy , Silicate Cement , Technology , Ultrasonic Therapy , Calcium , Retreatment , Molar
Dent. press endod ; 10(1): 49-53, Jan-Apr2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344228


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da velocidade de rotação na resistência à fadiga cíclica do instrumento rotatório Logic 25.06 (LOG 25.06; Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, Brasil). Métodos: Foram utilizados 20 instrumentos rotatórios Logic 25.06 (n=10). O teste de fadiga cíclica foi realizado em um aparato com um canal artificial de aço inoxidável com ângulo de curvatura de 60° e raio de 5 mm. Os instrumentos foram utilizados a 950 e 550 rotações por minuto (RPM), sendo mensurados o tempo e o número de ciclos para a fratura. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio do teste t de Student, sendo selecionado um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O teste de fadiga cíclica demonstrou que a velocidade de 550 RPM promoveu um aumento significativo no tempo e no número de ciclos para a fratura dos instrumentos LOG 25.06 (p<0,05). Houve um aumento de 95,9% no tempo e de 27,25% do número de ciclos para a fratura. Conclusão: Os resultados desse estudo demonstraram que a velocidade de rotação possui uma influência significativa na resistência à fadiga cíclica dos instrumentos rotatório Logic 25.06. A velocidade de 550 RPM é uma velocidade mais segura, aumentando significativamente a resistência à fadiga cíclica (AU).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rotational speed on the cyclic fatigue resistance of Logic 25.06 rotary instruments (LOG 25.06; Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil). Methods: 20 Logic 25.06 instruments were used (n=20). The cyclic fatigue test was performed in an artificial canal made of stainless steel with 60° of curvature and 5 mm of radius. The instruments were activated 950 and 550 rotations per minute (RPM) until the fracture occurred. The time (in seconds) and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) were measured. The data were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey Test, the level significance used was 5 %. Results: the 550 RPM promoted a significantly higher time and NCF of LOG 25.06 in comparison with 950 RPM (P>0.05). The time increased in 95.9% and the NCF 27.25%. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the rotational speed had a significant influence on the cyclic fatigue resistance of the Logic 25.06 rotary instruments. The 550 RPM rotational speed seems to be safer than 950 RPM, increasing the cyclic fatigue resistance of Logic 25.06 (AU).

Rotation , Dental Equipment , Endodontics , Analysis of Variance , Fatigue
Dent. press endod ; 10(1): 38-42, Jan-Apr2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344157


Avaliar, em micro-CT, diferentes métodos de inserção da pasta de hidróxido de cálcio para preenchimento de canais laterais simulados em blocos de acrílico. Métodos: Foram utilizados 72 blocos de acrílico com canais laterais simuladas nas porções cervical, média e apical, os quais foram preenchidos com a pasta de hidróxido de cálcio de acordo com os seguintes métodos (n=12): Grupo 1 - lima tipo K #30; Grupo 2 - espiral de Lentulo; Grupo 3 - agitação ultrassônica; Grupo 4 - agitação sônica com EndoActivator; Grupo 5 - seringa + Capillari TIPS; e Grupo 6 - agitação com EasyClean em baixa rotação. Para os grupos que receberam agitação, o canal principal foi preenchido com a pasta utilizando seringa e Capillari Tips. Antes e após o preenchimento, os dentes foram escaneados em micro-CT (SkyScan 1174) e as imagens obtidas foram comparadas utilizando-se o software CTan. O volume de medicação intracanal no interior dos canais simulados foi mensurado e, em seguida, obtida a porcentagem de penetração. Os dados foram submetidos à comparação estatística (p<0,05). Resultados: Os grupos EndoActivator e ultrassom apresentaram resultados significativamente melhores do que a lima #30 nos três níveis analisados, assim como o EasyClean nos terços cervical e médio, e a Lentulo no terço apical, em relação ao Grupo 1 (p <0,05). Nas demais comparações e na análise intragrupos, não houve diferenças significativas (p>0,05). Conclusão: Os métodos de agitação da medicação intracanal, especialmente o ultrassom, proporcionaram uma maior porcentagem de penetração dela em canais laterais simulados (AU).

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze, in micro-CT, the capacity of different methods for insertion of calcium hydroxide paste in the filling of lateral canals simulated in blocks of acrylic. Methods: A total of 72 acrylic blocks with lateral canals simulated in the coronal, middle and apical portions, were used and filled with calcium hydroxide paste, according to the following methods (n = 12): Group 1 - #30 K-file; Group 2 - Lentulo spiral; Group 3 - Ultrasonic agitation; Group 4 - Sonic agitation with EndoActivator; Group 5 - Syringe + Capillary Tips; Group 6 - Agitation with Easy Clean at low speed. For the groups that received agitation, the blocks were filled with the aid of a syringe and Capillary Tips. Each sample was scanned with SkyScan 1174, before and after the filling procedures, and the volume of calcium hydroxide was measured using CTAN software. The percentage of penetration of intracanal medication inside the simulated canals was calculated. Data were statistically compared (p < 0.05). Results: The agitation with EndoActivator and ultrasonic insert promoted a greater penetration of paste with significant statistical differences in relation to the #30 K-file group in the 3 levels analyzed (p < 0.05). Other statistical differences occurred in the comparison between the Easy Clean group and #30 K-file group in the coronal and middle thirds and in the comparison between Lentulo spiral group and #30 K-file group in the apical (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Methods which use agitation devices , such as ultrasonic insert, promoted higher filling of calcium hydroxide in simulated lateral canals (AU).

Pulpitis , In Vitro Techniques , Calcium Hydroxide , Ultrasonography , Equipment and Supplies
Dent. press endod ; 10(1): 43-48, Jan-Apr2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344213


Avaliar o efeito da ativação ultrassônica e do veículo do MTA no pH dentinário em dentes com reabsorção radicular externa simulada. Métodos: Uma cavidade foi preparada na superfície radicular de 46 dentes bovinos, as quais foram seladas com MTA preparado com 100% de água destilada (DW) ou com 80% DW e 20% de propilenoglicol (PG). Os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 10), de acordo com o veículo e o protocolo de ativação ultrassônica utilizado durante a inserção do material (ativação ou sem ativação). O grupo controle (n = 6) foi deixado sem selamento. O pH foi mensurado após 15, 30 e 60 dias de imersão. Resultados: A ativação com ultrassom não alterou significativamente o pH (p>0,05). Os cimentos manipulados utilizando DW + PG apresentaram maior pH aos 15 dias, em relação ao MTA manipulado com DW (p<0,05). Conclusão: A associação de 80% de água destilada com 20% de propilenoglicol aumentou o pH dentinário, o que é positivo para o reparo de reabsorções radiculares (AU).

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic activation and MTA vehicle on dentinal pH in simulated external root resorptions. So, a cavity was prepared in the root of forty-six bovine teeth. They were filled with MTA mixed with 100% distilled water (DW) or MTA mixed with 80% DW and 20% propylene glycol (PG). Teeth were divided into four groups (n = 10), according to the vehicle (DW or PG) and ultrasonic protocol used for material insertion (activated or not). Control group (n = 6) was unfilled. The pH was assessed after 15, 30 and 60 days of immersion. As results of all that, activation with ultrasound did not significantly alter the pH (p > 0.05). The cements were mixed with either DW or DW + PG, with the later association presenting higher pH at 15 days of assessment than the former (p < 0.05). Thereby, it can be concluded that mixing MTA with 80% DW and 20% PG increased the dentinal pH, which is positive for root resorption repair (AU).

Animals , Cattle , Root Resorption , Ultrasonics , Biocompatible Materials , Propylene Glycol