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Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2019; 20 (4): 459-468
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-199614


Objective: Human amniotic membrane [HAM] is used as a supporter for limbal stem cell [LSC] expansion and corneal surgery. The aim of study is to use HAM extracts from healthy donors to enhance proliferation of LSCs in vitro and in vivo

Materials and Methods: In this interventional experimental study, the effective and cytotoxic doses of the amniotic membrane extract eye drops [AMEED] was assessed by adding different concentrations of AMEED [0-2.0 mg/ml] to LSC cultures for 14 days. Subsequently, the expression levels of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 [ABCG2, a putative stem cell marker], cytokeratin 3 [K3, corneal maker], K12 and K19 [corneal-conjunctival cell makers] were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]. In the second step, the corneal epithelium of 10 rabbits was mechanically removed, and the right eye of each rabbit was treated with 1 mg/ml AMEED [every 2 hours [group 1] or every 6 hours [group 2]]. The left eyes only received an antibiotic. The corneal healing process, conjunctival infection, degree of eyelid oedema, degree of photophobia, and discharge scores were evaluated during daily assessments. Finally, corneal tissues were biopsied for pathologic evidences

Results: In comparison to the positive control [10% foetal bovine serum [FBS]], 0.1-1 mg/ml AMEED induced LSC proliferation, upregulated ABCG2, and downregulated K3. There were no remarkable differences in the expression levels of K12 and K19 [P>0.05]. Interestingly, in the rabbits treated with AMEED, the epithelium healing duration decreased from 4 days in the control group to 3 days in the two AMEED groups, with lower mean degrees of eyelid oedema, chemosis, and infection compared to the control group. No pathologic abnormalities were observed in either of the AMEED groups

Conclusion: AMEED increases LSCs proliferation ex vivo and accelerates corneal epithelium healing in vivo without any adverse effects. It could be used as a supplement for LSC expansion in cell therapy

Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 2 (2): 67-70
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-83035


The annual Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca brings over two million people together in a small confined area. Respiratory involvement is the most common disease during this ceremony, and up to now no unique cause has been identified. The present study was conducted to determine the incidence and types of respiratory diseases and their associated etiologic agents. During this prospective study, seroconversion was assessed for bacteria, viruses and fungi on 170 Iranian pilgrims prior to departure and 2 weeks after convalescence and returning from the Hajj pilgrimage. Meanwhile, sputum specimens of 252 patients were cultured. The following viruses were detected: influenza type A and B [21.5%], adenovirus [36.2%], and RSV [1.9%]. Among bacteria isolates, beta-haemolytic Streptococcous [9.7%], Haemophilus species [9.1%], Gram negative bacilli [20.6%], Legionella pneumophila [6.3%], Mycoplasma pneumonia [0.8%], and Chlamydia [32%] were more common, however, no fungal seroconversion was noted. We suggest administration of Fluvaccin for high risk groups, adenoviral vaccine for volunteer pilgrims, erythromycin or azithromycine for empiric bacterial therapy, and Oseltamivir or Zanamivir for prophylaxis or treatment of influenza like illness

Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Islam , Travel , Prospective Studies , Influenza Vaccines , Zanamivir , Erythromycin , Health Surveys