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1.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 20(1): e20180707, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038874

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Paranapanema River is an important, extensively explored tributary of the Upper Paraná River basin. The fish fauna of the Paranapanema River has been investigated since the 1990s; however, no study has characterized the richness of fish species throughout the basin, including the main channel of the river, marginal lagoons, its tributaries, and sub-tributaries. Thus, we performed a review with 90 independent studies conducted at the upper, middle, and lower sections of the basin. We recorded 225 species, of which 165 were native, and 60 were non-native. We found that 77% of the species within the basin are composed by Siluriformes and Characiformes. Cichliformes had a significant number of non-native species established in impoundment sections of the basin. Incidence-Based Estimators (Bootstrap and Chao 2) demonstrated that the richness of native species is still underestimated. Some native (e.g., Hypostomus ancistroides) and non-native species (e.g., Plagioscion squamosissimus) are widely distributed in the basin, while others had a more restricted distribution. Among the registered species, the family Bryconidae had the highest number of representatives with threatened conservation status. In addition, we observed that the Capivara Reservoir and its tributaries were the most sampled regions, with the majority of studies performed in the Lower Paranapanema basin. The species richness recorded in large tributaries, such as Tibagi, Cinzas, Congonhas, and Pirapó rivers is critical for maintaining the fish fauna in the Paranapanema River. Our contribution may be used to support management actions and conservation strategies, as well as to indicate regions in the basin that need to be better inventoried.


Resumo: O rio Paranapanema é um importante tributário, amplamente explorado da bacia do Alto rio Paraná. A fauna de peixes do rio Paranapanema vem sendo investigada desde a década de 1990; no entanto, nenhum estudo caracterizou a riqueza de espécies de peixes em toda a bacia, incluindo o canal principal do rio, lagoas marginais, seus tributários e sub-tributários. Assim, realizamos uma revisão com 90 estudos independentes conduzidos nas regiões superior, média e inferior da bacia. Foram registradas 225 espécies, das quais 165 eram nativas e 60 eram não nativas. Verificamos que 77% das espécies dentro da bacia são compostas por Siluriformes e Characiformes. Cichliformes apresentou um número significativo de espécies não nativas estabelecidas em áreas de represamento da bacia. Estimadores de riqueza baseados em incidência (Bootstrap e Chao 2) demonstraram que a riqueza de espécies nativas ainda é subestimada. Algumas espécies nativas (e.g., Hypostomus ancistroides) e não nativas (e.g., Plagioscion squamosissimus) estão amplamente distribuídas na bacia, enquanto outras tem sua distribuição mais restrita. Entre as espécies registradas, a família Bryconidae obteve o maior número de representantes com status de conservação ameaçado. Além disso, observamos que o reservatório de Capivara e seus afluentes foram as regiões mais amostradas, sendo a maioria dos estudos realizados na bacia do baixo Paranapanema. A riqueza de espécies registrada em grandes afluentes, como os rios Tibagi, Cinzas, Congonhas e Pirapó, é fundamental para a manutenção da ictiofauna no rio Paranapanema. Nossa contribuição pode ser usada para apoiar ações de manejo e estratégias de conservação, bem como para indicar regiões na bacia que precisam ser melhor inventariadas.

2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 605-621, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977332

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish diversity loss is threatened by the construction of dams as they prevent the regular natural dispersal among populations. Thus, conservation of key riverine habitats for fish reproduction may be essential for the recruitment of new native species of fish. The present study aimed to identify key habitats for fish spawning and early development in the Paranapanema River basin, as well as to determine the taxonomic composition, reproductive and life-history strategy, and to report spatial distribution of eggs, larvae and juveniles. The importance of lagoons, tributaries, and sub-tributaries was evaluated in the Paranapanema River basin between October 2012 and March 2013. Eggs and larvae samples were collected at dawn and dusk with conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh size), whereas juveniles were captured during the day with seine and sieve (0.5 cm mesh size). A total of 547 eggs, 904 larvae and 1 228 juveniles were captured. We observed that 2 larvae and 288 juveniles of non-migratory species, parental care, and equilibrium life-history strategy, predominated in lagoons and tributaries. On the other hand, 13 larvae and 60 juveniles of short migratory distance, no parental care, and periodic life-history strategy predominated in sub-tributaries. The highest densities of eggs were recorded in tributaries and sub-tributaries (Tukey's test, P = 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively), and the highest densities of larvae were recorded for lagoons and tributaries (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Captures of eggs and larvae were higher at night; while the highest catches per unit effort of juveniles were recorded for tributaries and sub-tributaries. Fish species that adopt different life-history strategies can use diverse types of habitats during the early stages. Lagoons, tributaries and sub-tributaries of the Paranapanema River play different roles in the reproductive success of fish fauna in a heavily modified basin. The preservation of spawning and nursery areas trapped between reservoirs is necessary for Neotropical fish species recruitment and survival. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 605-621. Epub 2018 June 01.


Resumen Los riesgos de pérdida de diversidad de peces aumentan con la construcción de represas, ya que impide la dispersión de individuos entre las poblaciones. Por lo tanto, la conservación del habitat ribereño clave para la reproducción de peces puede ser esencial para el reclutamiento de nuevos individuos de especies nativas. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar hábitats clave para el desove y el desarrollo temprano de peces en la cuenca del río Paranapanema, así como determinar la composición taxonómica, la estrategia reproductiva y la historia de vida, y reportar la distribución espacial de huevos, larvas y juveniles. Se evaluó la importancia de lagunas, afluentes y subafluentes en la cuenca del río Paranapanema entre octubre de 2012 y marzo de 2013. Se recogieron muestras de huevos y larvas al amanecer y al atardecer con redes de plancton cónico (tamaño de malla de 0,5 mm), mientras que los juveniles fueron capturados durante el día con redes de cerco y tamiz (tamaño de malla de 0,5 cm). Se capturaron un total de 547 huevos, 904 larvas y 1 228 juveniles. Como resultado fue observado que 2 larvas y 288 juveniles de especies no migratorias, cuidado parental y estrategia de vida de equilibrio son predominantes en lagunas y afluentes. Por otro lado, 13 larvas y 60 juveniles de espécies migratorias de corta distancia, sin cuidado parental y estrategia de vida periódica predominaron en subafluentes. Se registraron las densidades más altas de huevos para afluentes y subafluentes (Prueba de Tukey, P = 0.001 y P = 0.03, respectivamente), y se registraron las densidades más altas de larvas para las lagunas y afluentes (P = 0.005 y P = 0.0001, respectivamente). Las capturas de huevos y larvas eran más altas por la noche. Las mayores capturas por unidad de esfuerzo de juveniles se registraron para los afluentes y subafluentes. Las especies de peces que adoptan diferentes estrategias de historia de vida pueden utilizar diversos tipos de hábitats durante las primeras etapas. Lagunas, afluentes y subafluentes del río Paranapanema desempeñan diferentes papeles en el éxito reproductivo de la fauna de peces en una cuenca fuertemente modificada. La preservación de áreas de desove y cría atrapadas entre el embalse es necesaria para el reclutamiento de especies de peces neotropicales.

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