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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821661

ABSTRACT

As an ancient parasitic disease, schistosomiasis has been endemic in Dongting Lake areas for more than 2 100 years. In the early 20th century, the first human case of schistosomiasis in China was reported in Dongting Lake areas, which was paid extensive attention. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, large-scale schistosomiasis control activities were launched promptly in Dongting Lake areas, and great successes have been achieved following the three stages of control efforts, including the snail control-based stage, synchronous chemotherapy for humans and livestock-based control stage and infectious source control-based control stage. In 2015, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in Hunan Province. This paper comprehensively describes the discovery and control of schistosomiasis, analyzes the challenges for the current schistosomiasis control programs and proposes the emphasis for future control activities in Dongting Lake areas, so as to provide insights into the schistosomiasis control program in this area.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821660

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province in 2019, so as to provide insights into the achievement of transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in the province in 2020. Methods The data pertaining to Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail status were captured from Hunan Province in 2019 and analyzed. Results Schistosomiasis was endemic in 281 townships (towns) from 41 counties (districts) of 6 cities in Hunan Province by the end of 2019. A total of 991 900 persons received blood testing in Hunan Province in 2019, and 22 773 were positive for the blood testing, with sero-prevalence of 2.30%. All stool examinations were negative in 22 933 individuals detected. The high sero-prevalence was seen in Nanxian County, Anxiang County and Ziyang District. Currently, there were 5 034 cases with advanced schistosomiasis detected in Hunan Province, and they were predominantly identified in Yuanjiang City, Heshan District and Yueyang County. There were 44 963 bovines fenced in schistosomiasis-endemic villages in Hunan Province in 2019, which were predominantly distributed in Yuanjiang City, Hanshou County and Ziyang District, and no positives were detected in 1 996 bovines receiving blood testing or 20 684 bovines receiving stool examinations. In 2019, there were snail habitats of 1.73 billion m2 found in Hunan Province, which were mainly found in Yuanjiang City, Hanshou County and Yueyang County. Conclusion The endemic situation of schistosomiasis further decreases in Hunan Province in 2019; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission in local areas of the province.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821644

ABSTRACT

Objective To predict the changes in the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province using the exponential smoothing model and the ARIMA model. Methods The data pertaining to S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 1957 to 2015 were collected, and the exponential smoothing model and the ARIMA model were created using the software Eviews and PASW Statistics 18.0. In addition, the effectiveness of these two models for the prediction of S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 2016 to 2018 was evaluated. Results The exponential smoothing model and the ARIMA model had a high goodness of fit for prediction of S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 1957 to 2015. There was a linear trend in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 1957 to 2015. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans predicted with the Brown’s linear trend and the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in livestock predicted with the Holt’s linear trend in Hunan Province from 2016 to 2018 fitted better the actual data than the ARIMA model; however, prediction of the ARIMA model indicated that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in Hunan Province. Conclusion At a low epidemic level, development of highly sensitive tools for monitoring schistosomiasis is urgently needed in Hunan Province to fit the current endemic situation, and the schistosomiasis control measures should be intensified to consolidate the control achievements.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821643

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the effect of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. Methods The integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented by the health, agriculture, water resources, forestry, land and resources sectors were retrospectively collected in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, and the completion of each measure, cost of control measures, Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and bovines, and snail status were analyzed each year. An index system for assessing the integrated schistosomiasis control effect was constructed using the Delphi method to calculate the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index. In addition, a cost-effect analysis was performed in terms of the decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines, areas with snails in inner embankments, and areas with infected snails. Results A total of 7 110 926 500 Yuan were invested into the integrated schistosomiasis control program of Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019. During the 16-year period, a total of 277 437.12 hm2 snail habitats received molluscicidal treatments, 6 927 230 person-times given expanded chemotherapy, 2 116 247 bovine-times given expanded chemotherapy, 954 850 harmless toilets built, 290 359 bovines fenced, 136 666 bovines eliminated, 141 905 machines used to replace bovines, 39 048.63 hm2 water lands improved as dry lands, 724.12 km irrigation regions improved, 3 994 300 populations covered with safe water, 191 102.89 hm2 forests planted and 38 535.27 hm2 lands leveled. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 4.29% in humans and 4.48% in bovines in Hunan Province in 2004, with 2 449.37 hm2 snail habitats in inner embankments and 3 423.74 hm2 infected snail areas. In 2019, the prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced to 0 in both humans and bovines, and areas of snail habitats reduced to 540.92 hm2 (77.92% reductions), while the areas with infected snails reduced to 0. The overall integrated schistosomiasis control effect index appeared a tendency towards a rise over years since 2004, and the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index was 97.35 in 2019; the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in 100 populations and 100 bovines were 70.11 Yuan and 4 204.78 Yuan, and the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas were 2 010.20 Yuan and 1 298.09 Yuan, respectively. Conclusions The integrated control measures achieve remarkable effectiveness for schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province, with a remarkable decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines and great shrinking of snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas. Adequate fund investment is required to improve the integrated schistosomiasis control measures and consolidate the control achievements.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821642

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the current epidemic characteristics and endemic status of schistosomiasis, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control and proposes the emphasis and interventions for future schistosomiasis control activities in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the elimination of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821641

ABSTRACT

The culture of schistosomiasis control is specific in the history of Chinese culture. Broadly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is a summary of specific social mood, social consciousness and material culture created by Chinese populations during the progress of schistosomiasis control since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Narrowly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is the spiritual culture that is jointly created and nurtured by schistosomiasis control workers since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The spiritual features of Chinese schistosomiasis control culture are characterized by the patriotism and care about the people, the matter-to-fact attitude, the pioneering and enterprising spirit, and the spirit of sacrifice and dedication. The ultimate goal of the research on the culture of schistosomiasis control is to facilitate the achievement of the strategic goal of Healthy China 2030 as scheduled, accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis, and to promote the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in China.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818927

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the approaches used for the assessment of disability adjust life years (DALYs) for advanced schistosomiasis japonica, so as to provide scientific evidence for accurate assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Methods The patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica receiving treatment and assistance programs in Hunan Province in 2017 were enrolled, and the years lived with disability (YLD) for the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica was calculated using the common global burden of disease (GBD) estimation method, the modified GBD method with addition of common syndromes of advanced schistosomiasis japonica, and the quality of life assessment method. Results The YLDs of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, the mean YLDs per capita, and the percentages of YLD were 673.94, 728.77 person-years and 1 761.99 person-years; 0.181, 0.196 person-years and 0.474 person-years; and 10.61, 11.48 person-years per 100 thousand persons and 27.75 person-years per 100 thousand persons with the common GBD method, modified GBD method and the quality of life method, respectively. The YLDs of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province estimated with the modified GBD method and the quality of life method were 8.14% and 2.61 times higher than that with the common GBD method. Of the major symptoms included in the calculation, the 5 symptoms with the greatest contribution to the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica included ascites, moderate anemia, severe anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. Conclusion The quality of life method may more comprehensively assess the YLDs in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica than the common and modified GBD methods.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818475

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the approaches used for the assessment of disability adjust life years (DALYs) for advanced schistosomiasis japonica, so as to provide scientific evidence for accurate assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Methods The patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica receiving treatment and assistance programs in Hunan Province in 2017 were enrolled, and the years lived with disability (YLD) for the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica was calculated using the common global burden of disease (GBD) estimation method, the modified GBD method with addition of common syndromes of advanced schistosomiasis japonica, and the quality of life assessment method. Results The YLDs of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, the mean YLDs per capita, and the percentages of YLD were 673.94, 728.77 person-years and 1 761.99 person-years; 0.181, 0.196 person-years and 0.474 person-years; and 10.61, 11.48 person-years per 100 thousand persons and 27.75 person-years per 100 thousand persons with the common GBD method, modified GBD method and the quality of life method, respectively. The YLDs of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province estimated with the modified GBD method and the quality of life method were 8.14% and 2.61 times higher than that with the common GBD method. Of the major symptoms included in the calculation, the 5 symptoms with the greatest contribution to the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica included ascites, moderate anemia, severe anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. Conclusion The quality of life method may more comprehensively assess the YLDs in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica than the common and modified GBD methods.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815891

ABSTRACT

With the acceleration of the process of global integration, China’s international exchanges and cooperation with other countries have been further increased. The personnel exchange has led to the frequent occurrence of imported schistosomiasis from abroad, which seriously endangers people’s health. This paper reviews the prevalence and transmission risks of oversea imported schistosomiasis, providing the reference for the entry and exit health quarantine and prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704293

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is one of a few endemic and infectious diseases,which are controlled by the specific prevention and control institutions in China.Through the review of historical data,this paper describes the construction,continuation and changes of schistosomiasis prevention and control institutions in different historical periods and systems,and analyzes and evalu-ates its historical function,contribution and status.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704265

ABSTRACT

Parasitic diseases are common infectious diseases closely related to poverty,which are mainly endemic in the trop-ical and subtropical regions.Africa is the major epidemic area of parasitic diseases,and the global burden of malaria and schisto-somiasis is over 85% in Africa.This paper reviews the disease burden,regional distribution and control strategies of the main parasitic diseases in Africa,in order to promote the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in this area.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704216

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures with focus on total removal of cattle and sheep in Juanshan District,Yueyang City.Methods The schistosome infection status of human,cat-tle,sheep and Oncomelania hupensis snails and costs of control measures were gathered during the period of 2006 to 2016.The costs for different periods and cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated.Results The prevalence of schistosome infection in resi-dents in the pilot villages decreased from 3.44% in 2006 to 0 in 2016.The annual costs of schistosomiasis prevention and control were 4 708 500 yuan from 2006 to 2008,5 094 700 yuan from 2009 to 2012 and 9 522 700 yuan from 2013 to 2016.The cost-ef-fectiveness analysis showed that the average annual cost of reduction in the residents'infection rate by 1% were 79 500 yuan from 2006 to 2008,101 200 yuan from 2009 to 2012,and 95 200 yuan from 2013 to 2016,respectively. Conclusion The comprehensive schistosomiasis control strategy with focus on cattle and sheep removal in Junshan District is cost effective, which could be extended to other lake and marshland schistosomiasis endemic areas.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818855

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Basin in three stages, centered on the measures and achievements. It pointed out the key work of prevention and control which are infectious source control and effective surveillance at present stage. It will be beneficial to schistosomiasis control in China.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818733

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Basin in three stages, centered on the measures and achievements. It pointed out the key work of prevention and control which are infectious source control and effective surveillance at present stage. It will be beneficial to schistosomiasis control in China.

16.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 485-489, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293576

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between the expression of the quorum-sensing related genes during Enterococcus faecalis(Ef) biofilm formation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ef biofilms model was established in vitro and film formation process was observed by confocal laser scanning microscope at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours respectively.Quantification of biofilms was achieved by staining with crystal violet.Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the expression of fsrB, gelE and sprE genes in the process of Ef biofilm formation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A lot of live and dead bacteria unevenly distributed in Ef biofilm. The quantity of biofilms increased with time within 24 hours and was 0 h:0.00 ± 0.00, 6 h:1.09 ± 0.13, 12 h:2.10 ± 0.79, 24 h:3.30 ± 0.13, which was significantly different among the 4 time period(P < 0.05). The quantity of biofilm at 48 h(3.51 ± 0.01) increased slightly compared with 24 h(3.30 ± 0.13) , but did not show significant difference.Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of quorum-sensing related fsrB increased with time within 24 hours and was 0 h:9.98 ± 0.46, 6 h:23.45 ± 1.13, 12 h:47.30 ± 2.49, 24 h: 331.30 ± 2.18, which was significantly different among the 4 time period(P < 0.05). The expression of gelE was 0 h: 6.54 ± 0.73, 6 h: 14.26 ± 1.24, 12 h: 37.47 ± 2.35, 24 h:264.80 ± 5.10(P < 0.05). The expression of sprE was 0 h: 7.72 ± 0.74, 6 h: 21.15 ± 0.96, 12 h:49.87 ± 3.18, 24 h:441.89 ± 7.74, which was significantly different among the 4 time period(P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The fsrB, gelE and sprE genes are closely related to the biofilm formation in Ef.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Metabolism , Biofilms , Enterococcus faecalis , Genetics , Metabolism , Physiology , Gelatinases , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Genes, Bacterial , Quorum Sensing , Serine Proteases , Metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 341-347, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335283

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BARD1 gene and susceptibility of early-onset breast cancer in Uygur women in Xinjiang.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A case-control study was designed to explore the genotypes of Pro24Ser (C/T), Arg378Ser (G/C) and Val507Met (G/A) of BARD1 gene, detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay, in 144 early-onset breast cancer cases of Uygur women (≤ 40 years) and 136 cancer-free controls matched by age and ethnicity. The association between SNPs of BARD1 gene and risk of early-onset breast cancer in Uygur women was analyzed by unconditional logistic regression model.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Early age at menarche, late age at first pregnancy, and positive family history of cancer may be important risk factors of early-onset breast cancer in Uygur women in Xinjiang. The frequencies of genotypes of Pro24Ser (C/T), Arg378Ser (G/C) and Val507Met (G/A) of BARD1 gene showed significant differences between the cancer cases and cancer-free controls (P < 0.05). Compared with wild-type genotype Pro24Ser CC, it showed a lower incidence of early-onset breast cancer in Uygur women with variant genotypes of Pro24Ser TT (OR = 0.117, 95%CI = 0.058 - 0.236), and dominance-genotype CT+TT (OR = 0.279, 95%CI = 0.157 - 0.494), or Arg378Ser CC (OR = 0.348, 95%CI = 0.145 - 0.834) and Val507Met AA(OR = 0.359, 95%CI = 0.167 - 0.774). Furthermore, SNPS in three polymorphisms would have synergistic effects on the risk of breast cancer. In addition, the SNP-SNP interactions of dominance-genotypes (CT+TT, GC+CC and GA+AA) showed a 52.1% lower incidence of early-onset breast cancer in Uygur women (OR = 0.479, 95%CI = 0.230 - 0.995). Stratified analysis indicated that the protective effect of carrying T variant genotype (CT/TT) in Pro24Ser and carrying C variant genotype (GC/CC) in Arg378Ser were more evident in subjects with early age at menarche and negative family history of cancer. With an older menarche age, the protective effect was weaker.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>SNPs of Pro24Ser(C/T), Arg378Ser (G/C) and Val507Met (G/A) of BARD1 gene are associated with significantly decreased risk of early-onset breast cancer in Uygur women in Xinjiang. Early age at menarche and negative family history of cancer can enhance the protective effect of mutant allele.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Age of Onset , Breast Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Genetics , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Epidemiology , Genetics , Case-Control Studies , China , Ethnology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , Genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Genetics
18.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 350-353, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of oxymatrine on joint inflammation and T cell subsets in CIA rats. METHODS Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control group, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model group, high-dose OMT (80 mg · kg-1 · d-1) group, middle-dose OMT (40 mg · kg-1 · d-1) group, low-dose OMT(20 mg · kg-1 · d-1) group and total gluco-side tripterygium (40 mg · kg-1 · d-1) group. To establish CIA model, all rats were injected with mixture of sheep type II collagen protein and Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA) intradermally at the right hindfoot, and injected again 1 week later at multipoints of the end of tail to boost the immunization. The intragastric administration procedure was performed from the first day after boosting immunization once a day for 4 weeks. Arthritis index (AI) was recorded every week. The blood sample was taken after the last administration to analyze T cell subsets by Flow Cytometry; serum TNF-α and IL-1β contents were measured by ELISA. Synovium of joint were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, and the hepatic pathological changes were observed. RESULTS: OMT could improve arthritis index (P < 0.05), decrease CD4+ T level (P < 0.05), increase CD8+ T level (P < 0.05), and also reduce CD4+/CD8+ ratio (P < 0.05). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, were markedly decreased (P <0.01), too. Morphological observation indicated that OMT had significant inhibitory effect on synovial cells proliferation. CONCLUSION: OMT may play a therapeutic action on rheumatoid arthritis through adjusting the levels of T cells and cytokine. Copyright 2012 by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

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