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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755931

ABSTRACT

Objective To preliminarily explore the clinical efficacy of ipsilateral simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) .Methods Ipsilateral SPK was performed in 40 patients from September 2016 to August 2018 .During a follow-up period of 6 to 29 months ,we summarized the efficacy and complications of the technique .Results Up to now ,38 patients achieved an exceelent clinical efficacy with no major surgical complications .However ,two patients died of severe pneumonia .The postoperative serum levels of creatinine at 3 ,6 ,12 ,24 months were 107 ,102 ,107 ,110 umol/L ;creatinine clearance rate 64 ,67 ,64 ,63 ml/min;fasting glucose 4 .6 ,5 .1 ,4 .6 ,5 .2 mmol/L ;glycated hemoglobin 4 .8% , 5 .4% ,4 .9% ,5 .2% respectively .And 1/2-year pancrea and kidney graft survival rates both were 92% . Complications included kidney graft rejection (n= 11) ,pancreas graft rejection (n= 12) ,simultaneous renal & pancreas graft rejection (n=6) ,renal graft DGF (n=1) ,pulmonary infection (n=14) ,urinary tract infections (n=18) ,gastrointestinal bleeding (n=10) diarrhea (n=6) ,splenic venous thrombosis (n=2) ,incomplete ureteric obstruction of renal allograft (n=3) ,urine leakage (n=1) and pancreas allograft dysfunction (n= 2) .There were no severe surgical complications .After aggressive interventions ,all postoperative complications were cured and none required excision of kidney or pancreas .Conclusions Ipsilateral SPK has definite therapeutic efficacy and it is worth wider popularization .

2.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 175-2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780511

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the safety of young recipients undergoing living donor renal transplantation from elderly relative donors through long-term follow-up of the pathological changes. Methods According to the age of donors, 28 young recipients were divided into the observation group (n=14, elderly donors) and control group (n=14, young and middle-aged donors). The 7-year survival after renal transplantation, the serum creatinine (Scr) levels at various postoperative time points were compared between two groups. The chronic pathological injury scores of renal allograft biopsy at time-zero, postoperative 6-month and 7-year were compared between two groups. The expression levels of renal interstitial fibrosis indicators connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, laminin (LN), fibronectin (FN), cell senescence indicators intercellular connexin (Cx)-43 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at postoperative 6-month and 7-year were compared between two groups. Results The 7-year survival rates in the observation and control groups were 78.5% and 92.8% with no statistical significance (P > 0.05). In the observation and control groups, the levels of Scr were 190 and 160 μmol/L at the postoperative 7 d, and 170 and 125 μmol/L at postoperative 1 month. At each postoperative time point, the levels of Scr in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (all P > 0.05). The total chronic pathological injury scores of renal transplant biopsy at time-zero in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P > 0.05), whereas the total chronic pathological injury scores at postoperative 7-year did not significantly differ between two groups (P > 0.05). Within either group, the total chronic pathological injury scores at postoperative 7-year was remarkably higher than those at time-zero and postoperative 6-month (both P < 0.05). The expression levels of CTGF, TGF-β, LN, FN, mTOR, Cx43 of renal transplant tissue at postoperative 7-year did not significantly differ between two groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusions The long-term follow-up outcomes demonstrate that the pathological changes of young recipients undergoing renal transplantation from elderly donors are similar to those from young and middle-aged donors. It is safe and feasible for young recipients to undergo renal transplantation from elderly donors in the pathological perspective.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774155

ABSTRACT

With the development of image-guided surgery and radiotherapy, the demand for medical image registration is stronger and the challenge is greater. In recent years, deep learning, especially deep convolution neural networks, has made excellent achievements in medical image processing, and its research in registration has developed rapidly. In this paper, the research progress of medical image registration based on deep learning at home and abroad is reviewed according to the category of technical methods, which include similarity measurement with an iterative optimization strategy, direct estimation of transform parameters, etc. Then, the challenge of deep learning in medical image registration is analyzed, and the possible solutions and open research are proposed.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Diagnostic Imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Neural Networks, Computer , Research
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710646

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single bolus high dose (SD group) ATG-Fresenius induction therapy in kidney transplantation vs.multiple low dose (MD group) administration.Methods A multiple center,prospective,randomized and controlled clinical study was performed on 280 de novo renal transplant recipients from 19 centers.Patients were randomized into 2 groups as follows:SD group,a single high dose (7-9 mg/kg) of ATG-F infused as an induction agent before the vessel anastomoses;MD group,2 mg/kg of ATG-F daily administrated in postoperative 4 days.All the patients accepted maintenance immunosuppressive protocol including tacrolimus,mycophenolate and prednisone.Patients were assessed and data were collected at regular schedule clinic visits on the day 1,3,7,14,30,90,180,270 and 365.The primary end point of efficacy was therapeutic failure rate [the number of death,grafts loss and acute rejection (AR)].The event first occurred should be used in the classification of patients.The non-inferiority evaluation of the two treatment regimens was done based on treatment failure rate.The secondary end points of efficacy were the incidence of AR,delayed graft function (DGF),1-year survival rate of patients and grafts,and serum creatinine at each visiting point.The indicators for safety evaluation included hemotologic variation and incidence of adverse events.Results The therapeutic failure rate in SD group was non-inferior to the MD group (17.24% vs.23.08%).AR was the major cause of therapeutic failure and there was similar incidence of AR between SD gronp and MD group (12.07% vs.21.37%).There was no significant difference in the incidence of DGF between SD group and MD group (12.07% vs.6.84%,P =0.1721).The 1-year patient's survival rate and 1-year graft survival rate in SD group and MD group showed no significant difference (96.55% vs.98.29%,P =0.6714;94.83% vs 98.29%,P =0.2750).The serum creatinine level showed no significant differences between two groups at each visit point.There was also no significant difference in total incidence of adverse events between the two groups.In addition,there was also no statistically significant difference in the incidence of concerned and drug-related adverse events between the two groups,including infection,hemotologic abnormality,liver or renal dysfunction,gastrointestinal disorder,etc.After ATG--F administration,peripheral blood lymphocytes in the SD and the MD group immediately decreased but nearly restored to the normal level on the postoperative day 30 and 90 respectively.No severe granulocytopenia,erythropenia or thrombocytopenia occurred in both two groups.Conclusion The efficacy and safety of single high dose of ATG-F induction are non-inferior to multiple low dose ATG-F induction,moreover,single high dose of ATG-F induction is administered more conveniently and economically.

5.
The Journal of Practical Medicine ; (24): 3556-3559, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663648

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the quality of life and psychological status of donors and recipients of living-related donor kidney transplantation. Methods Selected the treatment of living donors in the hospital (n = 80)and recipients(n = 80)from January 2014 to January 2017 as the research objects,and 80 cases of hemodialysis patients at the same period as the control group. Using the SF-36,Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),and the Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS)to evaluate the psychological status of the two groups and com-pared.Results Scores of donors′physiological function,and general health compared with the norms were not sig-nificant(P>0.05),while the somatic pain scores were significantly lower than the norms(P<0.05).There was no difference between the donors group and the norms in scores of vitality,social function and emotional function (P>0.05).The scores of physical health and mental health of recipients were significantly higher than those of the control group(P < 0.05). The donors′ SAS and SDS anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher than the norms(P<0.05).Besides,SAS and SDS anxiety and depression scores of the recipients were also significantly higher than the norms(P < 0.05),but significantly lower than the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion The living-related donor kidney transplantation does not affect the quality of life and psychological state of the donor, but can improve the quality of life and reduce the anxiety and depression of the recipient.

6.
Chinese Journal of Immunology ; (12): 1031-1034,1038, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-604561

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of preoperative panel reactive antibody(PRA)levels on long-term survival after kidney transplantation. Methods:Data on 1 162 patients underwent first kidney transplantation performed between January 2001 and June 2014 were included in our center. According to the preoperative PRA levels,the patients were divided into negative group( PRA≤10%) and positive group( PRA>10%) ,which were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 1-,5-,10-year patient survival rates of the negative group calculated by Kaplan-Meier were 96. 8%,89. 4%,78. 6%,respectively,while the positive group were 93. 5%,81. 6%, 65. 4%. The 1-,5-,10 -year death-censored graft survival rates of the negative group were 95. 9%,84. 8%,63. 1%,respectively,while the positive group were 92. 3%,74. 1%,51. 9%. The log-rank test revealed that there was significant difference between the patient and graft survival curves (χ2 =9. 623/11. 019, P=0. 002/0. 001 ) . Cox multivariate analysis found that preoperative PRA levels were independent risk factors for reducing the patient or graft survival rates(P<0. 001). Logistic multivariate regression analysis confirmed the significant association between preoperative PRA levels and the risk of acute rejection ( OR=8. 25,95% CI=2. 86-5. 72, P<0. 001). The 5-,10-year creatinine values were significantly lower in the negative group compared to the positive group(all P<0. 05), while there was no difference in the 1-year. In addition, Logistic multivariate regression analysis confirmed the significant association between preoperative PRA levels and the production of donor specific antibody(DSA)(OR=6. 89,95% CI=4. 52-9. 17,P<0. 05). Conclusion: The detection of preoperative PRA is an important indictor predicting the sensitivity status of the recipients. The preoperative PRA positive recipients need careful monitoring and diagnosis of acute rejection and DSA after kidney transplantation.

7.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 57-60, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731625

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore treatment methods of donor kidney with single calculus in living renal transplantation and their effect.Methods The treatment experience of donor kidneys with unilateral renal calculus in living renal transplantation of 3 cases was summarized,which were diagnosed before operation.The kidney with renal calculus was excised as the donor kidney;ureteroscopic lithotomy was conducted in vitro,and then renal transplantation was performed by routine operation.Results There was no early complication such as delayed graft function and acute rejection in 3 recipients after operation.Three pairs of donors and recipients were followed up for 34,45 and 62 months respectively.The color Doppler ultrasound examination of urinary system after renal transplantation showed that,new renal calculus and urinary tract obstruction did not occur in donor's preserved kidneys and recipient's transplant kidneys.Renal function of all donors and recipients was good.Three donors were followed up until now,and no abnormal urine routine was discovered.One recipient developed IgA nephropathy,which was considered to be recurrent nephropathy and had nothing to do with renal calculus.Conclusions The donor kidney with single calculus in living renal transplantation can be treated effectively by ureteroscopic lithotomy in vitro after donor kidneys are excised.

8.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 429-433, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731618

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the application value of ImmuKnow immune cell function assay in monitoring of immune function changes after renal transplantation.Methods One hundred and six patients with uraemia undergoing renal transplantation in the Department of Organ Transplantation of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from January 201 3 to December 201 4 were included.Blood specimens were collected before transplantation and at the occurrence of infection or acute rejection during 1 2 months after transplantation.ImmoKnow was used to determine the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)content in CD4 +T cells.The ATP content of patients with renal transplantation at different clinical conditions were observed and compared,including periopreative group,stable group,acute rejection group and infecticn group (including severe pneumonia).The ratio of T cell subsets (CD4 +T cells,CD8 +T cells)and natural killer (NK)cells in peripheral blood were detected.Pearson correlation analysis was used to detect the association between ATP and the blood trough concentration of tacrolimus (FK506)and ciclosporin (CsA).Results The ATP content of the patients in the infection group was lower than that of the patients in the stable group (P <0.001 ).The ATP content of patients with severe pneumonia was lower than that of patients with other infections (P <0.05).The percentage of CD4 +T cells of the patients in the infection group was lower than that of the patients in the postoperative stable group (P <0.05 ). The ATP content was not associated with the postoperative blood trough concentration of FK506 and CsA.Conclusions ImmuKnow assay may be used to monitor the postoperative immune function of patients after renal transplantation.The detection of ATP content in CD4 + T cells has hinting and pre-warning function for postoperative infection,especially for severe pneumonia.

9.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 335-339, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731604

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the pathological changes of renal grafts from elderly donor in young recipients and to investigate the safety of kidney transplantation from elderly donors.Methods Fourteen elderly kidney donors (with the age >55 years old)and fourteen young recipients (with the age <30 years old)underwent living related donor renal transplantation at the Department of Transplantation of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from January 2008 to December 2008 were enrolled as the object of study.Every elderly donor kidney was performed time-zero biopsy and every young recipient was performed routine renal graft biopsy 6 months after transplantation.The pathological and structural changes of kidney tissues after renal transplantation from elderly donors were observed.Results The histopathological changes occurred at 6 months after transplantation from elderly kidney donors to young recipients.Compared with those before transplantation,the severity of renal arteriolar lesion and the index of renal arteriolar sclerosis alleviated after transplantation (P <0.05 ), and the ratio of glomerulosclerosis did not change after transplantation (P >0.05 ).The expression of fibronectin (FN)decreased after transplantation,but the difference had no statistical significance (P >0.05 ).The expression of laminin (LN ) decreased after transplantation (P <0.05).Conclusions The histopathological structure of renal graft from elderly donors in young recipients has improved.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:Chronic al ograft nephropathy is a complication of kidney transplantation and most of patients wil eventual y develop transplant kidney dysfunction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a low immunogenicity special cellpopulation have been shown to have differentiation, transdifferentiation, paracrine and other basic functions, which have been successful used in other clinical areas. Based on this characteristic, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may play a therapeutic role in chronic al ograft nephropathy. OBJECTIVE:To study the safety and feasibility of autologus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation via renal artery infusion and subsequent intravenous infusion guided by the digital subtraction angiography in the treatment of chronic al ograft nephropathy. METHODS:Eleven patients with chronic al ograft nephropathy who were confirmed from March 2011 to January 2013 were enrol ed, and then received transplant renal artery infusion once guided by the digital subtraction angiography and subsequent intravenous infusion twice of bone marrow mesechymal stem cells. Changes in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, cystatin C, 24-hour urine protein, andβ2 microglobulin in the blood and urinary were monitored in patients up to 1 year after treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Bleeding, transplant renal artery embolization, pseudoaneurysm and other related complications were not found in any of the 11 patients. The levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and cystatin C were significantly decreased at 1 week and 1 month after celltherapy (P0.05). The creatinine clearance at 1 week and 1 month after treatment showed a remarkable increase, which were significantly different from that before treatment (P0.05). The level of 24-hour urine protein was significantly decreased after 7 days of treatment (P0.05). The level ofβ2 microglobulin in the blood and urinary had no changes before and after treatment. These findings indicate that guided by the digital subtraction angiography, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the renal artery infusion and subsequent intravenous infusion can improve kidney function of patients, but the celldosage and infusion method remain to be solved.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-438999

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the compensatory changes in morphology,function,and hemodynamic indices of the retained kidney after nephrectomy among living related donors.Method The 170 living related kidney donors underwent assessments before surgery as well as at 1st and 12th month,postoperatively,including length,width,short diameter,glomerular filtration rate (GFR),effective renal plasma flow (ERPF),peak systolic blood flow velocity (Vsmax),resistance index (RI),as well as pulsatility indices (PI) of main renal artery (MRA),segmental renal artery (SRA),and interlobar renal artery (IRA).Results All subjects were followed up for 9 to 68 months,with no observed hypertension or kidney failure.The length,width,and short diameters of the retained kidney were increased significantly (P<0.01) at 1st and 12th month postoperatively.The renal sizes at 1st month postoperation were similar to that at 12th month postoperation (P>0.05).GFR and ERPF were increased significantly as compared with preoperative values (P<0.01) with similar values at postoperative month 1 and 12 (P>0.05).The Vsmax of MRA,SRA,and IRA in the retained kidney were increased significantly (P<0.01),and the RI and PI were also increased as compared with the preoperative values (P<0.05),albeit these indicators were similar at postoperative months 1 and 12 (P>0.05).Conclusion For all subjects studied after unilateral nephrectomy in a living related donor,the diameter of the retained kidney as well as the GFR and ERPF showed compensatory increases.Various arterial hemodynamic parameters also showed compensatory changes.Under strict donor inclusion criteria,living related kidney donor procedures is safe.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-428097

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the safety and efficacy of low dose Peginterferon-alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α-2a) combined with Ribavirin treating chronic hepatitis C in renal transplant recipients.Methods A total of 13 cases of HCV hepatitis were randomly divided into treatment and control groups.Seven cases in treatment group were given PEG-INF-α-2a (90 μg/week) and ribavirin (600mg/day) for 16 to 48 weeks,and the rest 6 cases in control group were subjected to general liver protection and anti-inflammatory treatment. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years.Results There were 5 cases getting early response in treatment group for 16 weeks,including four cases of complete response and no non-effects response patients. In 4 cases voluntarily receiving treatment for 48 weeks,1 case had facial muscle myalgia and increased Cr level at 35th week,humoral graft rejection was confirmed pathologically,and the treatment was terminated; 1 case had recurrence of HCV RNA replication and PEG-INF-α-2a was withdrawn at 38th week.As results,5 patients in the treatment group obtained complete response after two years,including 2 cases whose HCV-IgG had got negative,HCV RNA replication was significantly lower than in the control group,and the average Cr higher than in control group (P> 0.05). There were adverse reactions during this treatment protocol: fever,muscle myalgia,agranulocytosis, anemia and humoral graft rejection.Conclusion The efficacy of low lose PEG-INF α-2a combined with ribavirin is definite in the treatment of chronic HCV hepatitis in kidney transplant recipients.The 16-week treatment duration is reasonable.It is remarkable that PEG-INF-α-2a may cause humoral graft rejection and Cr crawling.

13.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 318-321, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-401014

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical outcomes and evaluate the safety of living related live donors in kidney transplantation.Methods One hundre and thirty-two cases of living related donors were studied retrospectively for psychological and physiological parameters. The parameters including life quality, urinalysis, serum biochemistry tests, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr) were analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between living related donors and normal people in the aspect of life quality. In living related donors,SCr was (78.33±15.94)μmol/L before operation and was (108.49±19.88)μmol/L at 7 days postoperation, P<0.05. SCr was (112.47±20. 38)μmol/L at 6 months post-operation. There was no significant difference in SCr levels between 7 days and 6 months post-operation (P=0. 109). CCr was (95.80±20.92)ml/min in pre-operation and was (57.36±14. 92)ml/min at 7 days post-operation,P<0.05. CCr was (65. 49±8. 25) ml/min at 6 months post-operation. There was no significant difference in CCr between 7 days and 6 months post-operation.The pre-operative total GFR was(74.08±18.51)ml/min. Of which, the right kidney GFR was (38.43±10.33)ml/min. The residual right kidney GFR was (56. 49±13. 01 ) ml/min 6 months after operation, which decreased 17. 59 ml/min (23.8%) compared with pre-operative total GFR (P<0.05) and increased 18. 06 ml/min (47.0%) compared to the pre-operative right kidney GFR. Surgical complications included 1 case of splenectomy, 1 case of descending colon rupture and 5 cases of wound fat liquefactions.Conclusion Pre-operatively systemic psychological and physiological evaluation on living related donors, detailed consent consultation, standardized operating techniques, careful perioperative management and strict follow-up can improve the safety of living related donors.

14.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 314-317, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-400845

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze clinical outcomes of the spouse donor kidney transplantation for evaluating the security.Methods Sixty-three cases of living-renal transplantation were divided into two groups, spouse donor group (12 cases) and the other related donor group (53 cases). Twelve cases of spouse-donor(SD)renal transplantation were summarized, that were compared with the nospouse transplantation cases of the other living-related renal transplantation in the same period, which were similar in basic conditions and in immunosuppressant scheme. The observational parameters included average hospitalization time, rate of acute renal necrosis, acute rejection incidence within 1 year, serum creatinine at 7 d, 30 d and 1 year after transplantation.Results The recipient age of the 2 groups was (39±3)years and (37±3)years(P=0.05), dialysis time was (4.7±3.2)months and (4.4±2.9)months(P=0.78), the average hospitalization time was (20.9±8.3)d and (23.0±7.8)d(P=0.41). There was no significant difference between the spouse donor group and the no spouse related donor group. The acute rejection incidence within 1 year was 33.3%(4/12) in spouse group and 3. 9%(2/51) in the other related group, there was significant difference between the 2 groups(P<0.05). The rate of acute renal necrosis was 16.7%(2/12) in spouse group and 3.9%(2/15)in no spouse related group, there was no significant different between the 2 groups(P>0.05).SCr was (206.47±47.22)μmol/L and (163. 75±25.91)μmol/L in spouse group at post-operation 7 d and 30 d, and was (142.79±89.42)μmol/L and (119. 99±15.03)μmol/L in no spouse group. There was significant difference between the groups(P=0.02, P=0.00). One year after operation, SCr was (133. 40±6. 11)μmol/L in spouse group and (121. 00±34.12)μmol/L in no spouse group,there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P=0.25).Conclusions Preoperative comprehensive assessment of the spouse donors and recipients renal transplantation is the guarantee for the success.Short-term outcomes of spouse donor renal transplantation is ideal, but rate of acute rejection within 1 year is higher than that of the other living-relative donor kidney transplantation, which dose not influence the long-time survival of spouse recipients.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-553209

ABSTRACT

To investigate the correlation between activation of B lymphocytes and CD11a, CD54 expression in renal allograft recipients, the dynamic changes in CD19, CD11a and CD54 levels in lymphocytes at different time points were examined by using mAb-FACS-immunofluores-cence technique in 10 renal allograft recipients in stable course(stable group) and 10 with acute rejection(rejection group) after operation. The expression levels of CD19 and CD54 in lymphocytes were significant higher than those of the pre-operation levels in both stable group and rejection group on the 3rd day after kidney transplantation, and the CD19 expression level was significant higher before rejection in the rejection group than that in stable group at the same time points; The expression of CDlla increased from (31. 9 ?12. 4)% to (49. 5 ? 20. 2)% during rejection and decreased significantly after anti-rejection treatment. A negative correlation was found between CD54 and CD19 expression in the stable group(r=0. 7951, P

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-400881

ABSTRACT

Objectives To inspect the levels of peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte functionassociated antigen-1(LFA-1)expression in renaI allograft recipients before and after renal transplantation.Methods Using monoclonal antibody-flow cytometer fluorescence technique,the expression of LFA-1 in lymphocytes of 33 patients with renal transplantation was detected at 1 day before operation and 3,6,9,15 days after operation by flow cytometric immunological technique,Results The level of LFA-1 expression after transplantation was significantly decreased and maintained at a low level.and ascended suddenly during the course of graft rejection.The level of LFA-1 expression in rejection was obviously higher than in non-rejection and after the eontrollring of rejection.Conclusions LFA-1 might Dlay an important role in graft rejection.Monitoring of the expression of LFA-1 is helpful for the diagnosis of the graft rejection.

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