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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904816


@#Endodontic microsurgery is one effective method for preserving teeth affected by periapical disease, and is also an essential technique for treating difficult cases. However, due to the restricted operating space at the posterior site and the proximity of the root apex to the maxillary sinus, endodontic surgery in the posterior maxillary area represents great challenges. This article summarizes the anatomical relationship between the maxillary sinus and the maxillary posterior teeth, the influence on endodontic microsurgery, and the application of assistive techniques on maxillary posterior teeth, such as 3D-printed surgical guides and ultrasonic osteotomes. Literature review results show that the spatial relationship between the apex of maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus is usually divided into three categories: the apex enters the maxillary sinus; the apex contacts the bottom of the maxillary sinus; and there is a distance between the apex and the bottom of the maxillary sinus. CBCT should be performed before the operation, and the periapical state of the tooth and the maxillary sinus and the distance between the lesions and the sinus floor should be considered to evaluate the difficulty of the operation. Meanwhile, during surgery, equipment such as surgical guides, endoscopes and ultrasonic osteotomes should be used to ensure that the operation is safer, reliable, precise and less invasive, but the clinical popularity of ultrasonic osteotomes still needs further promotion. Moreover, high-quality clinical studies on the long-term effects of micro-apical surgery in the posterior maxillary area are still lacking.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881373


Objective@#This study aims to compare the incidence of dentinal microcracks produced by ProTaper Universal (PTU) and ProTaper Gold (PTG) file systems during root canal procedures in different curved canals using a dyeing technique.@*Methods@#Sixty extracted human molars were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each in terms of root curvature (mild bending group, 10 °-19 °; moderate bending group, 20 °-29 °; severe bending group, 30 °-39 °). Ten samples of each group were then randomly allocated to the PTU and PTG file systems. After preparation, all roots were stained using a dyeing method and sectioned at the most curved plane and 2 mm below and above the most curved plane with a low-speed saw under cold water. A stereomicroscope was used to inspect dentinal microcracks at 60 × magnification, and differences between these three instrument groups were analyzed using the chi-square test.@* Results @# The PTG file system induced significantly fewer dentinal microcracks for total, incomplete and complete cracks (P < 0.05), and the effect was more obvious with increasing canal curvature.@*Conclusion @# With the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that ProTaper Gold can result in fewer dentinal microcracks than ProTaper Universal.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829936


Objective@#To investigate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of nonodontogenic periapical lesions and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*Methods@# A case of a patient with right upper molar pulp with apical penetration and local occlusion admitted to the West China Stomatological Hospital of Sichuan University was retrospectively analyzed, and the curative effect of microapical surgery and pith preservation was also analyzed.@*Results @#The imaging features of tooth 16 showed periradicular radiolucency combined with local radiopaque lesions around the distal buccal apical area. Endodontic microsurgery was performed under local anesthesia. Soft tissue coverage was observed in the distal buccal apical area during the surgery, and no radiopaque tissue was detected. The distal buccal root apex was cut by 3 mm, and mineral trioxide aggregate was used for root-end backfilling. The postoperative pathological results revealed fibrous connective tissue. One-week recall X-ray examination showed tight root-end backfilling and no periradicular radiolucency; an electrical test of pulp vitality showed positive results. The four-year follow-up showed that there was no discoloration in tooth 16 and no significant difference in thermal and electrical tests of pulp vitality compared with control teeth. Combining the clinical manifestations, imaging features, surgical exploration results and pathological reports, the case was most likely to be cemental hypoplasia. Through the literature review, the treatment and healthy pulp preservation of such cases by endodontic microsurgery under the premise of preserving teeth has not been reported.@*Conclusion@#For maxillary posterior teeth with periapical lesions but healthy pulp, accurate estimation of pulp status, endodontic microsurgical exploration and application of bioactive materials can achieve vital pulp preservation while removing the lesions.