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1.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 677-686, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993491

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the application value of graded surgical strategy and balanced load concept for thoracolumbar osteoporotic compression fractures (OVCFs) with kyphosis.Methods:All of 56 patients of thoracolumbar OVCFs with kyphosis were studied, including 11 males and 45 females, with an average of 75.6±9.3 years old. All patients had back pain, and 32 patients had nerve compression, including 5 patients with aggravation of vertebral collapse after conservative treatment, and 1 patient with cement loosening after percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in another hospital. A graded surgical strategy was developed according to the concept of balanced load, including whether there existed nerve compression, kyphosis, sagittal index (SI), vertebral collapse, load capacity of anterior and middle columns, and fracture reducibility. All patients were treated with anti osteoporosis therapy. 24 patients without nerve compression underwent posture reduction and PKP; 32 patients with nerve compression underwent open surgery: 5 patients with arcuate ky-phosis and SI≤15° underwent Ponte osteotomy; 15 patients with angular kyphosis or SI>15° underwent posterior pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) or/and modified PSO including intervertebral space; 11 patients with SI>15° and severe vertebral collapse (the height of anterior and middle vertebral bodies <1/3 of the average height of adjacent vertebral bodies) or cement loosen after PKP underwent vertebrectomy and reconstruction, of which 4 patients underwent posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR), and 8 patients underwent combined surgery including anterior subtotal vertebrectomy with support and posterior pedicle fixation. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by pain visual analog score (VAS) and Oswestry dysfunction index (ODI).Results:All patients were followed up for 12-60 months, with an average of 24.2 months. For the 24 patients with PKP, the symptoms improved significantly, and 1 case had adjacent vertebral fracture that was improved after PKP again. For the 32 patients with open surgery, the intraoperative blood loss was 400-1 800 ml, with an average of 960 ml (PVCR > PSO and combined surgery > Ponte); the operation time was 2-7 h, with an average of 4.3±1.9 h. The neurological symptoms improved after the operation. During follow-up, the artificial vertebral body and titanium mesh collapsed in 3 cases, but did not continue to deteriorate, no vertebral fracture, internal fixation displacement or loosening failure occurred on X-ray films. At the last follow-up, the VAS score and ODI score of 56 patients decreased from 7.0±2.6 and 60.4±16.2 pre-operation to 1.4±1.1 and 9.5+5.8 respectively, and local kyphosis angle improved from 18.1±4.3 pre-operation to 5.6±4.3. According to the overall satisfaction of patients, the effect was fair in 12 cases, good in 30 cases, excellent in 14 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 78.6%.Conclusion:The graded surgical strategy for thoracolumbar OVCFs with kyphosis based on the concept of balanced load can restore the balanced load of the anterior and middle columns of the spine, reduce the fixation and fusion segments, and reduce the risk of internal fixation displacement and loosening failure.

2.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 343-350, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993448

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Ponte osteotomy combined with bony bridge dissection and intervertebral bone grafting in the treatment of rigid degenerative scoliosis.Methods:From March 2017 to October 2021, this method was used to treat 21 cases of rigid degenerative scoliosis, including 7 males and 14 females, aged 59-76 years, with an average age of 67.6 years. All patients had intractable low back pain and limited standing and walking, while 15 patients had radiation pain in lower limbs. The preoperative standing X-ray film showed that the average Cobb angle of lumbar scoliosis was 51.3°±24.1°, the average lumbar lordosis was 5.4°±13.6°. The coronal balance distance (CBD) was 4.3±2.0 cm (range, 0.5-6.2 cm), and the sagittal vertical axis (SVA) was 5.9±3.1 cm (range, 1.5-6.8 cm). The bending images showed huge osteophyte with bone bridge formation in the vertebral body of the apex region, with poor mobility. Ponte osteotomy was performed according to the degeneration of the deformity. The bone bridge at apex area was cut off, and the intervertebral spaces at apex area and slipped or subluxated levels were release and grafted with granular autogenous decompression bone. During follow-up, the efficacy and deformity improvement were evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and standing X-ray films.Results:All patients successfully completed the operation. The operation time was 190-330 min, with an average of 250±68 min. The intraoperative bleeding was 700-1600 ml, with an average of 970±260ml. The patients were followed up for 12-36 months, with an average of 20.6±7.2 months. No internal fixation failure, fracture or revision occurred. At the last follow-up, the VAS of low back pain decreased from preoperative 6.1±2.2 to 2.1±1.8 ( t=6.45, P<0.001), and the leg pain decreased from 5.5±3.4 to 1.2±1.0 ( t=5.56, P<0.001).ODI decreased from 52.2%±22.2% to 16.4%±10.6% ( t=6.67, P<0.001). The Cobb angle of lumbar scoliosis was 19.3°±10.5°, with an average correction rate of 62.4%; lumbar lordosis was 34.4°±15.6 °, with average correction of 30°. CBD was 1.9±1.1 cm, with an average correction of 2.4 cm ( t=4.42, P<0.001); and SVA was 1.6±2.1 cm, with an average correction of 4.3 cm ( t=4.90, P<0.001). Conclusion:Ponte osteotomy combined with bone bridge dissection and intervertebral bone grafting is an effective method to treat rigid degenerative scoliosis, which can improve spinal sequence, CBD and SVA, avoid vertebral osteotomy and reduce fusion segments.

3.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 263-268, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993437

ABSTRACT

Intervertebral disc degeneration is the most common cause of chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in adults. The fact that lacking of effective treatment methods often causes a serious economic and social burden. Intervertebral disc degeneration is the result of multifactorial factors. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration increases drastically with age, what is more, mechanical trauma, genetic predisposition,lifestyle factors and certain metabolic disorders. At present, the main treatment methods both pharmacological and surgical interventions just aim at relieving symptoms and improving function, and can not fundamentally reverse the process of intervertebral disc degeneration, which not only bring inevitable side effects and high cost, but also the long-term curative effect is limited. In theory, biological therapy can not only reverse or delay the process of it, but also can maximize preservation and restore the normal physiological function of the disc, which has been the focus and hot spot areas of research in recent years. The methods of inhibiting inflammation, promote the proliferation and division of residual cells, stem cell transplantation, cell scaffolds and new biomaterials all provide new ideas and direction for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. This paper makes a review of the research progress in related fields, in order to provide a valuable reference for the selection of intervertebral disc degeneration treatment options.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993413

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of unilateral biportal endoscopy (UBE) through extraforaminal approach in the treatment of extra canal lumbosacral nerve entrapment.Methods:Seventeen patients with extra canal lumbosacral nerve root entrapment were treated by UBE through extraforaminal approach in Tianjin Hospital from January 2020 to March 2022, including 9 males and 8 females with an average age of 59.2 years (range 45-71 years). All 17 patients had lower limb radiation pain, numbness, and weakness with or without intermittent claudication. MRI imaging examination showed L 4, 5 foramen stenosis with far lateral disc herniation in 2 case, and L 5S 1 foramen stenosis with far lateral disc herniation in 15 cases, and the height of intervertebral space decreased, resulting in the compression of exiting nerve root and ganglion. Among them, far-out syndrome was diagnosed in 7 cases and transitional lumbarsacral vertebrae was found in 12 cases. The incisions were designed 2 cm away form the projection of adjacent pedicles, while incision at S 1 was designed at the inner edge of the iliac bone due to the shielding of the ilium, taking the outer edge of the isthmus at the outer opening of the intervertebral foramen as the target of channels. The ventral and apical part of superior articular process (SAP) was gradually removed with high-speed burr from its outer edge and isthmus, and the occluded sacral ala and the lower edge of transverse process were removed when necessary. The hyperplastic ligament was removed to expose the exiting nerve root. The protruding intervertebral disc was removed at the ventral side of the nerve root. The far-out syndrome was decompressed laterally along the exiting nerve root until it is completely released. The results and stability were evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), Macnab scores and dynamic X-ray film during follow-up. Results:The operation time was 45-85 min, with an average of 60 min. After remove of the SAP tip and enlarge of the intervertebral foramen, the exiting nerve root and disc protrusion were fully exposed, the exiting nerve root was exposed and released laterally until totally release without entrapment in far out syndrome, and the nerve could be decompressed completely. The symptoms were significantly relieved after operation, and imaging examination showed that facet joints were preserved. During follow-up, the pain and function improved continuously. At final follow-up, the improve rate of VAS and ODI were 85.2% and 86.2%, respectively, and the results were excellent in 15 cases and good in 2 case according to Macnab score, and there was no lumbar instability on dynamic lumbar X-ray film.Conclusion:Extra canal lumbosacral nerve entrapment can be treated by UBE through extraforaminal approach, with sufficient exposure, complete decompression and better preservation of lumbar stability.

5.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 685-695, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932881

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the safety and validity of enriched autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and annular suture for repairing defect after lumbar discectomy.Methods:Enrichment of autologous BMSCs: autologous bone marrow blood was collected from 5 patients undergoing lumbar surgery, and nucleated cells were enriched on gelatin sponge particles by selective cell retention technique. From October 2016 to March 2019, 109 patients with lumbar disc herniation underwent discectomy with mobile microendoscopic discectomy technique, including 61 males and 48 females, aged 24-59 years. Discectomy group: 26 cases received simple discectomy. Suture group: 39 cases received annular suture after discectomy. BMSCs+suture group: 44 cases received intradisc transplantation of gelatin sponge particles enriched with autologous BMSCs and annular suture after discectomy. The perioperative conditions were recorded, with visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry dysfunction index (ODI), Pfirrmann grade of disc degeneration, disc height and degree of herniationevaluated after operation.Results:In enrichment test with flow cytometry, the enrichment multiple of nucleated cells and target cells was 6.4±0.9 and 4.2±0.6 respectively, and BMSCs grew well in vitro. The operation time was 35-55 mins. 7 cases in the suture group were transferred to the discectomy group and 10 cases in the BMSCs+suture group were transferred to BMSCs group due to unsuccessful suture. There were no significant differences in VAS, ODI, Pfirrmann grade of disc degeneration, disc height and degree of herniation among the groups. There was no significant difference in intraoperative bleeding, postoperative drainage and length of hospital stay. The incision was healed without redness and swelling. 18 patients were followed up for 6 months, and 91 cases were followed up for 1-3 years (25.0±5.6 months). There was no interbody fusion, heterotopic ossification or infection during follow-up. VAS and ODI decreased significantly after operation in all patients. At final follow-up, the VAS improvement rate of BMSCs+suture group (81.7%±7.9%) was higher than discectomy group (73.0%±8.9%), suture group (74.0%±6.9%) and BMSCs group (75.3%±8.4%); the ODI improvement rate of BMSCs+suture group (91.9%±8.8%) was higher than discectomy group (86.2%±8.1%) and suture group (86.4%±5.5%). According to MRI, the Pfirrmann grade of disc increased 0.7 in discectomy group, 0.6 in suture group, while it did not increased significantly in BMSCs+suture group and BMSCs group, and the progress of Pfirrmann grade in BMSCs+suture group and BMSCs group were lighter than discectomy group and suture group.The disc height decreased in each group, the loss rate of disc height in BMSCs+suture group (17.2%±4.3%) was less than discectomy group (29.3%± 6.3%) and suture group (20.6%±5.7%); and suture group was less than discectomy group. The degree of herniation was reduced by more than 50% in all groups, while 1 case in discectomy group had herniation without clinical symptoms.Conclusion:Autologous BMSCs and annulus suture are safe and effective in repairing the defect after lumbar discectomy, which may help to slow down the degeneration of intervertebral disc.

6.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 395-402, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932848

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the value and efficacy of microscope-assisted minimally invasive anterior lumbar discectomy and zero-profile fusion (ALDF) for lumbar degenerative diseases.Methods:Anterior lumbar distractors were designed to maintain the distraction of intervertebral space and expose the posterior edge of the intervertebral space. From June 2018 to December 2020, 41 cases of lumbar degenerative diseases were treated with this operation, including 19 men and 22 women, aged 29-71 years old (average 42.1 years old). All patients had intractable low back pain. Imaging examination showed lumbar disc degeneration with narrow intervertebral space, including disc herniation with Modic changes in 7 cases, spinal stenosis with instability in 16 cases and spondylolisthesis in 18 cases. The involved levels included L 2,3 in 1 case, L 3,4 in 3 cases, L 2-L 4 in 1 case, L 4,5 in 17 cases and L 5S 1 in 19 cases. An incision was taken that was pararectus for L 2-L 4 and transverse for L 4-S 1, with the intervertebral disc exposed via extraperitoneal approach. The intervertebral space was released and distracted after discectomy in intervertebral space, and self-made distractors were used to maintain the space. Under microscope, the herniation, posterior annulus and osteophyte were removed for sufficient decompression, with a suitable self-anchoring cage implanted into the intervertebral space. The visual analogue score (VAS), Oswestry dysfunction index (ODI), intervertebral space height, lordosis angle and spondylolisthesis rate were evaluated. Results:Operations were performed successfully in all the patients. The operation time was 70-120 min with an average of 90 min, and the intraoperative blood loss was 15-70 ml with an average of 30 ml. No severe complication such as nerve or blood vessel injury occurred. The patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months, with an average of 18 months. At the last follow-up, VAS decreased from 6.4±2.3 to 1.1±0.9, and ODI decreased from 44.9%±16.9% to 5.8%±4.7%. Intervertebral space height recovered from 7.2±2.8 mm to 12.1±2.1 mm and lordosis angle recovered from 6.9°±4.8° to 10.1°±4.6°. X-ray showed significant recovery of intervertebral space height, lordosis angle and spondylolisthesis rate, with obvious interbody fusion and no displacement of cage. For 18 patients of spondylolisthesis, the slippage recovered from 16.6%±9.3% to 7.6%±5.3%, with an average improvement of 54.2%.Conclusion:Microscope-assisted minimally invasive ALDF can provide sufficient decompression and zero-profile fusion for lumbar degenerative diseases with satisfactory results during short-term follow-up.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931056

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of conditioned medium of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the proliferation, adhesion and differentiation of immortalized human Müller cell line (MIO-M1).Methods:The differentiation was induced in the third-passage BMSCs with osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic medium and identified by alizarin red, alcian blue and oil red O staining, respectively.The expression levels of mesenchymal stem cell markers CD73, CD90 and CD105 and hematopoietic cell markers CD34, CD45 and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) were assayed by flow cytometry.The expressions levels of Müller cell markers SOX9, glutamine synthetase (GS), vimentin and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), retinal stem cell markers SOX2, nestin and CHX10, and cell proliferation marker cyclin D3 (CCND3) in MIO-M1 cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining.The MIO-M1 cells were divided into standard medium group, 293T conditioned medium group, and BMSC conditioned medium group and were incubated in the medium according to grouping.The cellular area, circularity, elongation factor and perimeter were analyzed quantitatively.The cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry, and the cell proliferation was determined by neurospora experiment and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining.The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) at protein and mRNA levels in the culture supernatant was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively.The expression of retinal neuron markers protein kinase C (PKCα), Rhodopsin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and β-tubulin (Tuj1) was detected by immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR.Results:CD73, CD90, CD105 showed an enhanced expression, and CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR showed weakened expression in the BMSCs.The BMSCs differentiated into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes.Expression of SOX9, GS, vimentin and CRALBP, SOX2, CHX10, nestin and CCND3 was found in the MIO-M1 cells.Compared with standard medium group and 293T conditioned medium group, MIO-M1 cells cultured in BMSC conditioned medium group changed into an elongated spindle-shaped or multipolar morphology with reduced cell area, increased elongation index and decreased circularity, showing statistically significant differences among them ( F=6.973, 12.370, 6.311; all at P<0.01). There were increased neurospheres formed by MIO-M1 cells in BMSC conditioned medium group compared with standard medium group and 293T conditioned medium group at different time points ( Fgroup=134.300, P<0.001; Ftime=82.910, P<0.001). Compared with the standard medium group and 293T conditioned medium group, the EdU-positive rate and proliferation index of MIO-M1 cells in BMSC conditioned medium group were significantly increased, with statistically significant differences ( F=6.973, 74.110; all at P<0.05); the VCAM-1 protein expression in cell supernatant and the relative expression level of VCAM-1 mRNA in BMSC conditioed medium group were significantly increased ( F=13.720, 7.896; all at P<0.05); the mRNA expression levels of PKCα, Rhodopsin, Tuj1 and MAP2 were higher in MIO-M1 cells of BMSC conditioned medium group under the condition of differentiation ( F=14.490, 5.424, 14.330, 7.405; all at P<0.05). Conclusions:BMSCs conditioned medium can change the morphology of MIO-M1 cells and promote their proliferation, adhesion and differentiation into retinal neurons.

8.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 405-411, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884727

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the feasibility and clinical effects of thoracic endoscopic-assisted anterior-lateral decompression and fusion for thoracolumbar or upper lumbar disc herniation (LDH) associated with vertebral osteochondrosis (VO).Methods:From December 2017 to December 2019, 10 patients of thoracolumbar or upper LDH associated with VO were treated with thoracic endoscopic-assisted anterior-lateral decompression and fusion, including 6 men and 4 women, with an average 49.2 years old (range, 37 to 65 years old). The involved levels included T 12L 1 in 5 cases, L 1, 2 in 2 cases and L 2, 3 in 3 cases. There were 4 cases of simple thoracolumbar or upper LDH associated with VO and 6 cases of thoracolumbar or upper LDH associated with VO combined with ligamentum flavum hyperplasia and ossification or kyphosis (combined with posterior decompression and internal fixation or posterior correction surgery). The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and anterior and posterior height of intervertebral space were evaluated at follow-up. The clinical effects were evaluated according to the modified MacNab criteria. Results:The operation was performed successfully in all the patients. During the operation, the herniated disc and ossification were clearly exposed and completely removed, with the sufficient decompression of spinal cord, nerve root and dural sac. The operation duration was 115.4±23.8 minutes (range, 70 to 180 mins). Intraoperative bleed loss was 122.6±21.3 ml (range, 40 to 310 ml). The patients were followed up for averagely 21.6 months (range, 12 to 36 months). At the final follow-up, VAS score decreased from preoperative 7.2±1.9 to 1.8±1.1, and ODI decreased from preoperative 64.3%±13.9% to 16.3%±5.1% ( P<0.05). The anterior height of intervertebral space recovered from preoperative 7.8±1.5 mm to 11.9±2.3 mm, and the posterior height of intervertebral space recovered from preoperative 4.5±1.1 mm to 7.4±1.6 mm ( P<0.05). According to modified MacNab criteria, the results were excellent in 9 cases and good in 1 case. Conclusion:For thoracolumbar or upper LDH associated with VO, thoracic endoscopic-assisted anterior-lateral decompression and fusion provided clear vision of the surgical field, fully exposed and completely removed the herniated disc and ossification, which achieved satisfactory short-term results.

9.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 893-901, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869040

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the value and efficacy of self-anchored anterior lumbar discectomy and fusion (SA-ALDF) for L 5 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Methods:From June 2018 to December 2019, a total of 11 cases of L 5 isthmic spondylolisthesis were treated with SA-ALDF, including 4 men and 7 women, aged 43.2±12.6 (range 29-63) years. All patients had intractable low back pain aggravating during standing activities and alleviating during rest, without lower extremity radicular symptoms. Imaging examination showed bilateral isthmus cleft of L 5 with spondylolisthesis of 1 degree in 10 cases and 2 degree in 1 case according to Meyerding grading system. Under general anesthesia and supine French position, transverse 6 cm incision was made. Then, the L 5S 1 intervertebral disc was exposed via extraperitoneal approach between the bifurcation of abdominal aorta and vena cava. The intervertebral disc was sufficiently removed. The intervertebral space was released and distracted followed by canal ventral decompression and sequential mold testing. Suitable self-anchoring cage filled with auto iliac cancellous bone was implanted to restore intervertebral height and lordosis as well as reduction of spondylolisthesis. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the distal anchoring plate was knocked into the sacrum followed by direct reduction and proximal anchoring plate locking in the L 5 vertebral body. The patients were followed up for 12.1±4.7 (range 6-18) months. The visual analogue score (VAS) and Oswestry dysfunction index (ODI) were evaluated. The reduction and fusion were evaluated on the X-ray films. Furthermore, the rate of spondylolisthesis, the height and the lordosis of intervertebral space were measured. Results:The operation was performed successfully in all the patients with operation duration 90±18 (range 70-120) min, intraoperative blood loss 30±16 (range 10-60) ml. No severe complication such as nerve and blood vessel injury occurred. All patients experienced alleviation of symptom during follow-up. X-rays confirmed that the spondylolisthesis and alignment were recovered obviously without obvious cage displacement. However, the loss of reduction was 63.2% for the grade 2 spondylolisthesis. At the final follow-up, VAS decreased from 6.1±2.1 to 0.9±0.5, ODI decreased from 43.6%±14.2% to 6.0%±3.4%. The spondylolisthesis recovered from 17.7%±10.3% to 8.0%±7.2% with reduction rate of 54.8%±21.6%. The interverbral height recovered from 6.4±2.1 mm to 9.8±3.9 mm and intervertebral lordosis recovered from 4.8°±2.9° to 9.6°±4.7°.Conclusion:SA-ALDF can provide satisfactory outcomes for selected L 5 isthmic spondylolisthesis of degree 1 without neurological compromise. However, its mechanical stability may be insufficient for isthmic spondylolisthesis of degree 2.

10.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 536-545, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868998

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of self-anchored lateral lumbar interbody fusion (SA-LLIF) for lumbar degenerative diseases.Methods:During January to December in 2019, a total of 41 patients with lumbar degenerative disease were treated with SA-LLIF, included 18 males and 23 females, aged 59.6±11.3 (range 49-77) years. There were lumbar stenosis and instability in 17 cases, disc degenerative disease in 8 cases, degenerative spondylolisthesis in 8 cases, degenerative scoliosis in 5 cases, postoperative revision in 3 cases. And osteoporosis was diagnosed in 5 of them. The index level included L 2, 3 in 2 cases, L 3, 4 in 11 cases, L 4, 5 in 20 cases, L 2-L 4 in 3 cases and L 3-L 5 in 5 cases. After general anesthesia, the patient was placed in decubitus position. The anterior edge of psoas major muscle was exposed through 6 cm incision and extraperitoneal approach. Further, the psoas major muscle was properly retracted to expose the disc. After discectomy, the intervertebral space was prepared and moderately distracted. A suitable fusion cage filled with auto iliac graft was implanted. Two anchoring plates were inserted into the cage. Then, the caudal and cephalic vertebral body and the fusion cage were locked. Results:The operation was performed successfully in all the patients. The operation duration was 79.0±19.5 (range 60-100) min. Intraoperative bleed loss was 38.0±28.2 (range 15-70) ml. The patients were followed up for averagely 10.6±4.6 (range 4-15) months. The visual analogue scale decreased from preoperative 6.2±2.1 to 1.6±1.1 and Oswestry disability index decreased from 47.8%±15.1% to 11.0%±7.3%. X-ray showed that the spine alignment recovered satisfactorily. No cage displacement was found. Sinking (2-3 mm) of cage was found in 7 patients without obvious symptom despite transient lumbar pain in an obesity woman. The lumbar lordosis recovered from 36.4°±10.2° to 48.0°±10.7°, and intervertebral height recovered from 8.3±2.5 mm to 11.3±3.3 mm. The rate of spondylolisthesis recovered from 19.7%±4.4% to 9.3%±5.3%.Conclusion:SA-LLIF can provide immediate stability and good results for lumbar degenerative diseases with stand-alone anchoring cage without posterior internal fixation.

11.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 961-970, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-708617

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the strategy and clinical effects of percutaneous endoscopic surgery for cervical disc herniation.Methods Fifty-one patients with cervical disc herniation were treated with percutaneous endoscopic surgery from June 2015 to March 2017,including 32 men and 19 women,with an average age of 52.2 years (range,28-66 years).Radicular symptoms were present in all patients,while 23 patients had mild myelopathy (Nurick Grade:0-3) and 3 patients of multilevel stenosis had severe myelopathy (Nurick Grade:4-5).According to axial image of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),31 patients had lateral herniation that was located lateral to the edge of spinal cord,20 patients had central herniation that was located within the lateral edge of spinal cord.Among them,48 patients had soft herniation and 3 patients had ossified lateral herniation combined with foraminal stenosis.All surgery was carried out under general anesthesia,while posterior and anterior percutaneous endoscopic surgeries were performed for lateral herniation and central herniation respectively.Posterior endoscopic surgery was performed with "keyhole" fenestration at "V" point (the junction of lateral edge of lamina space and inner edge of facet).Lateral edge of thecal sac and nerve root were exposed and decompressed,soft herniation was explored and removed.Anterior endoscopic surgery was performed through puncture and 4mm tube between the visceral sheath and vascular sheath.The tube was inserted through disc to the base of herniation under fluoroscopy.The herniation was removed until the dura sac was exposed and relaxed.One stage open-door laminoplasty was performed for 3 patients with severe multiple segmental stenosis and huge central herniation.The operative time and blood loss were recorded,and patients were followed-up (range,6-18 months,average 12.1 months) to evaluate the clinical efficacy.Results The mean operative time of posterior endoscopic surgery was 90 min (range,45-150 min).The nerve root was not well exposed,and the fenestration was too lateral in 1 patient,with partial relieve of symptoms;and simple nerve root decompression was performed for 3 patients of ossified herniation combined with foraminal stenosis.Herniated or sequestered nucleus pulposus was removed for 27 patients,one of them had transient paralysis ipsilateral limb and 2 of them had linkage of cerebrospinal fluid.The Visual Analogue Score (VAS) score improved form preoperative 8.9±1.6 to 0.5±0.4,and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score improved form 32.8±4.2 to 2.3± 1.9 at final follow-up.For anterior percutaneous endoscopic surgery,the mean operative time was 80 min (range,45-120 min).Herniated or free nucleus was successfully removed for all patients.The thecal sac was lacerated due to unclear exposure in 1 case.The VAS score improved form preoperative 6.9±2.3 to 0.9±0.8,and the ODI score improved form 40.1±8.6 to 5.6±3.0 at final follow-up,with improvement of myelopathy at least one Nurick Grade.During follow-up,the alignment of cervical spine was well preserved without kyphosis for two groups,while the height of intervertebral space decreased with 0.4±0.3 mm and 0.9±0.6 mm in posterior and anterior surgery respectively.Conclusion Percutaneous endoscopic surgery provides minimally invasive alternatives for some cervical disc herniation with predominant radicular pain.Posterior endoscopic surgery is suitable for lateral herniation,and anterior endoscopic discectomy is suitable for some central soft herniation without obvious collapse and instability.However,the long-term results of disc space collapsed after anterior approach remains unclear.

12.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 935-942, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-708614

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the feasibility of anterior cervical decompression assisted with the microscope and mobile microendoscopic discectomy (MMED),and to compare their clinical efficacy.Methods From May 2015 to February 2017,thirty patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) underwent anterior cervical decompression assisted with microscope or MMED.Among them,conventional transverse anterior cervical incisions were used,and intervertebral distractors were placed in order to complete the decompression,then the fusion and fixation procedure were conducted under direct vision,and the operative time and intraoperative blood loss were recorded.Of 30 cases,15 cases were in microscope cohort (anterior cervical discectomy and fusion,ACDF 12 cases;anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion,ACCF 3 cases),including 4 males and 11 females with a mean age of 54.00±11.10 years (range,32-71 years).Another 15 cases were in MMED cohort (ACDF 13 cases,ACCF 2 cases),including 9 males and 6 females with a mean age of 59.60± 11.10 years (range,39-73 years).Neurological and cervical function were evaluated before surgery and at the follow-up according to the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the neck disability index (NDI) scores,and the neurologic improvement grade (NIG) was used to evaluate the neurological function.Results Both the microscope and MMED cohort underwent decompression successfully,and the visual field was clear.No neurological symptoms became worse.For the microscope,its lens and the instrument had to be adjusted separately,whereas MMED lens could move synchronously with the instrument.It was easier for MMED to reveal the posterior edge of the vertebral body and the left and right side of the spinal canal.The operation time of the microscope cohort was 90-180 min,with an average of 124.67±36.42 min;the M MED cohort was operated for 80-130 min with an average of 110.00± 15.12 min,and there was no significant difference between the two cohorts (t=1.440,P=0.161).The intraoperative blood loss for microscope cohort was 20-200 ml,with an average of 66.00±49.11 ml;MMED cohort was 30-150 ml with an average of 60.00±35.25 ml;there was no significant difference between the two cohorts (t=0.384,P=0.704).The JOA score of the microsurgery cohort improved from 8.67±3.20 preoperatively to 15.93± 1.53 at the latest follow-up,and its difference was significant (t=8.687,P=0.000).According to NIG,neurological improvement was excellent in 12 cases and good in 3 cases,giving an excellent to good rate of 100%.NDI was reduced from 18.00%±9.75% preoperatively to 5.93%±2.58% at the latest follow-up,with significant difference (t=5.137,P=0.000).The JOA score in MMED cohort improved from 8.87±3.11 preoperatively to 15.53±1.69 at the latest follow-up,and its difference was significant (t=9.413,P=0.000).and Among these 15 patients,11 were excellent and 4 were good,giving an excellent-good rate 100%.NDI decreased from 17.13%± 8.00% preoperatively to 5.80%±2.43% at the latest follow-up,and its difference was significant (t=5.592,P=0.000).There was no significant difference in JOA (t=0.680,P=0.502),NIG (P=1.000) and NDI (t=0.146,P=0.885) between the two cohorts at the latest follow-up.Conclusion Both microscope and MMED could provide a clear and magnified field of view,which was beneficial for adequate decompression during the anterior cervical surgery to ensure better clinical results.Compare to the microscope,MMED has relatively narrow indications and steep learning curve,so the surgeon should select cases strictly.

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Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 442-448, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-708559

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the influence of dynamic mechanical stimulation on the annulus fibrosus (AF) cells seeded on silk scaffolds.Methods AF cells were isolated from rabbits and were seeded on the scaffold,then cultured for 3,7,14 days with different range of dynamic compression.Stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of tissue engineering annulus fibrosus cells (TE-AFs).After fixation,samples were harvested for histological staining.AF cells related extracellular matrix (ECM) was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of total DNA,proteoglycan and collagen I.The mechanical properties were compared within different groups.Results Stereomicroscope and SEM results showed that the colors of TE-AFs in all groups were deepening with time going.SEM showed cell adhesion on the scaffold and the secretion of extracellular matrix.Histological,immunohistochemical staining,biochemical quantitative analysis and total DNA content showed that the AF cells inside scaffolds could support AF cell attachment,proliferation and secretion.As a result,the compressive properties were enhanced with increasing culture time.Stereomicroscope showed that the colors of TE-AFs in all groups were deepening with time going after dynamic compression.HE staining,Safranin O staining and Type Ⅰ collagen staining showed that cell proliferation and secretion,GAG secretion and collagen secretion were increased with time going within different groups.Quantitation of GAG achieved maximum in 15% strain group,and quantitation of collagen achieved maximum in 10% strain group.The total DNA content achieved maximum in 5% strain group,and compression elastic modulus achieved maximum in 15%strain goup.The height of TE-AFs did not change after mechanical stimulation for 14 days.Conclusion Suitable mechanical stimulation is a positive factor for new AF tissue engineering that will tend to the nature tissue.Excessive compression can accelerate the progress of cell apoptosis.

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Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 409-412,前插2, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-606752

ABSTRACT

Objective To provide a minimally invasive surgical treatment using mobile microendoscopy (mobile MED) for limited cervical spine canal stenosis. Methods Eleven patients were collected from February 2015 to February 2016 in Tianjin Hospital, including 6 males and 5 females, aged 51- 77 years, mean (67.4 ± 7.6) years. Clinical treatment was performed on 11 patients of limited cervical spinal stenosis. The levels of stenosis included C3-5 in 5 cases, C4-6 in 4 cases, C5-7 in 2 cases. The working channel of mobile MED (MMED) can be tilted according to the need of operation. The design of surgical methods:the levels of stenosis were located with fluroscopy, through a posterior median 2.5 cm incision, the nachal ligaments was separated and the spinous process was reached. After a little dissection of paraspinal mascle, the working canal was inserted along the spinous process, and the target lamina was exposed. With MMED, the partial laminectomy was performed along the junction groove of lamina and articular process with high-speed burr, and flavum was exposed and resected with ultra-thin Kerisson, and the dural sac was well exposed. Then the working canal was inserted on the contralateral side along the spinous process, and the decompression was performed with the same method. After bilateral direct decompression, the spinous process and posterior ligament complex shift posteriorly with enlargement of spinal canal. The operation time and blood loss were recorded and the efficacy was followed-up. Results There was no serious complications such as neurological injury. The operation time ranged 80-120 min, with an average of (100 ± 18) min. The intraoperative blood loss ranged (50-120) mL, with an average of (80 ± 20) mL. Postoperative CT showed sufficient decompression and enlargement of the canal with the posterior shift of the spinous process and posterior ligament complex. The patients were followed up for 6-18 months. The alignment of cervical spine was well preserved on X-ray. The ODI decreased from 42.2 ± 16.3 preoperatively to 6.2 ± 4.3. The JOA score improved from 8.2 ± 3.3 preoperatively to 15.1 ± 4.2 at the last follow-up. According to the improvement rate [(JOA-preoperative JOA)/(17-preoperative JOA)], the results were excellent in 5 cases, good in 5 cases, and effective in 1 case. Conclusion The cervical canal enlargement with mobile microendoscopic discectomy technique preserving posterior ligament composite provides a minimally invasive procedure for limited cervical stenosis with adequate decompression.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-638021

ABSTRACT

Background Normal ultrastructure is the anatomical basis of retinal pigment epithelial(RPE) cells to perform normal physiological function.At present the precipitation method is often used to detect the ultrastructure of RPE cells with transmission electron microscopy(TEM).Objective The aim of this study was to explore a simple and feasible approach to examine the ultrastructure of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cells.Methods hESCs were induced and differentiated into RPE cells by the spontaneous differentiation method,and the expressions of microphthalmia associated transcription factor MITF and paired-box gene 6 (PAX6),specific protein of RPE cells,in the cells were detected by immunofluorescence assay.hESC-RPE cells were inoculated into Transwell filter,and the ultrastructure of the cell sheet was examined under the TEM.Then the ultrastructure of the cell sheet specimens was compared with those of hESC-RPE cells from cell precipitation and RPE cell specimens of 90-day-old Long Evans rats.Results MITF and PAX6 were positively expressed in hESC-RPE cells.The normal ultrastructure were visible in the RPE cells of rats under the TEM,including apical microvilli,polarized melanin granules,cellular nucleus,basement membrane and intercellular junctions,and the ultrastructure of hESC-RPE cell sheet on Transwell was similar to the RPE cells in rats.However,only scatter melanin granules,nonpolar nucleus and scanty microvilli were observed under the TEM in the hESC-RPE cells by cell precipitation method.Conclusions Without digestion process,hESC-RPE cell sheet on Transwell can retain the normal ultrastructure of hESC-RPE cells under the TEM,with a more simple and reliable advantage.

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Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 910-913, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-496480

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of microendoscopic discectomy-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MED-TLIF) with mobile microendoscopic discectomy (MMED) technique. Methods The MMED includes outer working canal and inner operating canal. Large working canals and endoscopic chisel were fabricated for MMED-TLIF,which was designed as follow:the pedicles and index level were located with fluoroscopy, and a 2.5 cm incision was made between pedicle punctures sites on the symptomatic side. Working canal was inserted, and the facet was exposed,the inferior articular process and medial part of superior articular process were resected. The disc and cartilage endplates were curettage, and the intervertebral space was released and tested. The inner operating canal was removed and the interbody space was grafted and supported with suitable cage. Percutaneous pedicles screws were inserted and the residual displacement was evaluated under fluoroscopy, followed by the install of connecting rods for reduction and fixation. Fifty-six patients with lumbar stenosis including 32 cases of instability and spondylolisthesis (1 degree in 15 cases and 2 degree in 9 cases) were treated with this technique. The ODI index and VAS score were compared in patients before and after surgery. The efficacy was evaluated by Macnab standard. Results Surgery was successful in all patients, with no nerve injury or conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time was (120±30) min (range, 90–180 min),with a mean blood loss of (120±50) mL (range,50–200 mL). The post-operative X-ray and CT scans showed improvement of spinal alignment with mean reduction ratio of 72%. Patients were followed up for 6 to 36 months. The ODI score decreased from 50.1±11.2 to 5.8±5.6. The VAS score of lumbar decreased from 7.1±4.2 to 1.2±1.0 and VAS score of leg decreased from 4.1±2.5 to 1.1±0.9 at final follow-up. The clinical results were excellent in 36 cases,good in 20 according to the Macnab scale. Conclusion MED-TLIF can easily perform with MMED technique,with sufficient decompression and reduction, and providing satisfactory results with less invasive procedure.

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Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 1043-1047, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-496293

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of microendoscopic discectomy-lumbar interbody fusion (MED-LIF) with mobile microendoscopic discectomy (MMED) technique. Methods The MMED includes outer working canal and inner operating canal, and large working canals (12 mm and 14 mm) are fabricated for this operation. The operation was designed as follow:an incision was made between pedicle projection sites and spinous process on the side with prominent symptom. Working canal was inserted along spinous process and a fenestration was performed. After discectomy and ipsilateral decompression, contralateral nerve was decompressed in case of contralateral stenosis. Then the intervertebral space was prepared and grafted. The inner operating canal was removed and the suitable cage was inserted, followed by percutaneous pedicles screws installation, reduction and fixation. A total of 102 patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease were treated by this technique. The index levels included L34 (n=11), L45 (n=64), L5S1 (n=21), L3-5 (n=3), and L4-S1(n=3). The operative data and follow-up results were recorded and evaluated. Results Surgery was successful in all patients, with no nerve injury or conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time was ( 120 ± 30) min (range, 90-200 min), with a mean blood loss of (120 ± 80) mL (range, 50-300 mL). The post-operative X-ray and CT scans showed improvement of spinal alignment with sufficient decompression. Patients were followed up for 6 to 36 months. The Oswestry disability index (ODI) score decreased from the pre-operative 44.2%±16.3%to the last follow-up 4.9%±4.7%. The visual analog pain score (VAS) of lumbar decreased from the pre-operative 5.3±4.1 to the last follow-up 2.1±1.7, and VAS of leg decreased from the pre-operative 6.7 ± 3.5 to 1.0 ± 0.8 at final follow-up. The clinical results were excellent in 46 cases, good in 50 cases and fair in 6 cases according to the Macnab standard. Conclusion MED-LIF can be easily performed with MMED technique, with sufficient decompression and reduction, providing satisfactory results with less invasive procedure.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-637508

ABSTRACT

Background Researches showed that stem cells can rescue damaged cells through mitochondrial transfer.This mode has been used to regenerative cell-based therapy.Retinal pigment degeneration is an eye disease of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell apoptosis as pathogenetic mechanism.Whether stem cells can repair the target cells by above mechanism has not been clarified.Objective This study was to investigate the influence of mitochondrial transfer on the function of RPE cells.Methods The RPE cells of Long-Evans rats were isolated and cultured and the third generation of cells were used in sequential experiment.The cells were identified by detecting the expressions of RPE65 and Bestrophin proteins with immunofluorescence stain.Mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) (C17.2 strain) with green fluorescence protein (GFP) and without GFP were cultured.Mitotracker-green and Mitotracker-red staining were separately used to labeled the mitochondria of RPE cells and NSCs.RPE cells were cocultured with NSCs,and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was used to mark the tunneling nanotubes (TNT) between the two kinds of cells,and then the mitochondrial migration in TNT was exhibited by the laser scanning confocal microscope.The proportion of RPE cells in different cycles was assayed after marked with propidium iodide (PI) by flow cytometry.The contents of ATP,ADP and AMP in RPE cells were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results The third-generation of RPE cells grew well with the RPE65-and Bestrophinpositive rate >85%.The Mitotracker-red-labeled rates of NSCs and RPE cells were no less than 95%.TNT structure was seen to appear the blue fluorescence between RPE cells and NSCs 24 hours after co-cultured and the red dye mitochondria from NSCs migrated toward red dye mitochondria from RPEs with the lapse of time.The RPE cell proportion reduced in G1 phase and increased by 5% and 2% in the S phase and G2/M phase respectively after mitochondrial transfer than before (P=0.016,0.114,0.189).The contents of ATP,ADP and AMP in the RPE cells were (8.77 ±3.68),(2.76±0.92) and (1.07 ±0.65) μg/mg after cell co-culture,and those before co-culture were (11.29±2.29),(3.12±0.95) and (1.59± 1.22) μg/mg,without significant differences between them (P =0.370,0.668,0.553).Conclusions NSCs can transfer normal mitochondria to co-cultured RPEs via TNT structure.Mitochondrial exchange might be one of therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs recuing damaged RPE cells.

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Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 849-852, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-474009

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the application of PKH26 fluorescent labeling on nucleus pulposus cells isolat-ed from bovine coccyx disc, and to provide nucleus pulposus tissue engineering with traceable nucleus pulposus cells by PKH26 fluorescence labelling. Methods Nucleus pulposus primary cells were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissue de-tached from bovine coccyx disc by enzymatic digestion, and observed under the inverted microscope. Safranin O, toluidine blue and type Ⅱ collagen immunocytochemistry methods used to stain for passage one generation cells. Nucleus pulposus cells were labeled with PKH26 fluorescence in accordance with the instructions. The cell activity, fluorescence intensity at d0, d14 and d28 of culture, characteristics of proliferation and the expression of gene in labeled cells were assessed. Re-sults Isolated nucleus pulposus cells amounted to (1.56 ± 0.35) × 106/g. Under the inverted microscope, primary cells ad-hered at the 4 th day of culture, grew in groups, and covered the bottom of culture flask at the 13 th day. Both primary cells and the P1 generation cells were chondrocyte-like morphology. The staining of safranin O, toluidine blue and typeⅡcolla-gen immunocytochemistry for P1 generation of nucleus pulposus cells showed positive results. The cell activity before and af-ter PKH26 labeling showed more than 95%, and the fluorescence intensity at d0, d14 and d28 performed a decreasing trend, but still showed detect strong fluorescence at d28. There were no significant differences in proliferation and the expression of gene (collagen typeⅠandⅡ, aggrecan) before and after cell labeling (P>0.05). Conclusion As the seed cells of tissue en-gineering, nucleus pulposus cells isolated from bovine coccyx can reach a satisfactory number and maintain cartilage-like phenotype, and no changes shown in the biological characteristics after labeling. PKH26 labeled nucleus pulposus cells are suitable for the traceable cells in vivo study.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-430584

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of medical sciences in recent years,tissue engineering technology has made great achievements,while the choosing of seed cells has been a major focus of the field.Adipose-derived cells have the advantages of rapid expansion,good stability,no immune rejection and potential of multiplex differentiation.They can differentiate into cells originated from different germ layers such as:adipocytes,osteoblasts,chondrocytes,endothelial cells,myocytes,neuronal cells and so on.Besides,adipose tissue can be harvested easily and substantially with small trauma to human body.So ADSCs are expected to be an ideal choice of seed cells in tissue engineering.This article introduces the research progress of ADSCs in osteochondral tissue engineering.

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