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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 343-352, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922910

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy burdening people globally, with increasing morbidity and mortality nowadays, due to the alternation in the diet type and lifestyle in modern society. Berberine, a type of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is widely present in numerous medicinal plants, particularly including Coptidis Rhizoma. Mounting evidence reveals that berberine possesses an array of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-bacterium, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes mellitus and so on. In particular, berberine exhibits substantial inhibition on various types of cancers including CRC. Hereby, we sought to systematically review the suppressive effect of berberine on CRC through the diminishment of the proliferation and metastasis, induction of apoptosis, arrest of cell cycle, regulation of inflammatory reaction, the reverse of chemotherapeutic resistance and restoration of gut microbiota in CRC, so as to shed light on the in-depth mechanisms underlying the treatment of CRC with berberine in the clinical setting.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the pharmacological effect of ursolic acid (UA) on colitis-associated colorec?tal cancer (CAC) and its underlying mechanism based on the Wnt signaling pathway. METHODS The CAC model in mice was established by azoxymethane (AOM) combined and dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS), accompanied by treat?ment with various dosages of UA and concomitant appraisal of body weight, stool and physical state of the mice. After the sacrifice of the mice, the tumor and length of the colorectum were measured, followed by retrieval of the liver, spleen, thymus and tumor tissue for downstream assays. The levels of inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1βand C-reactive protein (CRP) in the tumor and serum were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The pathological changes of colorectal tissues were observed by HE staining. The levels in tumors of Wnt/β-catenin sig?naling pathway-related proteins Wnt4, GSK-3β, β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 were assayed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The mRNA expressions of Wnt4, GSK-3β,β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 in tumors were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The protein levels of Wnt4, GSK-3β, β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, phospho-β-catenin, phospho-GSK-3β, Bcl-2 and Bax in tumors were probed by analyzed by Western blotting (WB). Also, RNA-seq was employed to assess the gut microbiota in the mice. RESULTS UA significantly ameliorated the symptoms of AOM/DSS-induced mouse CAC, evidenced by improved physical state, body weight, survival rate, colorectal length, the mass of liver, thy?mus, spleen, and decreased CAC load and colorectal mass. UA attenuated the levels of IL-6, IL-1β and CRP in the mouse serum and colorectal tumor in a dose-dependent manner. HE staining showed that UA lessened carcinogenesis in the colorectum, with lower infiltration of lymphocytes, versus the control. IHC indicated that UA mitigated the expres?sion of Wnt4,β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and promoted the GSK-3βexpression, compared with the control. Furthermore, UA diminished the mRNA expressions of Wnt4, β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and heightened the mRNA levels of GSK-3β, caspase-3, capase-9 and Bax in CAC. The results of mRNA expressions were verified by WB analysis, which revealed that UA impeded the protein expression of Wnt4,β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, TCF4, LEF1, and elevated the protein levels of GSK-3βand Bax, phospho-β-catenin in mouse CAC. In addi?tion, UA substantially ameliorated the gut microbiota to store the metabolic function in the mice with CAC. CONCLU?SION Ursolic acid may protect against CAC, potentially by downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity and restoration of gut microbiota.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of scutellarin on the apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via the Hippo signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS MTT colorimetric method was used to detect the influence of scutellar?in on the survival rate of HCT116 cells. And the effect of scutellarin at various concentrations on cell morphology was observed by microscopy. Cell scratch experiment was used to detect the influence of scutellarin on the migration of HCT116 cells. Hoechst33342/PI double staining method was used to detect the effect of scutellarin on the apoptosis of HCT116 cells. Western blotting method was used to assess the action of scutellarin on the expressions of Hippo signal?ing pathway-related proteins Mst1, Lats1, YAP1, p-YAP(Ser127), TAZ, and its downstream effector proteins c-Myc and cyclin D1, as well as apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in HCT116 cells. RESULTS Scutellarin significantly affected the morphology of HCT116 cells and reduced the survival rate of HCT116 cells. Hoechst33342/PI double stain?ing showed that scutellarin effectively induced the apoptosis of HCT116 cells. Western blotting analysis showed that the expression levels of Hippo signaling pathway-related proteins Mst1, Lats1, YAP1, TAZ and its downstream effector pro?teins c-Myc, cyclin D1 were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by scutellarin, and the expression of p-YAP (ser127) was up-regulated. Moreover, scutellarin substantially lessened the expression level of apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2, and promoted the protein level of Bax. CONCLUSION Scutellarin may inhibit the proliferation and migra?tion of HCT116 cells, while induce its apoptosis, potentially by activation of Hippo signaling pathway.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the inhibition and mechanism of berberine on human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells through canonical Hedgehog signaling pathway. METHODS The effect of berberine on cell morphology was observed by microscopy. MTT colorimetric assay, cell scratch experiment, colony formation assay and Hoechest/PI staining were utilized to detect the activities of berberine on cell viability, cell migration and cell apoptosis. Flow cytome?try was applied to examine the cell apoptosis. The effects of berberine on caspase-3 and caspase-9 were detected by caspase activity detection kit. The expressions of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related proteins SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, SUFU, apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related proteins cyclin D1 were detected by Western blotting. Additionally, quantitative real time RT-PCR was employed to assess the mRNA expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related genes SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, SUFU, apoptosis-related genes Bax and Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related genes cyclin D1. RESULTS Berberine sharply altered the morphology of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, demonstrated by that migration ability of HCT116 cells was reduced significantly and the nuclei were densely stained. Berberine could induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased prominently. The expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related protein SUFU and apoptosis-related protein Bax were augmented substantially. The expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related proteins SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related genes cyclin D1 were markedly lessened. Besides, the mRNA expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related gene SUFU and apoptosis-related gene Bax were augmented substantially. The mRNA expression levels of Hedgehog signaling path?way-related genes SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, apoptosis-related gene Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related gene cyclin D1 were markedly lessened. CONCLUSION Berberine, which is the main component of coptidis rhizoma, can remarkably restrain the growth and proliferation, promote apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells HCT116, and the underlying mechanism may be involved in suppressing the activity of the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909606

ABSTRACT

Oleanolic acid (OA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid chemical component that exists in natural plants with a molecular formula of C30H48O3 and a molecular weight at 456.71 g·mol-1. OA is widespread in traditional Chinese herbal medicine (Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Achyranthis Bidentate Radix, Red Sage) and berries (blueberries, grapes). In recent years, because of the extensive pharmacological effects of OA, its advantages in disease treatment have become increasingly prominent and gradually attracted the attention of pharmaceutical researchers. OA has effective therapeutic effects on a series of chronic diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases through mul?tiple signaling pathways and various targets. Especially in cancers, such as colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and other malignancies, OA presents substantial efficacy. However, its poor aqueous solubility, needy bioavailability, and unsatisfactory pharmacological activity excessively restrict its clinical application. More impor?tantly, the improper utilization of OA can cause adverse reactions, toxic effects and even damage to organs in some spe?cific situations. With the discovery of various pharmacological effects, the complex action mechanisms of OA, the contin?uous progress in structural modification of OA, as well as the synthesis of OA derivatives, its application is expand?ing gradually. Among numerous studies, there is a clear indication that OA and its derivatives, if fully developed, may provide an alternative and cheaper treatment for a variety of chronic diseases. However, the specific molecular mecha?nisms of OA and its derivatives as an alternative therapy and supplementary therapy for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases remain to be clarified. Therefore, it is necessary to further study the pharmacokinet?ics, pharmacological activity, specific targets and related mechanisms of OA to lay a solid foundation for drug devel?opment and the application of OA in clinical settings.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909601

ABSTRACT

Pulsatilla chinensis is a widely used traditional Chinese herb, which contains 56 types of chemical constit?uents, mainly including triterpenoid saponins, organic acids, coumarins and lignans. The largest portion of the ingredi?ents in Pulsatilla chinensis is the family of triterpenoid saponins, in which anemoside B4 is the major effective compound and indexing component. The main components of Pulsatilla chinensis can metabolize into a vast array of active prod?ucts in vivo, which play vital roles in its biological activity. Mounting evidence reveals that Pulsatilla chinensis exerts a wide range of therapeutic activities, such as anti-cancer, immunoregulation, anti-inflammation and anti-schistosome, with fewer adverse reactions, via various signaling pathways and multiple targets. It was documented that the active ingre?dient of Pulsatilla chinensis can lessen the drug resistance and synergize the effects of other natural products includ?ing paclitaxel, as well as ameliorate the clinical efficacy of chemical drugs, such as adriamycin. However, Pulsatilla chi?nensis was also reported to be possibly the main cause of hemolysis and chronic liver injury. The efforts should be made to deeply investigate the pharmacological actions and underlying mechanisms of Pulsatilla chinensis, with a focus on the anti-cancer efficacy, and develop new drugs based on the components of Pulsatilla chinensis for future utilization in the clinical setting.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To identify the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid on the colorectal cancer HCT116 cells in vitro and in vivo, and to explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS The smoothened (SMO) gene-silenced human colorectal cancer HCT116hSMO- cell line was established by transfection with the lentivirus carrying SMO shRNA. The cytotoxic effect of ursolic acid on HCT116hSMO-cells was determined by MTT assay. The effect of ursolic acid on the migration of HCT116hSMO- cells was studied by wound healing assay. The effect of ursolic acid on apoptosis of HCT116hSMO-cells was explored by Hoechst33342/PI double staining and flow cytometry. The effects of ursolic acid on the expressions of apoptotic marker gene Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting (WB) analysis. RT-qPCR and WB were used to examine the relationship between GLI1, c-Myc expression and PI3K/Akt pathway to further investigate the mechanism of GLI1 activation in HCT116hSMO- cells. The effects of ursolic acid on the expressions of GLI1, p-Akt, Akt, c-Myc, SHH and SUFU of nonca?nonical Hedgehog pathway were evaluated by RT-qPCR and WB assays. Xenograft nude mouse model bearing HCT116hSMO- cells was established and intraperitoneally treated with ursolic acid to investigate the effect on tumor growth in vivo. The body weight and tumor size of mice were assessed regularly every 2 d. The effect of ursolic acid on the apoptosis of tumor tissue was determined by TUNEL assay. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, GLI1, p-Akt, Akt, c-Myc, SHH, SUFU mRNA and proteins were measured by RT-qPCR and WB. The levels of Bcl-2, Bax, GLI1, p-Akt, c-Myc and SHH proteins in tumor tissues were also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Ursolic acid significantly inhibited the growth and migration of HCT116hSMO-cells in vitro, compared with the control (P<0.05). Meanwhile, ursolic acid also induced apoptosis of HCT116hSMO- cells in vitro (P<0.05). Furthermore, SC79 (Akt activator) enhanced the expressions of p-Akt, GLI1 and c-Myc, which could be abolished by ursolic acid, and the effect was equal to Akt inhibitor LY294002. The expressions of Bcl-2, GLI1, p-Akt, c-Myc, SHH mRNA and proteins were reduced by ursolic acid, while the levels of Bax and SUFU were increased. Ursolic acid could inhibit the growth and induce the apoptosis of colorectal cancer xeno?graft in vivo. Similarly, lower levels of Bcl-2, GLI1, p-Akt, c-Myc and SHH, and higher expression of Bax and SUFU were noted in ursolic acid-treated mice. CONCLUSION Ursolic acid can inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of HCT116hSMO- cells both in vitro and in vivo. And the mechanism is related to the suppression of PI3K/Akt-mediated noncanonical Hedgehog signaling pathway.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the therapeutic effect of scutellarin on colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and its underlying mechanism based on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. METHODS The mouse model of CAC was estab?lished by azomethane oxide (AOM) and sodium dextran sulfate (DSS), followed by scutellarin treatment, with recording the body weight, diarrhea and hematochezia. After sacrificing the mice, the colorectal length and colorectal tumor were assessed. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 in mice's sera were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The colorectal lesions were appraised by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Theβ-catenin level in CAC tissues was probed by immunofluorescent analysis. The apoptosis-related genes Bax and Bcl-2, and Wnt signaling pathway-related genes β-catenin, GSK-3β, TCF4, c-Myc and cyclin D1 were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Finally, Western blotting analysis (WB) was employed to examine the expressions of the apoptosis and Wnt signaling pathway-related proteins. RESULTS Scutellarin significantly improved AOM/DSS-caused weight loss, colorectal length shortening, and tumor growth in mice (P<0.01). Meanwhile, colorectal lesions could be substantially alleviated by scutellarin. ELISA results showed that the levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-αand IL-6 were drastically lessened (P<0.01). Scutellarin also sharply inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, as evidenced by the reduction in the nuclear level ofβ-catenin protein. In addition, scutellarin attenuated the mRNA expres?sion of Wnt signaling pathway-relatedβ-catenin, TCF4, c-Myc and cyclin D1, whereas it heightened GSK-3βmRNA level. These results were consolidated by WB analysis, which indicated that scutellarin could mitigate the protein levels of phospho-GSK-3β,β-catenin, TCF4, c-Myc and cyclin D1, with the increase in GSK-3β protein in CAC tissue. Moreover, scutellarin could induce the apoptosis of CAC, demonstrated by enhanced expression of Bax and diminished expression of Bcl-2 in both mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSION Scutellarin may ameliorate colitis-associated colorectal cancer by weakening Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906322

ABSTRACT

The homology of medicine and food has long been recognized in China, and the medicinal and edible resources are often employed to prevent and treat diseases or maintain health in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Due to the unique geographical and climatic conditions, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (hereinafter referred to as Xinjiang) is blessed with abundant medicinal and edible resources, like Rosae Rugosae Flos, Punica granatum, and Amygdalus communis, which have been widely used by local ethnic communities as medicine in light of the remarkable pharmacological activities, guaranteeing their health condition to some extent. This paper collected the relevant articles from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database through the keyword and full-text search with the medicinal and edible resource Rosae Rugosae Flos as the search term, and the subsequent analysis revealed that the medicinal and edible resources in Xinjiang has a wide range of applications in food, medicine, and ecological protection. This paper further explored their research value, status, and prospects, so as to provide some references for the rational, effective, and sustainable development and utilization of these medicinal and edible resources in Xinjiang, thus better achieving "poverty alleviation" and "rural revitalization", popularizing TCM culture, and building a healthy China.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906010

ABSTRACT

Xinjiang is rich in resources of medicinal plants, which are widely used in ethnic medicines because of their remarkable pharmacological activities and safeguard lives and health of people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang and local health services. The ethnic medicines in Xinjiang are harmonious but different and united in diversity. Besides, they also promote each other and develop together, constituting an inseparable and important part of traditional Chinese medicine in China. Among them, Uygur medicine, Kazak medicine, Kirgiz medicine, Tajik medicine, and Tatar medicine are predominant in regional characteristics, but the development of the ethnic medicine industry in Xinjiang is backward. In recent years, Xinjiang ethnic medicines have been reported to possess significant pharmacological activities, which deserve further development and investigation. However, the development of ethnic medicines in Xinjiang has been restricted severely due to the lack of effective inheritance of practice and experience, weak basic research, insufficient brand awareness, resource destruction, etc. This study analyzed the medicinal value, development status, and prospects of Xinjiang ethnic medicines and summarized the problems in the modernization of ethnic medicines in Xinjiang to provide some scientific references for the follow-up development and clinical application of Xinjiang ethnic medicines, aiming to promote the sustainable development of traditional ethnic medicines of China.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899144

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The rate of donepezil discontinuation and the underlying reasons for discontinuation in Asian patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are currently unknown. We aimed to determine the treatment discontinuation rates in AD patients who had newly been prescribed donepezil in routine clinical practice in Asia. @*Methods@#This 1-year observational study involved 38 institutions in seven Asian countries, and it evaluated 398 participants aged 50–90 years with a diagnosis of probable AD and on newly prescribed donepezil monotherapy. The primary endpoint was the rate of donepezil discontinuation over 1 year. Secondary endpoints included the reason for discontinuation,treatment duration, changes in cognitive function over the 1-year study period, and compliance as assessed using a clinician rating scale (CRS) and visual analog scale (VAS). @*Results@#Donepezil was discontinued in 83 (20.9%) patients, most commonly due to an adverse event (43.4%). The mean treatment duration was 103.67 days in patients who discontinued. Among patients whose cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 1 year, there were no significant changes in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Trail-Making Test–Black and White scores, whereas the Clinical Dementia Rating score increased significantly (p<0.001). Treatment compliance at 1 year was 96.8% (306/316) on the CRS and 92.6±14.1% (mean±standard deviation) on the VAS. @*Conclusions@#In patients on newly prescribed donepezil, the primary reason for discontinuation was an adverse event. Cognitive assessments revealed no significant worsening at 1 year, indicating that continuous donepezil treatment contributes to the maintenance of cognitive function.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897895

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of titrating dose of rivastigmine oral solution in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Taiwan. @*Methods@#We recruited 108 mild to moderate AD patients with RivastⓇ (rivastigmine oral solution 2 mg/ml) treatment for 52 weeks. We recorded the demographic characteristics, initial cognition by mini-mental state examination (MMSE), initial global status by clinical dementia rating (CDR) with CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), initial dose, and titrating dose at each visit. We investigated the adherence, proportion of possible side effects, optimal dose, and time to optimal dose. We demonstrated the proportion of cognitive decline and its possible risk factors. @*Results@#During the course, 9 patients discontinued the rivastigmine oral solution due to poor compliance or preference. Twelve out of 99 patients (12.1%) reported possible side effects. Among 87 patients, the mean age was 77.2 ± 9.0 years ago with female predominant (65.2%). The optimal dose was 3.6 ± 1.4 ml in average and 4 ml (n = 31, 35.6%) in mode. The duration to optimal dose was 12.5 ± 10.2 weeks and 24 weeks (n = 35, 40.2%) in mode. It presented 25% with cognitive decline in MMSE, 27% with global function decline in CDR and 63% with global function decline in CDR-SB. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated the clinical experience of rivastigmine oral solution in mild to moderate AD patients. It suggested rivastigmine oral solution 4ml is the optimal dose with 24 weeks to the optimal dose for at least one third of patients.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891440

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The rate of donepezil discontinuation and the underlying reasons for discontinuation in Asian patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are currently unknown. We aimed to determine the treatment discontinuation rates in AD patients who had newly been prescribed donepezil in routine clinical practice in Asia. @*Methods@#This 1-year observational study involved 38 institutions in seven Asian countries, and it evaluated 398 participants aged 50–90 years with a diagnosis of probable AD and on newly prescribed donepezil monotherapy. The primary endpoint was the rate of donepezil discontinuation over 1 year. Secondary endpoints included the reason for discontinuation,treatment duration, changes in cognitive function over the 1-year study period, and compliance as assessed using a clinician rating scale (CRS) and visual analog scale (VAS). @*Results@#Donepezil was discontinued in 83 (20.9%) patients, most commonly due to an adverse event (43.4%). The mean treatment duration was 103.67 days in patients who discontinued. Among patients whose cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 1 year, there were no significant changes in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Trail-Making Test–Black and White scores, whereas the Clinical Dementia Rating score increased significantly (p<0.001). Treatment compliance at 1 year was 96.8% (306/316) on the CRS and 92.6±14.1% (mean±standard deviation) on the VAS. @*Conclusions@#In patients on newly prescribed donepezil, the primary reason for discontinuation was an adverse event. Cognitive assessments revealed no significant worsening at 1 year, indicating that continuous donepezil treatment contributes to the maintenance of cognitive function.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890191

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of titrating dose of rivastigmine oral solution in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Taiwan. @*Methods@#We recruited 108 mild to moderate AD patients with RivastⓇ (rivastigmine oral solution 2 mg/ml) treatment for 52 weeks. We recorded the demographic characteristics, initial cognition by mini-mental state examination (MMSE), initial global status by clinical dementia rating (CDR) with CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), initial dose, and titrating dose at each visit. We investigated the adherence, proportion of possible side effects, optimal dose, and time to optimal dose. We demonstrated the proportion of cognitive decline and its possible risk factors. @*Results@#During the course, 9 patients discontinued the rivastigmine oral solution due to poor compliance or preference. Twelve out of 99 patients (12.1%) reported possible side effects. Among 87 patients, the mean age was 77.2 ± 9.0 years ago with female predominant (65.2%). The optimal dose was 3.6 ± 1.4 ml in average and 4 ml (n = 31, 35.6%) in mode. The duration to optimal dose was 12.5 ± 10.2 weeks and 24 weeks (n = 35, 40.2%) in mode. It presented 25% with cognitive decline in MMSE, 27% with global function decline in CDR and 63% with global function decline in CDR-SB. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated the clinical experience of rivastigmine oral solution in mild to moderate AD patients. It suggested rivastigmine oral solution 4ml is the optimal dose with 24 weeks to the optimal dose for at least one third of patients.

15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3915-3932, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921476

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD) technology facilitates specific and efficient degradation of disease-related proteins through hijacking the two major protein degradation systems in mammalian cells: ubiquitin-proteasome system and lysosome pathway. Compared with traditional small molecule-inhibitors, TPD-based drugs exhibit the characteristics of a broader target spectrum. Compared with techniques interfere with protein expression on the gene and mRNA level, TPD-based drugs are target-specific, efficaciously rapid, and not constrained by post-translational modification of proteins. In the past 20 years, various TPD-based technologies have been developed. Most excitingly, two TPD-based therapeutic drugs have been approved by FDA for phase Ⅰ clinical trials in 2019. Despite of the early stage characteristics and various obstructions of the TPD technology, it could serve as a powerful tool for the development of novel drugs. This review summarizes the advances of different degradation systems based on TPD technologies and their applications in disease therapy. Moreover, the advantages and challenges of various technologies were discussed systematically, with the aim to provide theoretical guidance for further application of TPD technologies in scientific research and drug development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Technology
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 593-603, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873771

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effect of tumor photodynamic therapy is severely limited by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Inhibiting tumor celloxygen consumption is a more effective way than increasing its oxygen supply to overcome the tumor hypoxia and enhance photodynamic therapy. To carry out this strategy, the supramolecular nanoparticles VER-ATO-SMN loaded with photosensitizer verteporfin (VER), oxygen-consuming inhibitor atovaquone (ATO), and stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-K30 were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method, and the optimal prescription was screened and optimized by single factor experiments. The results showed that the optimal prescription for VER-ATO-SMN was ATO∶VER (w/w) = 1∶1, PVP-K30 = 100 mg, N,N-dimethylformamide∶water (v/v) = 1∶10. The morphology, particle size, particle dispersion index and encapsulation efficiency of supramolecular nanoparticles were characterized. The VER-ATO-SMN showed a spherical morphology and was well dispersed. The hydrodynamic size of VER-ATO-SMN was 101.21 ± 4.30 nm as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The encapsulation efficiencies of VER and ATO in VER-ATO-SMN prepared with the optimal prescription were 70.86% and 77.52%, respectively. The VER-ATO-SMN exhibited good laser stability and also showed high stability in conditions which simulated the physiological solution. Compared with free VER and VER liposome, VER-ATO-SMN performed enhanced therapeutic effect at the cell level. The mechanism was that VER-ATO-SMN could effectively incorporate into cells and improving the intracellular oxygen concentration by reducing the oxygen consumption of tumor cells could increase the amount of reactive oxygen species generated by VER mediated photodynamic therapy. The in vivo anticancer efficacy results of tumor-bearing mice suggested that VER-ATO-SMN could effectively inhibit the tumor growth or even completely eliminate the tumor. All animal experiments were performed in line with national regulations and approved by the Animal Experiments Ethical Committee of 900 Hospital of the Joint Logistics Team.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 306-313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872611

ABSTRACT

To improve the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT), a fluorocarbon microemulsion-based gel (FMBG) loaded with both 5-ALA and carbon dioxide (CO2) was prepared in this study. Its physical and chemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, morphology, pH value and viscosity were characterized. Acid-base titration experiment was used to determine the CO2 loading, a fluorescence derivatization method was established to determine the content of 5-ALA, and the confocal laser scanning microscope and Franz diffusion cell method were carried out to investigate its transdermal ability. Through the laser speckle contrast imaging, the CO2-affected blood flow perfusion of skin was measured. Finally, the skin irritation test was tested by hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E) method. These results showed that the prepared FMBG was a milky white gel, with an average particle size of 202.4 nm, a zeta potential of -25.3 mV, a pH of 6.0, and a viscosity of 1 062.0 mPa·s. It can be stored stably for seven days at room temperature. The 5-ALA content of FMBG was measured to be approximately equal to 20% (w/w). At room temperature and normal pressure, the CO2 loading content of FMBG was 5.016 mg·L-1, which was 1.5 times as much as that of water. The transdermal absorption experiment and blood perfusion results showed that the FMBG can effectively enable the transdermal delivery of 5-ALA and CO2, and significantly increased the blood perfusion of skin. H&E staining results indicated that FMBG had negligible skin irritation (all animal tests were approved by the Ethics Committee of 900 Hospital of the Joint Logistics Team). In this study, a safe and stable FMBG loaded with both 5-ALA and CO2 was successfully prepared. It was suitable for transdermal application, having the potential of enhancing the efficacy of 5-ALA-mediated PDT.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879025

ABSTRACT

To prove that ursolic acid(UA)could activate the autophagy of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells by inhibiting hedgehog signaling pathway. The effect of UA on the viability of HCT116 cells was determined by MTT assay. The effect of UA on the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells was detected by crystal violet staining and scratch test. In the study on autophagy, the time points were screened out first: the autophagy fluorescence intensity of UA acting on HCT116 at different time points were detected by Cell Meter~(TM) Autophagy Assay Kit; Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy protein P62 at different time points. Then, Cell Meter~(TM) Autophagy Assay Kit was used to detect the effect of UA on autophagy fluorescence intensity of HCT116 cells. The effect of different doses of UA on the expressions of LC3Ⅱ and P62 proteins in HCT116 cells were detected by Western blot. Further, AdPlus-mCherry-GFP-LC3 B adenovirus transfection was used to detect the effects of UA on autophagy flux of HCT116 cells; UA combined with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine(CQ) was used to detect the expression of LC3Ⅱ by Western blot. In terms of mechanism, the effect of UA on hedgehog signaling pathway-related proteins in HCT116 cells was detected by Western blot. The results showed that UA inhibited the activity, proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells. UA enhanced the fluorescence intensity of autophagy in HCT116 cells, while promoting the expression of LC3Ⅱ and inhibiting the expression of P62, in a time and dose dependent manner. UA activated the autophagy in HCT116 cells, which manifested that UA resulted in the accumulation of fluorescence spots and strengthened the fluorescence intensity of autophagosomes; compared with UA alone, UA combined with autophagy inhibitor CQ promoted the expression of LC3Ⅱ. UA reduced the expressions of PTCH1, GLI1, SMO, SHH and c-Myc in hedgehog signaling pathway, while increased the expression of Sufu. In conclusion, our study showed that UA activated autophagy in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, which was related to the mechanism in inhibiting hedgehog signaling pathway activity.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms , Hedgehog Proteins/genetics , Humans , Signal Transduction , Triterpenes
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 727-734, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833176

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophagogastric junction adenocarci-noma (EJA) is a malignant tumor associated with high mor-bidity and has attracted increasing attention due to a rising incidence and low survival rate. Pathological biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis, but noninvasive and effective tests are lacking, resulting in diagnoses at advanced stages.This study explored the diagnostic value of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) in EJA. @*Methods@#A total of 120 EJA patients and 88 normal controls were recruited, and their serum levels of IGFBP7 were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating character-istic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic value, and Pearson chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between IGFBP7 and clinical parameters. Ka-plan-Meier survival analysis was carried out to assess the ef-fect of IGFBP7 on overall survival (OS). @*Results@#The levels of IGFBP7 were higher in both early- and late-stage EJA patients than in normal controls (p<0.001). The area under the ROC curve for EJA patients was 0.794 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.733 to 0.854), with a cutoff value of 2.716 ng/mL, a sensitivity of 63.3% (95% CI, 54.0% to 71.8%) and a specific-ity of 90.9% (95% CI, 82.4% to 95.7%). For the diagnosis of early-stage EJA, the same cutoff value and specificity were obtained, but the sensitivity of IGFBP7 was 54.3% (95% CI, 36.9% to 70.8%). Patients with low IGFBP7 protein expres-sion had lower OS than those with high expression (p=0.034).The multivariate analysis showed that IGFBP7 is an inde-pendent prognostic factor for EJA (p=0.011). @*Conclusions@#Serum IGFBP7 acts as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for EJA.

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Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 103-108, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844559

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of the peptide compound urantide on the expression of type I collagen (Col I ) in the heart tissue of rats with atherosclerosis ( As) , and to explore its mechanism of prevention and treatment of heart damage in As rats. Methods Sixty healthy male 3-week-old SPF Wistar rats were selected. The As model was established by intraperitoneal injection of vitamin D3(VD3) to damage the arterial intima and high-fat diet. They were randomly divided into normal group, As model group, simvastatin group and urantide (3 days, 7 days, 14 days) groups. HE staining and Masson trichrome staining were used to observe the morphology and collagen fiber expression of rat hearts. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and Real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of Col I protein and gene in rat heart. Results Compared with the normal group, pathological phenomena such As myocardial cell degeneration, intercellular infiltration of a large number of neutrophils, scattered foam cells and hyperemia and hemorrhage were observed in the heart tissues of the As model group. Meanwhile, collagen fibers increased, and the gene and protein expression levels of Col I increased. Compared with the As model group, the cardiac pathological phenomena were effectively alleviated after the treatment with urantide. With the extension of the administration time, the collagen fibers decreased, and the gene and protein expression levels of Col I were gradually down-regulated, especially the effect was the best when the drug was given for 14 days. Conclusion Urantide can inhibit the expression of Col I in As heart to reduce myocardial interstitial damage, and has a protective effect on the heart of As rats.

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