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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001935

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic and progressive granulomatous enteritis and economic losses in dairy cattle in subclinical stages.Subclinical infection in cattle can be detected using serum MAP antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. @*Objectives@#To investigate the differences in blood parameters, according to the detection of MAP using serum antibody ELISA and fecal PCR tests. @*Methods@#We divided 33 subclinically infected adult cattle into three groups: seronegative and fecal-positive (SNFP, n = 5), seropositive and fecal-negative (SPFN, n = 10), and seropositive and fecal-positive (SPFP, n = 18). Hematological and serum biochemical analyses were performed. @*Results@#Although the cows were clinically healthy without any manifestations, the SNFP and SPFP groups had higher platelet counts, mean platelet volumes, plateletcrit, lactate dehydrogenase levels, lactate levels, and calcium levels but lower mean corpuscular volume concentration than the SPFN group (p 0.017). @*Conclusions@#The cows with fecal-positive MAP status had different blood parameters from those with fecal-negative MAP status, although they were subclinically infected. These findings provide new insights into understanding the mechanism of MAP infection in subclinically infected cattle.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001133

ABSTRACT

Human Q fever, a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, presents with diverse clinical manifestations ranging from mild self-limited febrile illnesses to life-threatening complications such as endocarditis or vascular infection. Although acute Q fever is a benign illness with a low mortality rate, a large-scale outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands led to concerns about the possibility of blood transfusion-related transmission or obstetric complications in pregnant women. Furthermore, a small minority (< 5%) of patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic infection progress to chronic Q fever. Chronic Q fever is fatal in 5–50% of patients if left untreated. In South Korea, Q fever in humans was designated as a notifiable infectious disease in 2006, and the number of Q fever cases has increased sharply since 2015. Nonetheless, it is still considered a neglected and under-recognized infectious disease. In this review, recent trends of human and animal Q fever in South Korea, and public health concerns regarding Q fever outbreaks are reviewed, and we consider how a One Health approach could be applied as a preventive measure to prepare for zoonotic Q fever outbreaks.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977141

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is one of the most important emerging transboundary diseases.Recently, LSD has emerged in many countries in the northern hemisphere. The LSD virus has a huge genome and is highly resistant to environmental conditions. The virus is also host-specific and large ruminants, such as cattle and domestic water buffalo, are particularly susceptible. In addition, wild ruminants can serve as potential reservoirs for spreading the LSD virus. The emergence might be related to climate change in various regions because LSD is an arthropod-borne infectious disease. This disease causes enormous economic losses, such as leather damage, decreased milk production, abortion, and death in infected ruminants. The economic importance of LSD in the bovine industry has forced countries to develop and implement control strategies against the disease. With the recent global spread and the economic impact, LSD will be discussed intensively. In addition, effective preventive measures are suggested based on the presence or absence of LSD outbreaks.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926479

ABSTRACT

Background@#Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHP) are economically significant pathogens in the pig industry. The use of combined vaccines against PCV2 and MHP is one of the most effective ways of protecting pigs from both diseases, and it has become a part of general management. @*Objectives@#This study evaluated the efficacy of two new bivalent vaccines of PCV2 and MHP (Myco-X and Myco-XD) in SPF pigs. Myco-X and Myco-XD are a combined vaccine of MHP with PCV2b and PCV2d, respectively. @*Methods@#Sixteen pigs were divided into four groups: Myco-X-vaccinated challenged, Myco-XD-vaccinated challenged, unvaccinated challenged, and unvaccinated unchallenged.Two milliliters of Myco-X were administered intramuscularly, and 0.5 mL of Myco-XD was injected intradermally at 3 wk of age. The pigs were challenged with virulent PCV2d via the intramuscular and intranasal route 4 wk post-vaccination. @*Results@#All vaccinated pigs showed effective reduction of the clinical signs, the PCV2d load in the blood and nasal swab samples, as well as lung and lymphoid tissue lesions in the challenge test. Compared to unvaccinated challenged animals, the vaccinated challenged animals showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of anti-PCV2 IgG, PCV2d-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and anti-MHP IgG. @*Conclusions@#Based on clinical, microbiological, serological, and pathological assessments, this study confirmed that both combined vaccines could protect pigs against PCV2 infection caused by PCV2d. On the other hand, further research on the efficacy evaluation of these new vaccines against the MHP challenge and PCV2d/MHP co-challenge is needed.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836815

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic, wasting infectious disease in ruminants that causes enormous economic losses to the dairy and beef cattle industries. The most effective way to eradicate JD is to detect infected individuals as early as possible and remove them from the herd. However, it is difficult to detect infected individuals early with the currently using diagnostic methods. Two serological diagnostic kits commercially used worldwide and a fecal detection test were compared using 298 serum samples and feces of cattle in this study to present an efficient diagnostic method.Although there was a high correlation between the 2 serological diagnostic kits (R2 = 0.7473), kit A showed a higher serological positive rate. However, the correlation between fecal tests and serological diagnosis was very low. MAP was also detected in fecal tests in many serologically negative individuals. In the periodical diagnosis of JD, MAP was detected in the feces of only cows with the higher antibody titer to MAP. These results suggest that for effective eradication of JD, early detection of infected individuals by fecal tests together with the serological tests currently in use and by removal of infected individuals are needed.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833725

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus emerged in human populations and spread rapidly to cause the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Although the origin of the associated virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) remains unclear, genetic evidence suggests that bats are a reservoir host of the virus, and pangolins are a probable intermediate. SARS-CoV-2 has crossed the species barrier to infect humans and other animal species, and infected humans can facilitate reverse-zoonotic transmission to animals. Considering the rapidly changing interconnections among people, animals, and ecosystems, traditional roles of veterinarians should evolve to include transdisciplinary roles.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833694

ABSTRACT

African swine fever (ASF), caused by the ASF virus, a member of the Asfarviridae family, is one of the most important diseases in the swine industry due to its clinical and economic impacts. Since the first report of ASF a century ago, ample information has become available, but prevention and treatment measures are still inadequate. Two waves of epizootic outbreaks have occurred worldwide. While the first wave of the epizootic outbreak was controlled in most of the infected areas, the second wave is currently active in the European and Asian continents, causing severe economic losses to the pig industry. There are different patterns of spreading in the outbreaks between those in European and Asian countries. Prevention and control of ASF are very difficult due to the lack of available vaccines and effective therapeutic measures. However, recent outbreaks in South Korea have been successfully controlled on swine farms, although feral pigs are periodically being found to be positive for the ASF virus. Therefore, we would like to share our story regarding the preparation and application of control measures. The success in controlling ASF on farms in South Korea is largely due to the awareness and education of swine farmers and practitioners, the early detection of infected animals, the implementation of strict control policies by the government, and widespread sharing of information among stakeholders. Based on the experience gained from the outbreaks in South Korea, this review describes the current understanding of the ASF virus and its pathogenic mechanisms, epidemiology, and control.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758960

ABSTRACT

Thermal conditions are an important environmental factor in maintaining healthy pigs because they affect feed intake, growth efficiency, reproduction and immune responses in pigs. RAVI, a regenerative far-infrared heating system, can effect pig production by emitting an optimal far-infrared wavelength. Far-infrared radiation has been reported to increase microvascular dilation and vascular flow volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunobiological differences between pigs raised with the RAVI system and the gasoline heater system. Twenty-six-week-old weaned pigs were raised in two rooms that were equipped with a RAVI system or a gasoline heater for 8 weeks. A porcine atrophic rhinitis vaccine was administered after two weeks and transcriptome analysis in whole blood were analyzed at 2-week intervals. Signaling pathway analyses of the RAVI group at 8 weeks showed the activation of pathways related to nitric oxide (NO) production. This suggests that the application of RAVI might induce the production of NO and iNOS, which are important for increasing the immune activity. Similar to the result of microarray, phenotypic changes were also observed at a later period of the experiment. The increase in body weight in the RAVI group was significantly higher than the gasoline heater group at 8 weeks. The antibody titer against the vaccine in the RAVI group was also higher than that the gasoline heater group at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. This evaluation of the use of a far-infrared heating system with pigs will be helpful for applications in the pig farm industry and pig welfare.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Body Weight , Gasoline , Gene Expression Profiling , Heating , Hot Temperature , Nitric Oxide , Reproduction , Rhinitis, Atrophic , Swine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758933

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence and re-emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) underscore the urgent need for the development of novel, safe, and effective vaccines against the prevailing strain. In this study, we generated a cold-adapted live attenuated vaccine candidate (Aram-P29-CA) by short-term passage of a virulent PEDV isolate at successively lower temperatures in Vero cells. Whole genome sequencing identified 12 amino acid changes in the cold-adapted strain with no insertions and deletions throughout the genome. Animal inoculation experiments confirmed the attenuated phenotype of Aram-P29-CA virus in the natural host. Pregnant sows were orally administered P29-CA live vaccines two doses at 2-week intervals prior to parturition, and the newborn piglets were challenged with the parental virus. The oral homologous prime-boost vaccination of P29-CA significantly improved the survival rate of the piglets and notably mitigated the severity of diarrhea and PEDV fecal shedding after the challenge. Furthermore, strong antibody responses to PEDV were detected in the sera and colostrum of immunized sows and in the sera of their offspring. These results demonstrated that the cold-adapted attenuated virus can be used as a live vaccine in maternal vaccination strategies to provide durable lactogenic immunity and confer passive protection to litters against PEDV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Antibody Formation , Colostrum , Diarrhea , Genome , Genotype , Parents , Parturition , Phenotype , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Survival Rate , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vero Cells
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758905

ABSTRACT

Among various vaccines against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, subunit vaccines using recombinant proteins of ApxI, ApxII, and ApxIII as vaccine antigens have shown good efficacy in terms of safety and protection. Therefore, subunit vaccines are being applied worldwide and the development of new subunit vaccines is actively being conducted. To evaluate the efficacy of the subunit vaccines, it is important to measure immune responses to each Apx toxin separately. However, the cross-reactivity of antibodies makes it difficult to measure specific immune reactivity to each toxin. In the present study, specific antigen regions among the toxins were identified and cloned to solve this problem. The antigenicity of each recombinant protein was demonstrated by Western blot. Using the recombinant proteins, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods that can detect specific immune responses to each Apx toxin in laboratory guinea pigs. We suggest that the ELISA method developed in this study can be an important tool in the evaluation of vaccine efficiency and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Actinobacillus , Antibodies , Blotting, Western , Clone Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Guinea Pigs , Methods , Recombinant Proteins , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760359

ABSTRACT

The production of rmtB-encoded 16S rRNA methylases has emerged as a novel mechanism promoting high-level resistance toward aminoglycosides in Gram-negative bacteria. Between 2015 and 2017, 636 distinct commensal Escherichia (E.) coli isolates were collected from different farms in South Korea to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of rmtB. The positive rates of rmtB between all the isolates and amikacin-resistant isolates were 1.1 and 100%, respectively. High-level aminoglycoside resistance could be transferred by conjugation from rmtB-positive donors to higher amikacin-resistance efficacies. This is the first report of 16S rRNA methylase-encoding genes in E. coli isolated from food-producing animals in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Agriculture , Amikacin , Aminoglycosides , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Korea , Prevalence , Tissue Donors
12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 31 (2): 429-437
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-193429

ABSTRACT

The hospital environment plays an important role in the spread of microorganisms, including multi drug resistant [MDR] strains. Patients can acquire Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] which can reside in the clinical setup that are not cleaned and can spread through air droplets, bed clothing, and healthcare workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in the Khyber Teaching Hospital [KTH]. A total of 200 samples were collected from the floor, walls, air and inanimate objects in different wards of the KTH, during May 2012 to September 2012. These samples were screened for the recovery of S. aureus. Recovered organisms were subjected to susceptibility testing and investigated for the detection of various toxin and antibiotic resistance genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR]. A total of 64 samples yielded S. aureus, out of which 37 [57.81%] were proved as MRSA. No isolate was found resistant to Vancomycin, however 81.25% of the isolates were found susceptible to Linezolid and Amikacin. The susceptibility to Fusidic acid, Chloramphenicol, Rifampicin, Doxycycline and Meropenem was observed as 79.69%, 76.56%, 75.00, 73.44% and 68.75% respectively. The frequency of sea, seb and sec genes were 56.25%, 43.75% and 12.5% in the recovered isolates. Erm C was more prevalent [28.12 %] than the ermA and ermB. The prevalence of pvl in MRSA was 21.62 % which is less than 33.33% in the MSSA isolates. S. aureus and especially MRSA are frequently prevalent in the KTH. Therefore, every immune-compromised patient is prone to infections caused by S. aureus. This will lead to high morbidity/mortality rate, prolong hospital stay and add extra cost to the health system

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918281

ABSTRACT

Brucellosis is one of the common zoonoses caused by Brucella abortus (B. abortus). However, little has been reported on factors affecting invasion of B. abortus into host cells. To investigate cell-type dependent invasion of B. abortus, phagocytic RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells and non-phagocytic HeLa cells were infected with wild-type and mutant B. abortus, and their invasion efficiencies were compared. The invasion efficiencies of the strains were cell-type dependent. Wild-type B. abortus invasion efficiency was greater in phagocytic cells than in epithelial cells. The results also indicated that there are different factors involved in the invasion of B. abortus into phagocytic cells.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718760

ABSTRACT

Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, debilitating disease of ruminants including cows, and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is not only important in animal husbandry, but also in public health as it is associated with the onset of Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in humans. JD, like other mycobacterial diseases including tuberculosis, is classified into different stages based on the progression of infection. In addition, development of diagnostic assays that can distinguish between subclinical and clinical stages of JD is essential to control mycobacterial infection by providing an effective treatment. For the development of novel diagnostic methods of JD, it is important to investigate and understand the mRNA expression of the various immune markers in individuals at each stage of infection. In this study, we measured the levels of Th1-type chemokines, CXCR3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in MAP-infected bovine blood by interferon (IFN)-γ release assay (IGRA) using IFN-γ as an alternative biomarker. The association of mRNA expression patterns of these chemokines with the MAP infection stages was analyzed and IFN-γ, CCL5, and CXCL10 were found to be significantly upregulated compared to IFN-γ, the biomarker used in IGRA. Our results further indicate that IFN-γ levels significantly increased in individuals with MAP-specific antibody, and CCL5 and CXCL10 levels significantly increased in those with MAP DNA. In particular, CCL5 was significantly upregulated in individuals, in which both MAP-specific antibody and MAP DNA were detected, but the expression of CXCL10 was specifically elevated in MAP DNA-detected individuals without MAP-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Animal Husbandry , Biomarkers , Chemokines , Crohn Disease , DNA , Gene Expression , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interferons , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Paratuberculosis , Public Health , RNA, Messenger , Ruminants , Transcriptome , Tuberculosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758851

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) obtained from individual cows in Korea. Twelve MAP-positive fecal DNA samples and 19 MAP isolates were obtained from 10 cattle herds located in 5 provinces in Korea. In addition, 5 MAP isolates obtained from the Czech Republic and Slovakia and 3 isolates from Australia were genotyped for comparison with the domestic isolates. The most prevalent strains in Korea were of the “bison-type” genotype (23 of 31 fecal DNA/isolates) and were distributed nationwide. The remaining MAP isolates (8) and all of the foreign isolates were identified as “cattle-type”. The bison-type strains which were discriminated only as INMV 68 in variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Multilocus short sequence repeat (MLSSR) typing differentiated the bison-type strains into 3 different subtypes. The cattle-type strains were divided into 3 subtypes by MIRU-VNTR and 8 subtypes by MLSSR. The allelic diversities in the MIRU-VNTR and MLSSR results were calculated as 0.567 and 0.866, respectively. These results suggest that MIRU-VNTR typing cannot provide a sufficient description of the epidemiological situation of MAP. Therefore, an alternative method, such as MLSSR, is needed for typing of MAP strains to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of MAP infections. Overall, this study is the first epidemiological survey report in Korea using both MIRU-VNTR and MLSSR typing methods, and it has provided basic data necessary to elucidate the characteristics of MAP infections in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Australia , Czech Republic , DNA , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Korea , Methods , Molecular Epidemiology , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Paratuberculosis , Slovakia , Tandem Repeat Sequences
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758798

ABSTRACT

Brucella abortus is a bacterium that causes brucellosis and is the causative agent of worldwide zoonoses. Pathogenesis of the B. abortus infection is complicated, and several researchers have attempted to elucidate the infection mechanism of B. abortus. While several proteins have been revealed as pathogenic factors by previous researchers, the underlying mechanism of B. abortus infection is unresolved. In this study, we identified proteins showing different expression levels in B. abortus mutants with different biological characteristics that were generated by random insertion of a transposon. Five mutants were selected based on biological characteristics, in particular, their growth features. Total proteins of mutant and wild-type B. abortus were purified and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Thirty protein spots of each mutant with expression increases or decreases were selected; those with a change of more than 2-fold were compared with the wild-type. Selected spots underwent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for peptide analysis. DnaK and ClpB, involved in protein aggregation, increased. SecA and GAPDH, associated with energy metabolism, decreased in some mutants with a growth rate slower than that of the wild-type. Mutants with slower growth showed a decrease in energy metabolism-related proteins, while mutants with faster growth showed an increase in pathogenicity-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Brucella abortus , Brucella , Brucellosis , Chromatography, Liquid , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Energy Metabolism , Population Characteristics , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Zoonoses
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741500

ABSTRACT

Brucellosis is one of the common zoonoses caused by Brucella abortus (B. abortus). However, little has been reported on factors affecting invasion of B. abortus into host cells. To investigate cell-type dependent invasion of B. abortus, phagocytic RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells and non-phagocytic HeLa cells were infected with wild-type and mutant B. abortus, and their invasion efficiencies were compared. The invasion efficiencies of the strains were cell-type dependent. Wild-type B. abortus invasion efficiency was greater in phagocytic cells than in epithelial cells. The results also indicated that there are different factors involved in the invasion of B. abortus into phagocytic cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brucella abortus , Brucella , Brucellosis , Epithelial Cells , HeLa Cells , Phagocytes , Zoonoses
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115782

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115773

ABSTRACT

Paratuberculosis (PTB) is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and is one of the most widespread and economically important diseases in cattle. After birth, calves are raised with natural breast feeding without separation from their mothers in most Korean native cattle (Hanwoo breed) farms. Vertical transmission of PTB has been reported, but the exact PTB infection route has not been revealed in Hanwoo farms. Calves of MAP seropositive dams were tested for MAP presence and MAP antibodies in feces and tissues. MAP was detected in calf tissues by using polymerase chain reaction. Expressions of genes reported to be prognostic biomarkers of MAP infection changed in both calves and cows (p < 0.05). Expression of two genes (HGF and SERPINE1) were significantly decreased in MAP-infected cattle and their offspring (p < 0.01). The results suggest that biomarker gene expression profiles can be useful in detecting early stage MAP infection. Based on the results, complete eradication of MAP may be possible if accurate diagnostic methods to detect infected calves are added to the current PTB eradication strategy, which, because infected individuals are likely to develop into fecal MAP shedders at any time, includes isolation of new born calves and feeding sterilized colostrum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Agriculture , Antibodies , Asymptomatic Infections , Biomarkers , Breast Feeding , Colostrum , Feces , Mothers , Paratuberculosis , Parturition , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcriptome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167765

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms found in bioaerosols from animal confinement buildings not only foster the risk of spreading diseases among livestock buildings, but also pose health hazards to farm workers and nearby residents. This study identified the various microorganisms present in the air of swine, chicken, and cattle farms with different kinds of ventilation conditions in Korea. Microbial air samples were collected onto Petri dishes with bacterial or fungal growth media using a cascade impactor. Endotoxin levels in total dust were determined by the limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic QCL method. Prevalent Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) lentus, S. chromogenes, Bacillus (B.) cereus, B. licheniformis, and Enterococcus faecalis, while the dominant fungi and Gram-negative bacteria were Candida albicans and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, respectively. Considering no significant relationship between the indoor dust endotoxin levels and the isolation of Gram-negative bacteria from the indoor air, monitoring the indoor airborne endotoxin level was found to be also critical for risk assessment on health for animals or workers. The present study confirms the importance of microbiological monitoring and control on animal husbandry indoor air to ensure animal and worker welfare.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Agriculture , Animal Husbandry , Bacillus , Bacteria , Candida albicans , Chickens , Dust , Enterococcus faecalis , Farmers , Fungi , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Horseshoe Crabs , Korea , Livestock , Methods , Risk Assessment , Sphingomonas , Staphylococcus , Swine , Ventilation
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