Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 45
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876702

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. Results S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837609

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.

5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 195-199, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804916

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the characteristics of myeloid neoplasms with t (3;21) (q26;q22) .@*Methods@#Clinical data of patients with t (3; 21) (q26; q22) , diagnosed as hematologic malignancies in Peking University people's hospital from January 2011 to March 2018, were collected retrospectively. 19 patients in our hospital and forty-eight patients bearing t (3;21) (q26;q22) with detailed survival data reported in literature were summarized. Kaplan- Meier method was used for survival analysis.@*Results@#Among 19 patients, including 15 males and 4 females with a median age of 36 years (22-68 years) , 4 cases was diagnosed as de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) , 4 as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) , 3 as MDS-AML and 8 as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in myeloid blast transformation. All of the 19 patients were detected to have t (3;21) (q26;q22) by G-banding technique and 13 carried additional cytogenetic aberrations. 9 of the 19 patients were detected for positive AML1-MDS1 fusion genes. In the 9 patients with detailed follow-up data, 6 patients received chemotherapy and only 2 achieved complete remission (CR) while 4 with no response. During the follow-up period, 8 patients died and the median overall survival (OS) was 6 months (4.5 to 22 months) . Survival analysis of the present 9 patients together with the literature data showed that the prognosis was poor and the median OS was 7 months. In particular, AML/t-AML had the worst prognosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) could significantly improve survival, the median OS in HSCT group and non-HSCT group were 20.9 and 4.7 months respectively (P<0.001) .@*Conclusions@#t (3; 21) (q26; q22) is a rare recurrent chromosomal abnormality which is detected mainly in myeloid neoplasm and confer to poor clinical prognosis. HSCT should be recommended to improve the outcomes.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819001

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818581

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1220-1226, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic value of high-throughput sequencing (NGS) in screening the thalassemia genes.@*METHODS@#The peripheral blood of 2 858 cases of pre-pregnancy and pregnancy from October 2014 to October 2016 randomly were collected in department of obstetrics, the third people's hospital in Dongguan city. Peripheral blood was used for the blood routine examination, hemoglobin electrophoresis, traditional thalassaemia gene screening and NGS.@*RESULTS@#The rate of missed diagnosis for α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia using NGS was 0.87% and 1.59%, respectively. Meanwhile, the missed rate of screening for α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia by traditional screening models was 26.77% and 2.38%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia screened by NGS was 0.994 and 0.991, respectively, however, the area under the ROC curve of screening for α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia by the traditional screening model was 0.866 and 0.988, respectively. The sensitivity, rate of missed diagnosis, Youden index and negative predictive value of screening for α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia using NGS all were superior to those using traditional screening.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with the traditional screening model, the NGS screening for thalassemia genes shows a high accuracy, moreover can avoid missed diagnosis resulted from screening by conventional method, suggesting that the NCS possesses the accurate and diagnostic value for screening of thalassemia and can widely apply to clinical practise so as to provid the guarantee for early diagnosis of thalassemia.


Subject(s)
Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mass Screening , Pregnancy , ROC Curve , alpha-Thalassemia , beta-Thalassemia
9.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 456-463, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710967

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of silent information regulator 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity on angiogenesis in cerebral ischemia rats and its related mechanisms .Methods One hundred and twenty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups by random numbers:control group , the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model group ( model group ) , the SIRT1 agonist group (agonist group) and the SIRT1 inhibitor group (inhibitor group), with 30 rats in each group. A model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed by the suture method .After reperfusion for 24 h, neurological deficit scores were evaluated . Cerebral infarct area after middle cerebral artery occlusion ( MCAO) in rats was determined by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride .SIRT1 deacetylase activity was detected by ELISA in ischemic brain tissue.By immunohistochemistry, we observed CD34 expression and detected microvascular density ( MVD) in ischemic cerebral cortex.Immunoblotting was carried out to evaluate protein levels of SIRT 1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) in ischemic brain tissue.Results Compared with the control group ((13.828 ±0.828) U/L), SIRT1 deacetylase activity was significantly reduced in ischemic brain in the model group ((7.721 ±0.581) U/L,t=8.650,P<0.01).Compared with the model group , SIRT1 deacetylase activity was significantly increased in ischemic brain in the agonist group ((26.165 ±0.971) U/L,t=-26.123,P<0.01). Compared with the agonist group , SIRT1 deacetylase activity was significantly reduced in ischemic brain in the inhibitor group ((17.094 ±1.012)U/L,t=12.848,P<0.01).Neurological deficit score was 2.667 ± 0.516 in the model group.When SIRT1 was activated in ischemic brain , neurological deficit score was significantly lower (1.333 ±0.516,t=4.822,P<0.01) than that of the model group .When SIRT1 activity was inhibited, the neurological deficit score increased significantly ( 2.500 ±0.548, t=-4.147, P<0.01).The cerebral infarction area was 15.473% ±3.049% in the model group.When SIRT1 was activated in ischemic brain , the cerebral infarction area was significantly reduced ( 9.152%±1.803%,t=3.188,P<0.05).Immunohistochemical results showed that the brown cells in the ischemic cortex were CD34 staining positive cells.When SIRT1 was activated in ischemic brain , the MVD count significantly increased in ischemic cerebral cortex ( the agonist group:8.167 ±1.941/high power lens ,the model group:3.167 ±0.753/high power lens,t=-6.864,P<0.01).Immunoblotting demonstrated that the activation of SIRT1 increased the protein expressions of VEGF (the agonist group:0.568 ±0.012,the model group:0.468 ± 0.008,t=-11.034,P<0.01) and EPO (the agonist group:0.646 ±0.010,the model group:0.471 ± 0.013,t=-20.952,P<0.01) in ischemic brain.Conclusions Activation of SIRT1 has neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats.SIRT1 can promote angiogenesis in the early stage of cerebral ischemia reperfusion via directly increasing the expressions of VEGF and EPO in ischemic brain .

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734006

ABSTRACT

This report presents the endemic status of' schistosomiasis in the People ' s Republic, of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) , i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic: villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) , 50.89% (229/450) , 30.89% ( 139/450) and 18.22% ( 82/450) reached the criteria of elimination , transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017 , a total of' 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 c:ases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic. villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of' total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 622 454.49 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 172 501.56 hm2, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm2. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic, areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm2 area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 755.37 hm2; and 5 002.92 hm2 area with snail was treated by environ-mental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites , the mean ,Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines , respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found by microscopic, examinations in all the surveillance sites , and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic, acid positive were detected by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic. Situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic, rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687960

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To report on a case of therapy-related acute monocytic leukemia(t-AML) with t(11;17) (q23;q21)/MLL-AF17q after successful treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL) with t(15;17) (q22;q21)/PML-RARα.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A MICM method (bone marrow morphology(M), immunophenotype(I), cytogenetics(C), and molecular biology(M)) was used for the diagnosis and classification of the disease at the time of onset and transformation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patient was initially identified with typical morphology and immunophenotype of APL. She has carried t(15;17)(q22;q21) and PML-RARα fusion gene but was without t(11;17)(q23;q21) or MLL gene abnormalities. After 13 months of successful treatment, she has transformed to AML with typical morphology and immunophenotype. t(11;17)(q23;q21) and MLL-AF17q fusion gene were detected in her bone marrow sample, while no PLZF-RARα fusion gene was detected by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR(RQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>t-AML is a serious complication after successful treatment of APL. t(11;17)(q23;q21) is not specific for the diagnosis of variant APL and can also be detected in t-AML. RQ-PCR and FISH are essential for the diagnosis of such patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute , Genetics , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Genetics , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Genetics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818828

ABSTRACT

This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 47.78% (215/450), 34.00% (153/450) and 18.22% (82/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017, a total of 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 cases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails.The snail survey covered an area of 622454.49 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 172501.56 hm2, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm2. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm2 area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 755.37 hm2; and 5 002.92 hm2 area with snail was treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines, respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found by microscopic examinations in all the surveillance sites, and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic acid positive were detected by loopmediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818706

ABSTRACT

This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 47.78% (215/450), 34.00% (153/450) and 18.22% (82/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017, a total of 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 cases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails.The snail survey covered an area of 622454.49 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 172501.56 hm2, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm2. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm2 area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 755.37 hm2; and 5 002.92 hm2 area with snail was treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines, respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found by microscopic examinations in all the surveillance sites, and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic acid positive were detected by loopmediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704243

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the situation of Schistosoma japonicum infections in foating population and its epidemi-ological characteristics in China,so as to provide insights into the development of the surveillance strategy and interventions for schistosomiasis. Methods According to the protocol of national surveillance project,indirect hemagglutination test(IHA) was employed for serological screening of S.japonicum infections among the floating population in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2014,and the sero-positives were subjected to parasitological examinations.In addition, epidemiological analyses were performed to describe the characteristics of schistosomiasis in the floating population. Re-sults A total of 11 834 floating population were monitored at the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the study period,and 11 558 persons received serological tests,with 419 sero-positives screened.Then,370 sero-positive floating populations were detected using parasitological examinations,and 25 stool positives were detected.The prevalence of S.japoni-cum infections significantly varied in time(Χ 2=15.103 7),occupations(Χ 2=115.182 7)and regions(Χ 2= 13.177 5)in the study subjects during the study period(all P<0.05).A high adjusted prevalence of S.japonicum infections was seen in the boat-men and fishermen in several provinces. Conclusions Boatmen and fishermen are at a high risk of S. japonicum infections among the floating population,and should be paid more attention to in future schistosomiasis surveillance and control activities due to their strong mobility and difficulty of monitoring.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327759

ABSTRACT

The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1(HINT1),which belongs to the histidine triad(HIT) enzyme superfamily,exerts its enzymic activities as hydrolase or transferase. Its physiological functions are still unclear. HINT1 protein is expressed in various tissues and plays an important role in transcription and signal transduction. Earlier studies have identified HINT1 as a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor. Other evidences indicate that HINT1 is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes,some of which are irrelevant with its basic enzymic activities. Investigations recently suggest that HINT1 is closely related to many peripheral and central nervous system diseases,and plays a vital role in some of neuropsychiatric diseases such as inherited peripheral neuropathies,schizophrenia,mood disorder,drug addiction,and Down's syndrome. In this review,the role of HINT1 in above-mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders was summarised,and the research findings of HINT1 in each of the above diseases were summarized and analyzed,in order to provide some guidance for further research on this protein.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271914

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the efficiency of direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) versus FISH on CD138 immunomagnetic sorting myeloma cells (MACS-FISH) to detect the cytogenetic abnormalities of multiple myeloma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-one patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were detected by D-FISH and MACS-FISH, using 5 probes, including 1q21, D13S319, RB1, IgH, P53. The IgH rearrangement positive patients were further examined by 3 IgH rearrangement subtype FISH probes including IgH/FGFR3, IgH/MAF and IgH/CCND1.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Metaphase karyotyping revealed cytogenetic abnormalities in 5 cases (16.1%), clonal aberrations were detected in 13 cases(41.9%) by D-FISH, while 25 case(80.6%) with clonal aberrations by MACS-FISH. The results between these 2 FISH methods were significantly different (P=0.042). The detection frequency of clonal aberration by each probes of D-FISH was 22.6%,25.8%,29%,38.7% and 9.7% respectively for 1q21 amplification, D13S319 deletion,RB1 deletion, IgH rearrangement and P53 deletion, compared with 48.4%,45.2%,48.4%,67.7% and 16.1% respectively by MACS-FISH. The 2 FISH methods were well consistent when the percentage of plasma cells was ≥20% in bone marrow smears. When the percentage of plasma cells was<20% in bone marrow smears, the difference between these 2 methods was very statistically significant (P=0.00).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>MACS-FISH can obviously improve the detection efficiency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MM. Conventional cytogenetics combined with MACS-FISH is an ideal efficient method to detect the cytogenetic abnormalities in MM patients, and should be applied widely, especially for those patients with the plasma cells <20% in bone marrow smears.</p>

17.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 962-967, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809589

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the cytogenetic response detected by conventional banding analysis (CBA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and to explore the correlation between the cytogenetic and molecular response in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment.@*Methods@#CBA, FISH and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) methods were performed to detect the cytogenetic and molecular response simultaneously in 504 bone marrow samples from 367 CML patients who received TKI treatment.@*Results@#Among 504 samples, 344 were detected to reach complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) by CBA, while 297 samples reached CCyR by FISH which were considered to carry BCR-ABL positive cells<1%. When the results of CBA, FISH and RQ-PCR were compared in 493 samples at the same time, it showed that in 337 samples with CBA-CCyR, 273 (81.0%) reached FISH-CCyR and 289 (85.8%) were BCR-ABLIS (International Scale, IS) ≤1% by RQ-PCR, compared to 9.0 (261/290) were BCR-ABLIS ≤1% among 290 samples with FISH-CCyR. There was no significant difference in the median value of BCR-ABLIS between samples in CBA-CCyR and FISH-CCyR (0.21% vs 0.13%, z=-1.875, P=0.061) . Furthermore, when the samples were divided into three groups according to BCR-ABL positive cells (0,>0~<1%, 1%~5%) by FISH, the statistical difference was observed, the proportion of samples with BCR-ABLIS ≤1% in the three groups were 94.1%, 57.6% and 27.7% respectively (χ2=43.499, P<0.001; χ2=9.734, P=0.003) , while the median value of BCR-ABLIS were 0.10%, 0.64% and 1.80% respectively (z=-5.864, P<0.001; z=-4.787, P<0.001) .@*Conclusion@#FISH results were in good concordance with CBA in identify samples in CCyR, FISH was more sensitive and had better correlation with RQ-PCR results than CBA, but how to define FISH-CCyR need further study.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618908

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the investigation data of the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in 2015,so as to provide scientific evidences for schistosomiasis control,elimination and surveillance. Methods According to National Schisto-somiasis Surveillance Programme(version 2014),457 surveillance sites were selected,and the investigation data in residents, floating population,domestic animals and Oncomelania hupensis snails were collected and analyzed from four types of endemic counties. Results A total of 4468 seropositive cases were detected from 133350 residents,among which 4457 residents with seropositive results received the etiological tests,and 71 of them were identified with positive results. Most of them were fisher-men and farmers in the middle and old-aged group. The schistosomiasis infection rate was 0.05% in local population. Totally 977 seropositive cases were examined from 85047 migrant individuals,and 16 positive cases were found out from 966 individuals who took etiological tests,which showed the schistosomiasis infection rate was 0.02% in floating population. Imported cases were found among floating people in four provinces,namely Zhejiang,Hunan,Hubei and Anhui provinces. No acute schistoso-miasis cases were reported. A total of 13406 head of cattle received examinations and only 5 were determined as stool positives. The cattle infection rate was 0.04%. The snail survey covered an area of 22295.13 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 7426.63 hm2,including 3.47 hm2 newly detected area with snails. No schistosome-infected snails were found. Conclusions Based on the collected data from 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China,the Schistosoma japonicum infection rate is 0.05% in local population which maintains a stably descending trend. In floating population,there are imported schistosome-in-fected persons. Cattle are still a vulnerable species infected with schistosome. Although no infected snails are found,snails are widely distributed in endemic areas. Some provinces detect areas with snails for the first time or the reproduction of snails. The staff in endemic provinces should carry out the surveillance work according to National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Programme (version2014)to improve the surveillance system,and enhance the sensibility and effectiveness of surveillance work.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-665527

ABSTRACT

This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2016,and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 454 national schisto-somiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces(municipality and autonomous region)of endemic of schistosomiasis japoni-ca in P. R. China,5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region),i. e.,Shanghai,Zhejiang,Fujian,Guangdong and Guangxi,had achieved elimination,and 7 provinces of Sichuan,Yunnan,Jiangsu,Hubei,Anhui,Jiangxi and Hunan had achieved transmission control by the end of 2016. There are 451 endemic counties(cities,districts)covering 257 million peo-ple,specifically including 29692 endemic villages of 69.39 million people at risk. Among the 451 endemic counties(cities,dis-tricts),35.25%(159/451),42.35%(191/451)and 22.39%(101/451)reached the criteria of elimination,transmission inter-ruption and transmission control,respectively in 2016. By the end of 2016,it was estimated of 54454 infections of schistosome, decreased by 29.46%compared with 77194 in 2015. No acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2016. There were 30573 ad-vanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2016. A total of 8500710 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 600 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed,decreased by 83.36%compared with 3606 in 2015. The Oncomelania hupen-sis snail survey was performed in 22140 endemic villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7106 villages,accounting for 32.109%of the total villages,with 20 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered area of 813963.91 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 235096.04 hm2,including a newly detected area of 1346.48 hm2. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2016. A total of 881050 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic area. Of them,510468 bovines re-ceived examinations,resulting in 8 schistosome-infected bovines. There were 147642 schistosomiasis cases receiving drug treat-ment in 2016,with 2303555 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy;there were 9 bovines with schistosomiasis receiv-ing drug treatment,with 439857 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy;a total of 139483.84 hm2 area with snail control by using molluscicides,with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73941.75 hm2;and 3101.52 hm2 snail habitants were treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 454 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites,the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.02% and 0.0078% in humans and bovines,respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found in all the surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a decline in the endemicity of schistosomiasis in P. R. China com-pared with the level of 2015. However,the distribution area of snails in China is still large and the infection source of schistoso-miasis still exists to some extent in some endemic areas;in some regions,the task to reach the standard of transmission interrup-tion is still arduous. There are still objective factors of epidemic and transmission and risk factors of endemic reversal and re-bound for schistosomiasis. So,further control and effective surveillance as well as accurate prevention and control should be im-plemented to promote the elimination process on schistosomiasis in P. R. China.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-497572

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release from PC12 cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) and its mediated inflammatory response in BV2 cells.Methods PC12 and BV2 cells were cultured,respectively.The PC12 cells were used to induce a model of oxygen glucose deprivation for 12 h and reoxygenation for 24 h.After giving 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR) 5,50 and 100 μmol/L as well as Compound C 0.1,1 and 10 μmol/L activation or inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation,respectively,methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) was used to detect the PC12 cell activity.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the HMGB1 release level in the PC12 cell culture media.After OGD/R in each group,the PC12 culture media were acted on normal cultured BV2 cells for 24 h respectively.Westem blotting and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the NFκB inhibitory protein (inhibitor of NFκB,IκB) phosphorylation level and TNF-α release level in BV2 cells,respectively.Results After OGD/R,the PC12 cell activity was decreased significantly (68.84%±6.60% vs.100.04% ± 8.82%;P < 0.01);the AMPK phosphorylation level was increased significantly (1.95 ±0.39 vs.1.00 ±0.20;P<0.05),and the extracellular HMGB1 release was increased significantly (287.66 ± 26.42 pg/μl vs.53.05 ± 9.11 pg/μl;P < 0.01).Compared with the OGD/R group,AICAR 100 μmol/L significantly increased the survival rate of PC12 cell after OGD/R (78.6% ± 3.75% vs.68.84% ± 6.60%;P < 0.05),promoted AMPK phosphorylation (3.32 ± 0.66 vs.1.95 ± 0.39;P < 0.01),and reduce the release of extracellular HMGB1 (164.06 ± 12.77 pg/μl vs.287.66 ± 26.42 pg/μl;P <0.01).In contrast,Compound C 10 μmol/L significantly reduced the cell survival rate of PC12 (40.44% ±3.79% vs.68.84% ±6.60%;P <0.01),inhibited AMPK phosphorylation (1.07 ± 0.21 vs.1.95 ± 0.39;P<0.05),and increased the release of HMGB1 (337.97 ± 18.9 pg/μlvs.287.66 ± 26.42 pg/μl;P<0.01).The conditioned medium from the AICAR 100 μmol/L group significantly inhibited IκB phosphorylation (1.68 ±0.51 vs.3.09 ± 0.10;P < 0.05) and reduced the release of TNF-α (669.53 ±38.58 pg/μlvs.841.76 ± 45.82 pg/μl;P< 0.05) in BV2 cells.The conditioned medium from the compound C 10 μmol/L group significantly promoted IκB phosphorylation (4.98 ± 1.24 vs.3.09 ± 0.10;P <0.01) and increased the release of TNF-α (1 035.32 ± 128.06 pg/μl vs.841.76 ± 45.82 pg/μl;P <0.05) in BV2 cells.Conclusions Promoting AMPK phosphorylation activation may reduce the release of HMGB1 from PC12 cells after OGD/R,and inhibit its mediated NF-κB inflammatory pathway and reduce the release of TNF-αin BV2 cells,and thus reducing neuroinflammatory injury.On the contrary,inhibiting AMPK phosphorylation may promote the release of HMGB1 from PC12 cells after OGD/R and aggravate its mediated inflammatory reaction in BV2 cells.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL