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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917381

ABSTRACT

With the recent rapid increase in obesity worldwide, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has gained significant importance. MetS is a cluster of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and impaired glucose tolerance. MetS is highly prevalent and strongly associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease, putting a great burden on human society. Therefore, it is very important to reduce MetS risk, which can improve patients’cardiovascular prognosis. The primary and most effective strategy to control each component of MetS is lifestyle change such as losing body weight, keeping regular exercise, adopting a healthy diet, quitting smoking and alcohol drinking in moderation. Many studies have shown that lifestyle modification has improved all components of MetS, and reduces the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, the Korean Society of CardioMetabolic Syndrome has summarized specific and practical methods of lifestyle modification in the management of MetS in the healthcare field.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916893

ABSTRACT

Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are common intracranial vascular malformations and they are generally do not cause clinical complications. In cases showing DVA and hemorrhage, the hemorrhage is usually associated with adjacent cavernous malformations. Very few cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) caused by thrombosis in DVA have been reported in the literature. In this case report, we present an interesting case of a large ICH caused by thrombosis within a DVA with an unusual structure that may have potentiated the thrombosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914213

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the effects of teneligliptin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived time in range, and glycemic variability in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. @*Methods@#This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in eight centers in Korea (clinical trial registration number: NCT03508323). Sixty-five participants aged ≥65 years, who were treatment-naïve or had been treated with stable doses of metformin, were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive 20 mg of teneligliptin (n=35) or placebo (n=30) for 12 weeks. The main endpoints were the changes in HbA1c levels from baseline to week 12, CGM metrics-derived time in range, and glycemic variability. @*Results@#After 12 weeks, a significant reduction (by 0.84%) in HbA1c levels was observed in the teneligliptin group compared to that in the placebo group (by 0.08%), with a between-group least squares mean difference of –0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI], –1.08 to –0.44). The coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion significantly decreased in participants treated with teneligliptin as compared to those in the placebo group. Teneligliptin treatment significantly decreased the time spent above 180 or 250 mg/dL, respectively, without increasing the time spent below 70 mg/dL. The mean percentage of time for which glucose levels remained in the 70 to 180 mg/dL time in range (TIR70–180) at week 12 was 82.0%±16.0% in the teneligliptin group, and placebo-adjusted change in TIR70–180 from baseline was 13.3% (95% CI, 6.0 to 20.6). @*Conclusion@#Teneligliptin effectively reduced HbA1c levels, time spent above the target range, and glycemic variability, without increasing hypoglycemia in our study population.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926423

ABSTRACT

Gastric metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare, occurring in 0.2% of all RCC cases. Owing to its low prevalence, metachronous gastric metastasis from RCC may be underdiagnosed, and the imaging findings have not been well-established. Herein we present a case of metastatic RCC manifesting as a gastric polyp in a 70-year-old female along with a literature review on the imaging findings of gastric metastases from RCC. In patients presenting with gastric hyper-enhancing polypoid masses, metastasis from RCC should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926108

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by intestinal and extra intestinal symptoms associated with the consumption of gluten-containing food. Since biomarkers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity are lacking, its prevalence is estimated based on self-reported symptoms. However, no data exist on self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to investigate the prevalence of self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population and to determine its demographic and clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#This study surveyed Korean participants aged 18-80 years who visited gastroenterology outpatient clinics at 9 tertiary hospitals in South Korea from January 2016 to February 2017. They were questioned regarding symptoms related to gluten ingestion: degree of discomfort (visual analog scale score), frequency, time of symptom onset, and duration. Abdominal discomfort caused by 11 differentkinds of gluten-containing Korean food items was investigated. @*Results@#More non-celiac gluten sensitivity self-reporters were identified among those with irritable bowel syndrome (33.6%) than among controls (5.8%). Major gastrointestinal symptoms included bloating (75.0%), abdominal discomfort (71.3%), and belching (45.0%).Common extra-intestinal symptoms included fatigue (20.0%) and headache (13.7%). More than half of those who self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity (66.3%) developed symptoms within 1 hour of food ingestion, and symptoms were localized in the upper abdomen (37.5%) and entire abdomen (30.0%). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that if there are gluten-related symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, the possibility of accompanying non-celiacgluten sensitivity should be considered.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925949

ABSTRACT

Background@#Colorectal polyps are the most common cause of isolated hematochezia in children, which requires a colonoscopy for diagnosis. We aimed to investigate the potential utility of fecal calprotectin (FC) in assessing colorectal polyps detected by colonoscopy among children presenting with isolated hematochezia. @*Methods@#Pediatric patients of the age of < 18 years who had undergone both colonoscopy and FC tests for isolated hematochezia from June 2016 to May 2020 were included in the present multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Comparative analysis was conducted between major causes of isolated hematochezia and FC cut-offs for discriminating colorectal polyps were explored. @*Results@#A total 127 patients were included. Thirty-five patients (27.6%) had colorectal polyps, followed by anal fissure (14.2%), ulcerative colitis (UC; 12.6%), and others. A significant difference in FC levels was observed between patients with colorectal polyps (median, 278.7 mg/kg), anal fissures (median, 42.2 mg/kg), and UC (median, 981 mg/ kg) (P < 0.001). According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, among patients diagnosed with colorectal polyp or anal fissure, the most accurate FC cut-off for discriminating colorectal polyps from anal fissures on colonoscopy was 225 mg/kg (sensitivity, 59.4%; specificity, 94.4%; positive predictive value [PPV], 95.0%; negativepredictive value [NPV], 56.7%; area under the curve [AUC], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.678–0.923; P < 0.001), while among patients diagnosed with colorectal polyp or UC, the most accurate FC cut-off for discriminating colorectal polyps from UC on colonoscopy was 879 mg/kg (sensitivity, 81.2%; specificity, 56.2%; PPV, 78.8%; NPV, 60.0%; AUC, 0.687; 95% CI, 0.521–0.852; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#FC may assist in assessing the cause of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding in children who present with isolated hematochezia.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 236-245, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925009

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) has a different phenotype and clinical course than adult UC, its clinical features and outcomes are poorly defined, especially in Asian populations. This study investigated the clinical features and long-term outcomes of pediatric UC in a Korean population. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 208 patients aged <18 years diagnosed with UC between 1987 and 2013. The patient characteristics at diagnosis according to the Paris classification and the clinical course were analyzed. @*Results@#The male-to-female ratio was 1.3:1, and the median patient age was 15.5 years. At diagnosis, 28.8% of patients had proctitis (E1), 27.8%, left-sided colitis (E2); 5.2%, extensive colitis (E3); and 38.2%, pancolitis (E4). The cumulative probabilities of extension after 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 32.7%, 40.4%, 52.5%, and 65.8%, respectively. Eighteen patients underwent colectomy, and three patients had colorectal cancer. The cumulative probabilities of colectomy after 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 7.1%, 8.9%, 12.6%, and 15.6%, and those of colorectal cancer after 10, 15, and 20 years were 0%, 2.1%, and 12.0%, respectively. The disease extent, Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index severity, and systemic corticosteroid therapy were significant risk factors for colectomy. The development of primary sclerosing cholangitis was significantly associated with colorectal cancer. @*Conclusions@#This study provides detailed information on the disease phenotype and long-term clinical outcomes in a large cohort of Korean children with UC. They have extensive disease at diagnosis, a high rate of disease extension, and a low rate of cumulative colectomy.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924923

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892316

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sedative upper endoscopy is similar in pediatrics and adults, but it is characteristically more likely to lead to respiratory failure. Although recommended guidelines for pediatric procedural sedation are available within South Korea and internationally, Korean pediatric endoscopists use different drugs, either alone or in combination, in practice. Efforts are being made to minimize the risk of sedation while avoiding procedural challenges. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on the sedation methods used by Korean pediatric endoscopists to help physicians perform pediatric sedative upper endoscopy (PSUE). @*Methods@#The PSUE procedures performed in 15 Korean pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic units within a year were analyzed. Drugs used for sedation were grouped according to the method of use, and the depth of sedation was evaluated based on the Ramsay scores. The procedures and their complications were also assessed. @*Results@#In total, 734 patients who underwent PSUE were included. Sedation and monitoring were performed by an anesthesiologist at one of the institutions. The sedative procedures were performed by a pediatric endoscopist at the other 14 institutions. Regarding the number of assistants present during the procedures, 36.6% of procedures had one assistant, 38.8%had 2 assistants, and 24.5% had 3 assistants. The average age of the patients was 11.6 years old. Of the patients, 19.8% had underlying diseases, 10.0% were taking medications such as epilepsy drugs, and 1.0% had snoring or sleep apnea history. The average duration of the procedures was 5.2 minutes. The subjects were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) midazolam + propofol + ketamine (M + P + K): n = 18, average dose of 0.03 + 2.4 + 0.5 mg/kg;2) M + P: n = 206, average dose of 0.06 + 2.1 mg/kg; 3) M + K: n = 267, average dose of 0.09 + 0.69 mg/kg; 4) continuous P infusion for 20 minutes: n = 15, average dose of 6.6 mg/kg; 5) M: n = 228, average dose of 0.11 mg/kg. The average Ramsay score for the five groups was 3.7, with significant differences between the groups (P < 0.001). Regarding the adverse effects, desaturation and increased oxygen supply were most prevalent in the M + K group. Decreases and increases in blood pressure were most prevalent in the M + P + K group, and bag-mask ventilation was most used in the M + K group. There were no reported incidents of intubation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A decrease in oxygen saturation was observed in 37 of 734 patients, and it significantly increased in young patients (P = 0.001) and when ketamine was used (P = 0.014). Oxygen saturation was also correlated with dosage (P = 0.037). The use of ketamine (P < 0.001) and propofol (P < 0.001) were identified as factors affecting the Ramsay score in the logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Although the drug use by Korean pediatric endoscopists followed the recommended guidelines to an extent, it was apparent that they combined the drugs or reduced the doses depending on the patient characteristics to reduce the likelihood of respiratory failure. Inducing deep sedation facilitates comfort during the procedure, but it also leads to a higher risk of complications.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892315

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to investigated the prevalence and related factors of SH in pediatric patients with NAFLD. We also evaluate the association between liver fibrosis and SH. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients aged 4 to 18 years who were diagnosed with NAFLD and tested for thyroid function from January 2015 to December 2019 at 10 hospitals in Korea. @*Results@#The study included 428 patients with NAFLD. The prevalence of SH in pediatric NAFLD patients was 13.6%. In multivariate logistic regression, higher levels of steatosis on ultrasound and higher aspartate aminotransferase to platelet count ratio index (APRI) score were associated with increased risk of SH. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cutoff value of the APRI score for predicting SH was 0.6012 (area under the curve, 0.67; P < 0.001; sensitivity 72.4%, specificity 61.9%, positive predictive value 23%, and negative predictive value 93.5%). @*Conclusion@#SH was often observed in patients with NAFLD, more frequently in patients with more severe liver damage. Thyroid function tests should be performed on pediatric NAFLD patients, especially those with higher grades of liver steatosis and fibrosis.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890508

ABSTRACT

Background@#The nature and role of the mitochondrial stress response in adipose tissue in relation to obesity are not yet known. To determine whether the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in adipose tissue is associated with obesity in humans and rodents. @*Methods@#Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was obtained from 48 normoglycemic women who underwent surgery. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins were measured for mitochondrial chaperones, intrinsic proteases, and components of electron-transport chains. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed metabolic phenotypes with a large panel of isogenic BXD inbred mouse strains and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data. @*Results@#In VAT, expression of mitochondrial chaperones and intrinsic proteases localized in inner and outer mitochondrial membranes was not associated with body mass index (BMI), except for the Lon protease homolog, mitochondrial, and the corresponding gene LONP1, which showed high-level expression in the VAT of overweight or obese individuals. Expression of LONP1 in VAT positively correlated with BMI. Analysis of the GTEx database revealed that elevation of LONP1 expression is associated with enhancement of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in VAT. Mice with higher Lonp1 expression in adipose tissue had better systemic glucose metabolism than mice with lower Lonp1 expression. @*Conclusion@#Expression of mitochondrial LONP1, which is involved in the mitochondrial quality control stress response, was elevated in the VAT of obese individuals. In a bioinformatics analysis, high LONP1 expression in VAT was associated with enhanced glucose and lipid metabolism.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875232

ABSTRACT

Dear Editor, Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myelocytic leukemia, characterized by the chromosomal abnormality t(15:17) coding a PML/RAR alpha fusion protein that affects differentiation of the promyelocyte cell in bone marrow. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a key treatment for APL, acts as a differentiating agent in combination with other induction chemotherapy. Differentiation syndrome (DS) is a complication in APL patients undergoing induction chemotherapy with ATRA or arsenic trioxide [1]. The pathophysiology of DS is not understood precisely; however, it appears to be associated with a large pool of leukemic blasts, massive tissue infiltration of cells, cytokine increase, and systemic capillary leak syndrome, clinically presenting as dyspnea, fever, peripheral edema, weight gain, pleural, pericardial effusion, and acute kidney injury [2,3]. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman experiencing visual discomfort after starting ATRA treatment. This case highlights that visual symptoms can arise earlier than other well-known life-threatening symptoms of DS. A 66-year-old female patient presented with a fourmonth history of headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Blood tests revealed pancytopenia, and bone marrow examination confirmed PML/RARA gene positive. She was diag-nosed with APL for the first time and was admitted to the Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital for induction chemotherapy, where she received cytarabine, idarubicin, and ATRA as her induction chemotherapy treatment. Five days after ATRA treatment, she was referred for visualdimness and peripheral blurred vision. Her medical history included hypertension and branched retinal vein occlusion in her left eye, which had been treated with intravitreal injections three times two years prior. Her corrected visual acuity was 20 / 40 in the right eye and 20 / 32 in the left eye. Anterior segment finding was normal except for mild nuclear sclerosis in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed multiple retinal hemorrhages on the posterior pole in both eyes and Roth’s spot appearance in the left eye. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed subretinal fluid (SRF) in the macula area of the right eye (Fig. 1A). Two days after ocular symptoms appeared, systemic DS symptoms, such as fever, weight gain, and dyspnea appeared, and pulmonary edema was evident in her chest x-ray. As a DS treatment protocol, intravenous dexamethasone was administered for 12 days. Two weeks later after the diagnosis of DS, SRF in macula became more aggravated, with involvement of the fellow eye, while ocular symptoms persisted. Twenty days after DS diagnosis, bilateral serous retinal detachment (SRD) was observed.However, fluorescein angiography showed no significant abnormality, with the exception of a previous branch retinal vein occlusion lesion in her left eye (Fig. 1B); the anterior segment was not remarkable. Her symptoms continued for about 1 month under ATRA treatment and slowly regressed with visual recovery in parallel with discontinuing ATRA (Fig. 1C). Two days after discontinuing ATRA, minimal SRF remained on her right eye. Two weeks later, her corrected visual acuity was 20 / 20 in the right eye and 20 / 25 in the left eye. She achieved complete remission of SRD with improvement in visual symptoms (Fig. 1D). We report the case of DS with ocular manifestation as a first symptom. Ocular manifestation of DS has been reported several times in previous case reports, involving retinal hemorrhage, SRD with intraretinal fluid, choroidal effusion, pseudotumor cerebri, and optic disc edema [2,4,5]. SRD can also appear in ocular infection, inflammatory disease, retinal vascular disease, malignancy, and leukemic retinopathy. Therefore, differential diagnosis should be considered. However, in this patient, the ocular symptom had developed after using the differentiating agent, ATRA. Systemic symptom appeared later. Anterior segments and fluorescein angiography findings were unre-markable to consider other differential diagnoses. After ceasing ATRA, bilateral SRD on optical coherence tomography was regressed, and the patient’s symptom was also relieved.In conclusion, patients receiving ATRA treatment may first present with acute visual symptoms, followed by life-threatening complications such as fever, dyspnea, peripheral edema, and weight gain. Thus, careful observation of ocular symptoms in APL patients is of the utmost importance if the patient is undergoing ATRA treatment.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875127

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the features that can be used for differentiating appendicitis from non-appendicitis in pediatric patients with equivocal ultrasound (US) results. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 53 pediatric patients (≤ 18 years old) with equivocal results on US examination for suspected appendicitis between November 2012 and October 2017 were included. US evaluation was conducted based on information retrieved from a predefined structured report form. Then, the likelihood of appendicitis was prospectively classified into five categories. The equivocal results were considered as grade 3 (indeterminate) and grade 4 (probably appendicitis). @*Results@#Of the 53 patients, 25 (47.2%) and 28 (52.8%) were classified into grade 3 and 4 groups, respectively. Among the individual US findings, increased vascularity of the appendiceal wall and peri-appendiceal fat infiltration were independent findings associated with the diagnosis of appendicitis (p = 0.005, p = 0.045, respectively) in the multivariate logistic regression analysis and showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (69.8% and 62.3%, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Increased vascularity within the appendiceal wall and peri-appendiceal fat infiltration were significant predictors of appendicitis in patients with equivocal US findings.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903728

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The clinical characteristics of patients with masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) have been poorly defined, and few studies have investigated the clinical predictors of MUCH. We investigated the demographic, clinical, and blood pressure (BP) characteristics of patients with MUCH and proposed a prediction model for MUCH in patients with hypertension. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,986 subjects who were enrolled in the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (Kor-ABP) Registry and taking antihypertensive drugs, and classified them into the controlled hypertension (n = 465) and MUCH (n = 389) groups. MUCH was defined as the presence of a 24-hour ambulatory mean systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 80 mmHg in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs, having normal office BP. @*Results@#Patients in the MUCH group had significantly worse metabolic profiles and higher office BP, and took significantly fewer antihypertensive drugs compared to those in the controlled hypertension group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified high office systolic BP and diastolic BP, prior stroke, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, ≥ 116 g/m2 for men, and ≥ 96 g/m2 for women), high heart rate (≥ 75 beats/min), and single antihypertensive drug use as independent predictors of MUCH. A prediction model using these predictors showed a high diagnostic accuracy (C-index of 0.839) and goodness-of-fit for the presence of MUCH. @*Conclusions@#MUCH is associated with a high-normal increase in office BP and underuse of antihypertensive drugs, as well as dyslipidemia, prior stroke, and LVH, which could underscore achieving optimal BP control. The proposed model accurately predicts MUCH in patients with controlled office BP.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903683

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Beta-blockers (BBs) have been shown to improve clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. We evaluated the prescribing status of BBs in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) at discharge according to the presence or not of bradycardia, and its effect on prognosis. @*Methods@#Study data were obtained from a multicenter cohort of 3,200 patients hospitalized for HF. Patients were classified into four groups according to the presence of bradycardia and use of BBs at discharge. The primary outcome was the incidence of all-cause death during follow-up. @*Results@#Of 1,584 patients with HFrEF, 281 patients died during follow-up (median 523 days, mean 578.5 ± 429.7 days). In patients with bradycardia, the all-cause death rate did not significantly differ according to the use of BBs, but in those patients without bradycardia, the incidence of all-cause death was significantly lower in the BBs group than the no BBs group. Among these four groups, patients with heart rate (HR) ≥ 60 beats/min with no BBs group had the lowest cumulative death-free survival rate. In addition, HR ≥ 60 beats/min with BBs use was independently associated with a 31% reduced risk of all-cause death in patients with HFrEF. @*Conclusions@#BBs had a beneficial effect on clinical prognosis only in those HFrEF patients without bradycardia. Therefore, BBs should be given by clinicians to HF patients without bradycardia to improve their clinical outcomes.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903586

ABSTRACT

Centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome (CAPS), known as functional abdominal pain syndrome in the Rome III criteria of functional gastrointestinal diseases, has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 2.1%, with a female preponderance. The pathogenesis of CAPS has not been completely established, and various studies are being conducted. On the other hand, central nervous system sensitization with disinhibition of the pain signaling pathways appears to play a more important role than the up-regulation of peripheral afferent neuronal excitability. The diagnosis of CAPS is based on the Rome IV criteria (2016) and is established around the gastrointestinal symptoms combination. Various new treatment trials and effective patient-physician relationships showed progressive results.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children at admission and during hospitalization in South Korea. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#This first cross-sectional nationwide “Pediatric Nutrition Day (pNday)” survey was conducted among 872 hospitalized children (504 boys, 368 girls; 686 medical, 186 surgical) from 23 hospitals in South Korea. Malnutrition risk was screened using the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth. Nutritional status was assessed by z-scores of weight-for-age for underweight, weight-for-height for wasting, and height-for-age for stunting as well as laboratory tests. @*RESULTS@#At admission, of the 872 hospitalized children, 17.2% were underweight, and the prevalence of wasting and stunting was 20.2% and 17.3%, respectively. During hospitalization till pNday, 10.8% and 19.6% experienced weight loss and decreased oral intake, respectively.During the aforementioned period, fasting was more prevalent in surgical patients (7.5%) than in medical patients (1.6%) (P < 0.001). According to the PYMS, 34.3% and 30% of the children at admission and on pNday, respectively, had a high-risk of malnutrition, requiring consultation with the nutritional support team (NST). However, only 4% were actually referred to the NST during hospitalization. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Malnutrition was prevalent at admission and during hospitalization in pediatric patients, with many children experiencing weight loss and poor oral intake. To improve the nutritional status of hospitalized children, it is important to screen and identify all children at risk of malnutrition and refer malnourished patients to the multidisciplinary NST for proper nutritional interventions.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1730-1741, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although thermal ablation is effective in treating low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs), comparison of treatment outcomes between thermal ablation and surgery has not yet been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of thermal ablation and surgery for the treatment of low-risk PTMCs. @*Materials and Methods@#Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies reporting comparisons of treatment results between thermal ablation and surgery for patients with low-risk PTMC published up to April 6, 2020. The analysis evaluated the efficacy (local tumor recurrence, occurrence of new tumor, metastasis, and rescue surgery) and safety (complication rate) of thermal ablation and surgery. @*Results@#This systematic review included four studies with a total of 339 PTMCs in 339 patients who underwent thermal ablation and 320 PTMCs in 314 patients who underwent surgery. There was no local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis in either group. There was no significant difference in the pooled proportion of lymph node metastasis (2.6% with thermal ablation vs. 3.3% with surgery, p = 0.65), occurrence of new tumors (1.4% with thermal ablation vs. 1.3% with surgery, p = 0.85), or rescue surgery (2.6% with thermal ablation vs. 1.6% with surgery, p = 0.62). However, the pooled complication rate was significantly higher in the surgery group than in the ablation group (3.3% with thermal ablation vs. 7.8% with surgery, p = 0.03). @*Conclusion@#Both thermal ablation and surgery are effective and safe options for the management of low-risk PTMCs, with thermal ablation achieving a lower complication rate. Therefore, thermal ablation may be considered as an alternative treatment option for low-risk PTMC in patients who refuse surgery and active surveillance or are ineligible for surgery.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1640-1649, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902490

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Flattening in the anteroposterior direction (AP flattening) of the terminal ileum (TI) or sigmoid colon (SC) lying across the psoas muscle, on magnetic resonance enterography (MRE), might mimic bowel inflammation in the coronal view.This study investigated the prevalence of AP flattening and the factors associated with its development. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 364 surgery-naïve patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who had undergone MRE were retrospectively reviewed. AP flattening was defined as a luminal collapse in the anteroposterior direction, with a bowel width in the axial plane < 1/4 of the normal diameter without reduction of bowel width in coronal images. The prevalence of AP flattening of the TI and SC on MRE in patients with bowel segments lying across the psoas muscle was determined. We further compared the rate of AP flattening between MRE and computed tomography enterography (CTE) in a subcohort of patients with prior CTE. The factors associated with AP flattening were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression in a subcohort of patients with endoscopic findings of TI. @*Results@#Three hundred and twenty-two and 363 patients, respectively, had TI and SC lying across the psoas muscle. The prevalence of AP flattening on MRE was 7.5% (24/322) in TI and 5.2% (19/363) in SC. The prevalences were significantly higher on MRE than on CTE in both the TI (7.3% [12/164] vs. 0.6% [1/164]; p = 0.003) and SC (5.8% [11/190] vs. 1.6% [3/ 190]; p = 0.039). AP flattening of the TI was independently and strongly associated with the absence of CD inflammation on endoscopy, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.066 (p = 0.003) for the presence versus the absence (reference) of inflammation. @*Conclusion@#AP flattening of the TI or SC lying across the psoas muscle was uncommon and predominantly observed on MRE of the bowel without CD inflammation.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901448

ABSTRACT

Background@#We previously elucidated the protective mechanism of Korean red ginseng oil (RGO) against Brucella abortus infection, and our phytochemical analysis revealed that palmitic acid (PA) was an abundant component of RGO. Consequently, we investigated the contribution of PA against B. abortus. @*Objectives@#We aimed to investigate the efficacy of PA against B. abortus. infection using a murine cell line and a murine model. @*Methods@#Cell viability, bactericidal, internalization, and intracellular replication, western blot, nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2 - ) analyses and flow cytometry were performed to determine the effects of PA on the progression of B. abortus. infection in macrophages. Flow cytometry for cytokine analysis of serum samples and bacterial counts from the spleens were performed to determine the effect of PA in a mouse model. @*Results@#PA did not affect the growth of B. abortus.. PA treatment in macrophages did not change B. abortus. uptake but it did attenuate the intracellular survivability of B. abortus.. Incubation of cells with PA resulted in a modest increase in sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression.Compared to control cells, reduced nitrite accumulation, augmented O2 - , and enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production were observed in PA-treated B. abortus.-infected cells.Mice orally treated with PA displayed a decreased serum interleukin-10 level and enhanced bacterial resistance. @*Conclusions@#Our results suggest that PA participates in the control of B. abortus. within murine macrophages, and the in vivo study results confirm its efficacy against the infection. However, further investigations are encouraged to completely characterize the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of B. abortus. infection by fatty acids.

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