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1.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 967-972
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191429

ABSTRACT

An unprecedented outbreak of dengue occurred during 2017 in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram was worst affected. We carried out a joint investigation with the Health department of the State, to understand the epidemiological and entomological factors involved in this outbreak, so as to develop strategies to contain it. Blood samples from suspected patients were collected from three worst affected areas and genomic analysis of the Dengue virus (DENV) was performed. Also, a cross sectional entomological survey was carried out in these areas. The data obtained was compared with the available secondary data of DENV in Kerala. The investigations revealed a genetic shift from the erstwhile predominant DENV2/DENV3 serotypes to the newly introduced DENV1 Asian genotype during the current outbreak. Breeding indices of Aedes aegypti, the predominant vector species was also found to be remarkably high. Asian genotype of DENV1 was detected in field collected Ae. aegypti also. The index cases of the Asian genotype of DENV1 in Kerala were detected from Erumeli village (gateway to the famous Sabarimala shrine) among two plantation workers migrated from the neighbouring Karnataka state, during 2013. This introduced virus strain attained an epidemic proportion in 2017 in Thiruvananthapuram, owing to immunologically naïve population and high receptivity.

2.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-176391

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: In Odisha State, the control of malaria vectors has become dependent on synthetic pyrethroids, which are used for treatment of all approved long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The vast use of just one class of insecticide has led to the problem of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors. One of the major malaria vectors in Odisha State is Anopheles culicifacies Giles. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance status of An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid and other common insecticides used by the National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme (NVBDCP) for indoor residual spraying in Odisha State. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during April 2014 - June 2014 from 15 randomly selected villages in five Plasmodium falciparum endemic southern districts of Odisha State. The blood-fed wild caught females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. Results: Results indicated that An. culicifacies was resistant to all the three insecticides used in the malaria control programme in the five districts of Odisha State. Interpretation & conclusions: Resistance management strategy by appropriate rotation of different groups of insecticides including carbamates and incorporating a synergist with synthetic pyrethroids for treating mosquito nets should be considered for the control of malaria vectors in the area, especially where An. culicifacies is predominant. Periodical monitoring of susceptibility/resistance status of An. culicifacies to different insecticides is warranted.

3.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-176390

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have become an essential surveillance tool in the malaria control programme in India. The current study aimed to assess the performance of ParaHIT-f, a rapid test in diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection through detecting its specific antigen, histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP-2), in Odisha State, India. Methods: The study was undertaken in eight falciparum malaria endemic southern districts of Odisha State. Febrile patients included through active case detection, were diagnosed by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) for P. falciparum infection using the RDT, ParaHIT-f. The performance of ParaHIT-f was evaluated using microscopy as the gold standard. Results: A total of 1030 febrile patients were screened by both microscopy and the RDT for P. falciparum infection. The sensitivity of ParaHIT-f was 63.6% (95% CI: 56.0-70.6) and specificity was 98.9% (95% CI: 97.9-99.5), with positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of 92.6% (95% CI: 86.0-96.3) and 93.0% (95% CI: 91.0-94.5), respectively. When related to parasitaemia, the RDT sensitivity was 47.8% at the low parasitaemia of 4 to 40 parasites/μl of blood. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that the performance of the RDT, ParaHIT-f, was not as sensitive as microscopy in detecting true falciparum infections; a high specificity presented a low frequency of false-positive RDT results. The sensitivity of ParaHIT-f was around 60 per cent. It is, therefore, essential to improve the efficiency (sensitivity) of the kit so that the true falciparum infections will not be missed especially in areas where P. falciparum has been the predominant species causing cerebral malaria.

4.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-157094

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C) was calculated using the Macdonald’s formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net). Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. Results: The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv). The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/pathogenicity , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/pathogenicity , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-155365

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Selection of an insecticide and its appropriate formulation is a prerequisite of formulating any chemical control strategy against vectors. A hut scale field trial was carried out to study the effectiveness of house spraying with capsule suspension (CS) formulation of lambdacyhalothrin in comparison with its wettable powder (WP) formulation on mortality, density and behaviour of malaria vector in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India. Methods: The two formulations were tested at 20 and 30 mg (a.i.)/m2 for their effectiveness in terms of deterrence, excito-repellency, blood-feeding success, mortality and residual activity against Anopheles fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, in experimental huts in Malkangiri district, Odisha State, India. Results: Both CS and WP formulations prevented the entry of An. fluviatilis in to the sprayed huts by >90 per cent for >6 months, the entire peak malaria transmission season in the area. The exit rate increased (90-99%) with different treatments and the feeding rate was reduced (91-97%). There was no significant difference between WP 30, CS 20 and CS 30 mg/m2 in these respects. However, WP 20 mg/m2 caused a lesser effect than the other three groups. The formulations or the dosages differed only in causing vector mortalities. Overall, the total mortality rate of An. fluviatilis was higher in the huts sprayed with CS 30 (58%) than the huts sprayed with CS 20 (48%), WP 20 (37%) and WP 30 mg/m2 (47%). Interpretation & conclusions: Considering the duration of residual action and the effect on entry, exit, feeding and mortality of An. fluviatilis, the dosage 20 mg/m2 of CS formulation of lambdacyhalothrin could be considered for further use.

6.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-155344

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Integrated vector management (IVM) emphasizes sustainable eco-friendly methods and minimal use of chemicals. In this context, the present study highlights the environmental control of breeding of Anopheles fluviatilis, the primary malaria vector, through water management in a natural stream in Koraput district, Odisha, India. Methods: The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Koraput, constructed two bed-dams across streams, one in Barigaon and the other in Pipalapodar village. The bed-dam in the former village was fitted with two sluice gates whereas the bed dam constructed in the latter village was without the sluice gate. tThe sluice gates were opened once in a week on a fixed day to flush out the water from the dam. Anopheles immatures were sampled systematically in the streams using a dipper for density measurement and species composition. Results: There was a reduction of 84.9 per cent in the proportion of positive dips for aAnopheles larvae/pupae and a reduction of 98.4 per cent in immature density (number/dip) of An. fluviatilis in the experimental downstream compared to the control following opening of the sluice gates. Interpretation & conclusions: oOur findins showed that opening of sluice gates of the bed-dam regularly once in a week resulted in the control of vector breeding in the downstream due to the flushing effect of the water released with a high flow from the bed-dam that stagnated water in the upstream. The outcome of the study encourages upscaling this measure to other areas, wherever feasible.

7.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-155162

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored.

8.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 736-741, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-630432

ABSTRACT

Unused and discarded latex collection containers (LCCs) are the major breeding habitats of Aedes albopictus in the rubber plantations of Kerala, India. Platynectes sp. (Family: Dytiscidae) was observed to invade these habitats during the monsoon season and voraciously devour the larval instars of this major vector species of arbo-viral diseases. Field observations showed a reduction of 70.91% (p = 0.0017) and 100% in Aedes larval density, on the first and four days post release of eight beetles per LCC respectively. In laboratory, a beetle was found to devour 17.75 + 5.0 late larval instars of Ae. albopictus per day. Our findings indicate Platynectes sp. could be a potential bio-control agent against Ae. albopictus, the vector of chikungunya/dengue fevers, in rubber plantations.

9.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-145362

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Insect growth regulators (IGRs) offer alternatives to conventional chemical larvicides that pose problem of resistance and environmental safety. However, only a limited number of IGRs have been approved for use in mosquito control. In the present study, two new formulations of the IGR diflubenzuron, 2 per cent granular (GR) and 2 per cent tablet (DT) were tested for its efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus, in comparison to its 25 per cent wettable powder (WP) formulation. Methods: The WP, GR and DT formulations were tested in cesspits, street drains and abandoned wells each at four dosages, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g ai/ha. Additionally, the DT formulation was tested at a higher dosage of 1 tablet/m2 (equal to 400 g ai/ha). Results: The WP and GR formulations yielded >80 per cent inhibition of adult emergence (IE) for 7-10 days in cesspits, 4-7 days in street drains and 7-21 days in abandoned wells at all dosages tested. The DT formulation was effective only at higher dosage 100 g ai/ha and or 1 tablet/m2 for 7-15 days at all habitats. Interpretation & conclusions: The trial showed that the dosage 25 g ai/ha of 25 per cent WP could be the field dosage for cesspits and wells, and 50 g ai/ha for drains, to be applied at weekly intervals. The dosages 25, 50 and 100 g ai/ha of 2 per cent GR could be the field dosages for application in cesspits at weekly intervals, in abandoned wells every three weeks and in drains at weekly intervals, respectively. Diflubenzuron 25 per cent WP and 2 per cent GR could be used for larval control of Cx. quinquefasciatus under integrated vector management programme.


Subject(s)
Culex/parasitology , Culicidae/prevention & control , Diflubenzuron/administration & dosage , Diflubenzuron/analogs & derivatives , Diflubenzuron/therapeutic use , Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology , Humans , India , Juvenile Hormones
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-135711

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus has recently been reported to have re-appeared in Keonjhar district of Orissa after a period of about 45 years of launching the malaria eradication programme. An. minimus and An. fluviatilis were the incriminated major malaria vectors in the district, endemic for falciparum malaria. The information on seasonal prevalence and resting behaviour of the vectors is crucial for implementing appropriate malaria control measures. Therefore, a study was undertaken on seasonal prevalence and resting behaviour of An. minimus and An. fluviatilis in this district. Methods: Seven randomly selected villages of Keonjhar district, Orissa, were studied during August 2005 to November 2007. Daytime resting collections indoors and outdoors were made covering three seasons of the year. The Anopheles mosquitoes obtained from different habitats were identified. Collections were maintained separately according to different sites as well as heights of the walls in human dwellings. Results: Among the indoor collections, the densities of An. minimus and An. fluviatilis were higher in human dwellings than cattle sheds. An. fluviatilis was the predominant (41.5%) species followed by An. minimus (26.3%) in human dwellings. The density of both the vector species in human dwellings peaked during rainy and winter seasons followed by summer. Walls were the most preferred site by these vectors for resting and the maximum number was collected at a height of 3 to 4 ft. Interpretation & conclusions: The resting behaviour of the vector species increases their contact with the sprayed walls and therefore, a quality residual spraying of human dwellings focusing indoor walls could interrupt the malaria transmission in this area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/microbiology , Anopheles/physiology , Cattle , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Male , Mosquito Control/methods , Seasons
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-135937

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Pirimiphos-methyl, an organophosphorus insecticide is known to overcome resistance mechanisms of mosquitoes to other organophosphates. Information on the duration of efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl (50% emulsifiable concentrate) for the control of immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis, is scanty and hence site specific field trials are necessary to determine the field dosage. Pirimiphos-methyl (50% EC) was tested for its efficacy in cesspits and drains against the immatures of Cx. quinquefasciatus at Puducherry, an endemic area for filariasis, south India. Methods: In cesspits, Pirimiphos-methyl (50% EC) was tested at the dosage of 25, 50, 100 and 200 g(ai)/ ha and in drains at 50, 100 and 200 g(ai)/ha. Immature density during pre-treatment and post-treatment periods was recorded and the efficacy was determined by calculating percentage reduction in larval and pupal densities for a period of about one month. Results: In cesspits, application of the insecticide at 25 and 50 g(ai)/ha reduced the density of larvae by >80 per cent for 2-4 days only, whereas at 100 and 200 g(ai)/ha, the efficacy lasted for 7-8 days. More than 80 per cent reduction was observed in pupal density for 4 days at 50 g(ai)/ha and for 10-12 days at 100 and 200 g(ai)/ha respectively. In drains treated with 50 g (ai)/ha, >80 per cent reduction in larval density was recorded up to 3rd day post-treatment. The efficacy showing >80 per cent reduction in larval density lasted for 12-13 days and the same in pupal density lasted for 10-12 days at 100 and 200 g(ai)/ha. Interpretation & conclusions: At the dosages of 100 and 200 g(ai)/ha, pirimiphos-methyl (50% EC) showed no difference in the control of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in cesspits and drains. Pirimiphosmethyl may be applied at the field dosage of 100 g (ai)/ha at 10 day-intervals in the larval habitats of Cx. quinquefasciatus to achieve >80 per cent reduction in immature density.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex/drug effects , Culex/growth & development , Emulsions , India , Insect Control/methods , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Organothiophosphorus Compounds/administration & dosage , Organothiophosphorus Compounds/pharmacology , Pupa/drug effects
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-135842

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: In the tsunami (December 2004) affected coastal villages located on southern parts of Coramandel Coast of India, seawater intrusion has created serious problems for the people. In order to assess the risk of outbreak of fl y-borne diseases, a longitudinal study for one year was carried out to investigate muscoid fl y abundance and their distribution in relation to various phases of relief measures in disaster-hit villages. Method: Muscoid fl y density was monitored in devastated human settlements, temporary shelters, garbage dumping yards and open defaecation yards in seawater intrusion and indoors and outdoors of seawater non intrusion areas using scudder grill and sweep net at monthly intervals from February 2005 to January 2006. Results: Muscoid fl y density recorded in the seawater incursion area was signifi cantly higher, compared to that observed in the seawater non incursion area with scudder grill sampling (F= 57.896, df = 1, P<0.01) or sweep net sampling (F= 63.6, df = 1, P<0.01). Fly density in seawater non incursion area was higher during hotter months (June-July 2005) and lower during cooler months. On the contrary, the fl y density in the seawater incursion areas was higher during the cooler months than in hotter months, indicating that the normal trend was upset by the tsunami. Interpretation & conclusion: Seawater incursion, crowding of tsunami victims at relief camps, accumulation of solid waste at centralized relief kitchen and temporary shelters were responsible for the sudden increase in the number of fl ies. However, the post-disaster relief efforts kept the situation under control, without outbreak of any vector-borne diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Climate , Communicable Disease Control , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Disasters , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Humans , India , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors , Relief Work , Seawater , Tsunamis
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-20915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Insecticide treated mosquito nets are increasingly being used in malaria control programmes. One of the problems with the treatment of bed nets with conventional formulations of insecticides was that regular washing of treated nets diminish insecticidal effect. Lambdacyhalothrin 2.5 capsule suspension (CS) (2.5% a.i., w/v), a new water-based microencapsulated formulation is reported to have wash-resistant property and longer persistence on the netting material than other formulations. We evaluated the impact of the use of nylon bed nets treated with lambdacyhalothrin 2.5 CS at 10 mg (a.i.)/m(2) in comparison to untreated nets and no nets on malaria in tribal villages in Orissa. METHODS: Nine foothill villages, highly endemic for falciparum malaria, from the Primary Health Centre (PHC) areas of Khairput and Kudumulugumma of Malkangiri district, Orissa, were divided into three groups, each with a population of about 500 and allocated randomly for treated (TN) and untreated nets (UN) and no nets (NN). Bed nets were distributed in September 2001 and retreatment was done in June 2002. The impact was assessed based on the changes in vector density, parous rate, malaria incidence and parasite rates. Indoor-resting collections of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies were made at fortnightly intervals from fixed human dwellings. Mass blood surveys before and after distribution of nets and fortnightly active surveillance were carried out to assess the change in parasite rates and malaria incidence. Bioassays were conducted at fortnightly intervals on the bed nets supplied to the villagers. RESULTS: The reductions in indoor resting catches of An. fluviatilis and An. culicifacies were 96 and 38 per cent in villages with treated nets and 2.6 and 23 per cent in villages with untreated nets respectively compared to no net villages. For six months following treatment, 100 per cent mortality of An. fluviatilis was observed on the unwashed nets and on the nets washed once or twice. After re-treatment, 100 per cent mortality of An. fluviatilis or An. culicifacies was observed for nine months even after two washes. Usage rates of treated and untreated nets varied seasonally; 58.9 and 46.3 per cent in rainy season, 48.6 and 37.1 per cent in winter season and 38.1 and 31.6 per cent in summer season respectively. Reductions in malaria parasite rates were about 65 per cent in the treated net villages and 39 per cent in the untreated net villages compared to no net villages. About 75 per cent of treated nets and 60 per cent of untreated nets were in usable condition 19 months after distribution. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The estimated protection factor based on malaria incidence was 86 per cent for the treated nets during both post-treatment and post-retreatment periods and 34 and 51 per cent for untreated nets for the corresponding periods compared to no nets. The results of the study showed that the use of bed nets treated nets with CS formulation of lambdacyhalothrin at 10 mg (a.i.)/m(2) was acceptable to the community and re-treatment of nets at nine-monthly intervals can significantly reduce density and survival of An. fluviatilis and incidence of falciparum malaria.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Beds , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infant , Insecticides , Insecta , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles , Nylons , Pyrethrins , Water , Young Adult
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(2): 165-171, Mar. 2008. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-480644

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the operational feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in one Primary Health Centre (PHC) in a falciparum malaria endemic district in the state of Orissa, India, where 74 percent of the people are tribes and DDT indoor residual spraying had been withdrawn and ITNs introduced by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. To a population of 63,920, 24,442 ITNs were distributed free of charge through 101 treatment centers during July-August 2002. Interview of 1,130, 1,012 and 126 respondents showed that the net use rates were 80 percent, 74 percent and 55 percent in the cold, rainy and summer seasons, respectively. Since using ITNs, 74.5-76.6 percent of the respondents observed reduction of mosquito bites and 7.2-32.1 percent reduction of malaria incidence; 37 percent expressed willingness to buy ITNs if the cost was lower and they were affordable. Up to ten months post-treatment, almost 100 percent mortality of vector mosquitoes was recorded on unwashed and washed nets (once or twice). Health workers re-treated the nets at the treatment centers eight months after distribution on a cost-recovery basis. The coverage reported by the PHC was only 4.2 percent, mainly because of unwillingness of the people to pay for re-treatment and to go to the treatment centers from their villages. When the re-treatment was continued at the villages involving personnel from several departments, the coverage improved to about 90 percent.Interview of 126 respondents showed that among those who got their nets re-treated, 81.4 percent paid cash for the re-treatment and the remainder were reluctant to pay. Majority of those who paid said that they did so due to the fear that if they did not do so they would lose benefits from other government welfare schemes. The 2nd re-treatment was therefore carried out free of charge nine months after the 1st re-treatment and thus achieved coverage of 70.4 percent. The study showed community...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Anopheles , Attitude , Insecticides , Mosquito Control/methods , Awareness , Feasibility Studies , India , Interviews as Topic , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Mosquito Control/economics , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Rural Population , Seasons
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-20083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Keonjhar district of Orissa State has been hyperendemic for falciparum malaria since many years with alarming deaths due to cerebral malaria. Therefore an entomological investigation to know more about the relative prevalence of Anopheles species was done. METHODS: Daytime indoor resting and outdoor resting, light trap and double bed net collections were made. Surveys were also made to collect Anopheles immature in streams and paddy fields. The Anopheles mosquitoes obtained by different catching methods were identified and the known vector species were subjected to gut and salivary gland dissection for vector incrimination. The infected specimens of An. fluviatilis and An. minimus were subjected to polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of sibling species. RESULTS: Of the anophelines collected, the most abundant was An. splendidus (18.2%) and An. fluviatilis (17.7%), followed by An. maculatus (14.0%) and An. minimus (9.0%). The sporozoite rate of An. fluviatilis and An. minimus was 0.9 and 1.4 respectively. The infected specimens have been identified as sibling species S of the An. fluviatilis complex and A of the An. minimus complex. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: An. fluviatilis and An. minimus are the major two species in the transmission of malaria in Keonjhar district in Orissa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/metabolism , Entomology/methods , Environment , India , Insect Vectors , Malaria, Falciparum/metabolism , Mosquito Control/methods , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Species Specificity , Sporozoites/metabolism
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-25750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: In cockroach control, bait formulations are extensively used. Fipronil is one of the broad spectrum insecticides from phenyl pyrazole family available in bait formulation. The compound has been tested under field conditions. However, information on its effectiveness on different surfaces and at various density levels is not known. Therefore, the efficacy of a new formulation of fipronil 0.03 per cent (Goliath gel) was tested under laboratory conditions. METHODS: The bait formulation was tested against Periplaneta americana at the dosages of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 g/m(2), and Blatella germanica at 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125 g/m(2) on wood, cement, mud and thatch surface with three density levels of cockroaches viz., 5, 10 and 20 numbers/m(2). Mortality after 24 h of exposure was observed daily for five days. RESULTS: Rate of mortality varied between 16.0 and 96.0 per cent in P. americana and 51.0 and 100.0 per cent in B. germanica on different surfaces tested. The mortality rate of P. americana increased line rarly from the dosage 0.025g to 0.15 g/m(2) and at 0.2 g/m(2), it was independent. The LD(80) values of the gel against P. americana at high density were 0.208, 0.246, 0.361 and 0.466 g/m(2) on wood, cement, mud and thatch surfaces, whereas against B. germanica the values were 0.079, 0.081, 0.089 and 0.055 g/m(2) respectively, indicating a significantly (P<0.001) higher efficacy of Goliath gel against B. germanica than P. americana. The results of fitting logistic regression model to the observed percentage mortality with log dose and cockroach density as explanatory variables satisfactorily described the observations at all densities on each surface. The pattern of response to increasing dosages was similar for all the three density levels on each of the surfaces in P. americana and B. germanica. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The effectiveness assessed against P. americana and B. germanica using logistic regression model suggested that the gel when applied at the appropriate dosages on wood, cement, mud and thatch surfaces could cause >80 per cent mortality of these species in dwellings having these types of surfaces.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blattellidae/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gels , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Logistic Models , Periplaneta/drug effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-18096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The resistance in vectors to conventional insecticides warrants development of newer insecticides for mosquito control besides use of other counter-measures. The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of a new and toxicologically safe organophosphorus compound, Reldan (chlorpyrifos-methyl) and compare its efficacy with Dursban (chlorphyrifos-ethyl) against larvae of different mosquito vectors under laboratory conditions and against Culex quinquefasciatus in three larval habitats. METHODS: The susceptibility of larvae of mosquito vector species to Reldan and Dursban was determined by following the standard procedure and the LC50 in mg/l values were calculated by probit analysis. The insecticides were evaluated in the larval habitats of C. quinquefasciatus in and around Pondicherry. The percentage reduction in larval density was calculated using Mulla's formula and duration showing more than 80 per cent reduction was calculated by annotating the graph obtained by plotting percentage reduction in larval density against days of post-treatment. RESULTS: Dursban and Reldan were effective against Anopheles fluviatilis larvae at lower LC50 of 5.90 x 10(-7) and 1.07 x 10(-9) mg/l respectively compared to other species of mosquitoes. Dursban and Reldan were equally effective against Aedes aegypti, An. stephensi and An. culicifacies. Reldan was about nine times more effective than Dursban against C. quinquefasciatus with respective LC50 of 1.17 x 10(-4) and 1.34 x 10(-3) mg/l. Field evaluation of these insecticides against C. quinquefasciatus showed that Reldan and Dursban at the application rate of 500 g (ai)/ha reduced immature density by more than 80 per cent for a mean duration of 4.0 and 4.5 days and 4.6 and 3.7 days in cesspits and cement tanks respectively. In U-drains, at 500 g (ai)/ha, Reldan was effective for a period of 3.6 days whereas, Dursban was not effective. It was effective for 4.0 days only at 1000 g(ai)/ha. There was no significant increase in the residual activity of both Dursban and Reldan with increase in application rates. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In view of the lack of sustained control with the applications, it is inferred that these insecticides will be of limited use as larvicides against C. quinquefasciatus breeding in polluted habitats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorpyrifos/analogs & derivatives , Culex/drug effects , Environment , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-19830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Repellents can play a useful role in reducing the man-vector contact and help in interrupting disease transmission. Newer formulations are necessary to improve the efficacy of the repellent on the treated sites for enhanced protection. METHODS: To determine the comparative efficacy, 20 per cent liposphere lotion formulation and 20 per cent alcohol solution of two insect repellents DEET and DEPA were evaluated for the extent of protection on rabbits against Aedes aegypti during the day in the laboratory and on human volunteers during the night against Culex quinquefasciatus in the urban areas of Pondicherry, India. RESULTS: In the laboratory, the lotion formulations of DEPA and DEET were found to enhance the repellency by 1.5 (4.00 to 6.00 h) and 1.25 (4.00 to 5.00 h) times respectively compared to the alcohol solution of the repellents against Ae. aegypti at the application rate of 0.5 mg/cm2. In the field, the lotion formulation of DEPA at 0.3 mg/cm2 could increase the protection time from 6.30 to 8.36 h (1.3 times) whereas the lotion formulation of DEET at 0.3 mg/cm2 could increase the protection time from 6.54 to 8.42 h (1.2 times). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In laboratory and field tests, the lotion formulations of both repellents were found to give a higher protection compared to alcohol solution. The lotion formulations of DEET and DEPA were found to be equally effective.


Subject(s)
Acetamides , Acetanilides , Aedes , Animals , DEET , Female , Insect Repellents , Insect Vectors , Rabbits
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-24887

ABSTRACT

Spicbiomoss, an aqueous suspension formulation of Bacillus sphaericus was evaluated for its efficacy against immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus at the application rate of 120 l/ha in cement tanks, cesspits and drains in Pondicherry and in drains in Kochi, Kerala. The formulation was also tested against anophelines (Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies) breeding in stream pools in Malkangiri district, Orissa. In cement tanks and cesspits more than 80 per cent reduction in immature density was observed for a period of 6-13 days (mean 9.8 +/- 1.25 days) and 3-8 days (mean 5.2 +/- 0.7 days) respectively. The same level of reduction was found to last for 1-4 days (mean 2.2 +/- 0.52 days) in drains in Pondicherry and 2-9 days (mean 4.8 +/- 1.17 days) in Kochi. In bunded stream pools 40-79 per cent reduction in immature density of Anopheles was obtained for an average period of 1-7 (mean 3.83 +/- 0.98) days. There was no improvement in the efficacy of the formulation against anophelines even at the higher application rate (240 l/ha). Thus, Spicbiomoss can be used against Cx. quinquefasciatus in an integrated vector management programme.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Bacillus/physiology , Culex , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-32574

ABSTRACT

Simple catalytic models were used for estimating the true incidence of malaria in hyperendemic villages of Koraput District in Orissa State where Plasmodium falciparum is predominant. The hill top villages recorded a slide positive rate of 45.68. The daily rate of inoculation among infants was estimated to be 0.00781. The inoculation rate was so high that the recovery from one infection was compensated by the subsequent infection and hence the prevalence continued to increase with age. The model adequately represents the observed data for infants but could not be used for estimating the true prevalence in the adult population without incorporating other factors like immunity and superinfection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infant , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence
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