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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829574

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis infections among primary school students in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among students sampled from a primary school in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City on April, 2018, and their stool samples were collected for microscopic examinations, in vitro culture and PCR assays to analyze the prevalence of Blastocystis infections and subtype of the parasite. In addition, the risk factors of Blastocystis infections among primary school students were identified using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 466 primary students were surveyed, and the subjects had a mean age of (9.81±1.66) years and included 236 males (50.64%) and 230 females (49.36%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infections was 15.24% (71/466) among the study students, and there was no significance difference in the prevalence between male and fe- male students (16.52% vs. 13.91%; χ2 = 0.616, P = 0.433). In addition, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis infections among grade 1 (6.35%, 4/63), grade 2 (5.17%, 3/58), grade 3 (21.74%, 15/69), grade 4 (25.30%, 21/83), grade 5 (10.19%, 11/108) and grade 6 students (20.00%, 17/85) (χ2 = 15.410, P = 0.009). There were four Blastocystis subtypes characterized (ST1, ST3, ST6 and ST7), in which ST6 was the most common subtype (45.07%, 32/71), followed by ST3 (25.35%, 18/71). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that minority ethnicity [odds ratio (OR) = 4.259, 95% confidential inter- val (CI) : (1.161, 15.621)] and low maternal education level (primary school and below) [OR = 9.038, 95% CI: (1.125, 72.642)] were identified as risk factors of Blastocystis infection among primary school students in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of Blastocystis infections detected among primary school students in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, and ST6 and ST3 are predominant subtypes. Minority ethnicity and low maternal education level (primary school and below) are risk factors for Blastocystis infections in primary school students.

2.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 412-415, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844159

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of nerve trunk stimulation in the rehabilitation of lower limb function in the patients with cerebral apoplexy at convalescence stage. METHODS: According the random number table, the patients with the lower limb dysfunction of cerebral apoplexy at convalescence stage were divided into a control group and a treatment group, 42 cases in each group. The drug therapy and the routine rehabilitation training were provided in the two groups. Additionally, in the treatment group, the nerve trunk stimulation therapy was adopted, in which, Chize (LU5,stimulating point of radial nerve), Neiguan (PC6, stimulating point of median nerve), Xiaohai (SI8, stimulating point of ulnar nerve) were selected. In the control group, acupuncture intervention was supplemented. Before and after treatment, the peak torque (PT) of the lower flexor-extensor muscle of the knee joint, gait parameters,the score of the modified Ashworth spasm scale (MAS), the score of Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMA) and the score of Fugl-Meyer balance scale (FBS) were recorded. RESULTS: After the treatment, the PT of the lower flexor-extensor muscle of the knee joint,the scores of FMA and FBS,the step speed and frequency were all increased, the score of MAS and the difference in the stride between the left and the right were decreased as compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). After the treatment, The PT of the lower flexor-extensor muscle of the knee joint,the scores of FMA and FBS,the step speed and frequency in the treatment group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). The score of MAS and the difference in the stride between the left and the right in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Nerve trunk stimulation therapy quite effectively increases the muscle strength and relieves the muscle tension as well as improves the motor function, the balance and the walking pattern of the lower limbs. This therapy is significantly valuable in the rehabilitation of the lower limbs in the patients with cerebral apoplexy at convalescence stage.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837613

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis hominis infections among AIDS patients in Nanchang City. MethodsA cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among AIDS patients in Nanchang City during the period between May and September, 2016. B. hominis infection was detected in patients’stool samples using a PCR assay, and the CD4+ T cell count was measured in subjects’blood samples. In addition, the risk factors of B. hominis infection in AIDS patients were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results A survey was conducted in Nanchang City from May to September 2016. A total of 505 AIDS patients were investigated, and the prevalence of B. hominis infection was 4.16%. Univariate analysis revealed that B. hominis infection correlated with the occupation (χ2 = 8.595, P = 0.049), education level (χ2 = 14.494, P = 0.001), type of daily drinking water (χ2 = 10.750, P = 0.020), root of HIV infections (χ2 = 8.755, P = 0.026) and receiving anti-HIV therapy (χ2 = 23.083, P = 0.001) among AIDS patients, and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified daily direct drinking of tap water as a risk factor of B. hominis infections [odds ratio (OR) = 7.988, 95% confidential interval (CI): (1.160, 55.004)] and anti-HIV therapy as a protective factor of B. hominis infection [OR = 0.183, 95% CI: (0.049, 0.685)]. Conclusions The prevalence of B. hominis is 4.16% among AIDS patients in Nanchang City. Daily direct drinking of tap water is a risk factor, and anti-HIV therapy is a protective factor of B. hominis infection among AIDS patients living in Nanchang City.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819003

ABSTRACT

In 1980s, Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, was found in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China, and currently, this snail has colonized in Shenzhen City and spread to peripheral cities involving of Dongguan and Huizhou. Since imported cases infected with S. mamoni have been reported from time to time in China, Mainland China is facing the potential risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni. With the deepening of the opening-up policy, notably the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative, there is an increase in the risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Mainland China. Increasing the understanding on schistosomiasis mansoni, improving the awareness toward schistosomiasis mansoni prevention and control, and identifying, reporting and managing imported cases with S. mansoni infection or pathogen carriers, are of particular importance to prevent the development of entire life cycle of S. mansoni and the resultant schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China. To protect public health, a consensus has been reached pertaining to the surveillance and control strategy of imported schistosomiasis mansoni by Chinese infectious disease experts and parasitologists, with aims to improve the awareness and capability for the diagnosis, treatment and control of imported schistosomiasis mansoni among Chinese disease control and prevention institutions and medical institutions, and decrease and even eliminate the risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818978

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis hominis infections among patients with HIV/AIDS in Fuyang City, Anhui Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fuyang City, Anhui Province in 2016. The demographic and socioeconomic status, and the lifestyle and production style were collected using a questionnaire survey. B. hominis DNA was detected in subjects’stool samples using a PCR assay, and the CD4+ T lymphocyte count and HIV viral load were measured in the subjects’ blood samples. The risk factors of B. hominis infections among patients with HIV/AIDS were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 398 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 49.3 years, a mean body weight of 55.9 kg and a mean height of 164.4 cm. The prevalence of B. hominis infection was 6.78% in the study subjects, and no gender- (χ2 = 1.589, P = 0.207), education level- (χ2 =0.508, P = 0.776), marital status- (χ2 = 0.419, P = 0.811) or occupation-specific prevalence (χ2 = 2.744, P = 0.615) was detected. Among the patients with HIV/AIDS, there were no significant differences in the age (t = 0.370, P = 0.712), height (t = 1.587, P =0.113), body weight (t = 0.516, P = 0.606), CD4+ T lymphocyte count (t = 1.187, P = 0.230) or HIV viral load (t = 0.193, P =0.496) between B. hominis-infected and uninfected individuals. Dinking non-tap water [OR = 6.554, 95% CI: (1.876 to 22.903)] and keeping dogs [OR = 5.895, 95% CI: (2.017 to 17.225)] were identified as risk factors for B. hominis infection in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The prevalence of B. hominis infection is high in HIV/AIDS patients, and drinking non-tap water and keeping dogs are risk factors for B. hominis infection among HIV/AIDS patients.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818975

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis hominis infection in inpatients in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community hospital in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, and the inpatients were surveyed by questionnaires. After obtaining the informed consent from the inpatients or legal guardians, the stool and blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy and PCR from April 17 to May 1, 2018. The univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of the B. hominis infection. Results A total of 198 hospitalized patients were investigated, and the infection rate of B. hominis was 10.61% (21/198), and the infection rate of the females (12.10%) was higher than that of the males (8.11%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The highest rate of infection was 19.23% in the age group of 10 to 20 years, followed by 17.74% in the age group of 60 years and above, and the lowest rate was 2.38% in the age group of 20 to 40 years. The difference in infection rates of B. hominis among the different age groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The infection rate of B. hominis in the people who used dry pail latrines was 33.30%, which was higher than that of the people who used water flush toilets (9.10%) (P < 0.05). The genotypes of B. hominis were ST1, ST3, ST6 and ST7, and ST6 and ST3 being the most predominant genotypes which accounted for 47.62% (10/21) and 38.10% (8/21) respectively, and among the infected males, the genotypes were only ST3 and ST6. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that among the factors affecting B. hominis infection, only keeping pets was a risk factor [OR = 3.798, 95% CI (1.245, 11.581), P < 0.05]. Conclusion A high prevalence of B. hominis infection is found in the inpatients in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, the predominant genotypes are ST6 and ST3, and keeping pets may be one of the main risk factors.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818960

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of intravenous injection of different blood components containing Babesia microti on B. microti infection in mice. Methods Healthy mice were infected with B. microti, and then blood samples were collected from the mouse orbit to prepare whole blood, serum-free blood components and pure red blood cells containing B. microti. Twenty seven BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, including the whole blood group, the serum-free blood component group and the pure red blood cell group, of 9 mice in each group, and then, each group was divided into three subgroups, of 3 mice in each subgroup, which were injected with 100 μL of blood components containing B. microti at concentrations of 9.00, 0.90, 0.09 B. microti parasites/μL (900, 90, 9 B. microti parasites) via the tail vein, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the mouse tail tip every other day since one day post-injection to prepare thin blood smears. Following Giemsa staining of blood smears, B. microti infection was identified in red blood cells using microscopy. Results Following injection of 900 B. microti parasites, B. microti was identified in the peripheral blood in the whole blood group and the serum-free blood component group 3 days post-injection, and the density of B. microti parasites started to increase 15 days post-injection and peaked 21 days post-injection, with 2.21% and 1.76% rates of B. microti infection in red blood cells, respectively. Subsequently, the density of B. microti parasites declined, and the percentage of B. microti infection in red blood cells tended to be 0 31 days post-injection. During the study period, no B. microti was found in the peripheral blood in the pure red blood cell group. Following injection of 90 B. microti parasites, B. microti was identified in the peripheral blood in the whole blood group 3 days post-injection, and the density of B. microti parasites increased 15 days post-injection and peaked 21 days post-injection, with a 1.35% rate of B. microti infection in red blood cells, while the percentage of B. microti infection in red blood cells tended to be 0 31 days post-injection. During the study period, no B. microti was detected in the peripheral blood in the serum-free blood component group or the pure red blood cell group. Following injection of 9 B. microti parasites, no B. microti was detected in the peripheral blood in the whole blood group, the serum-free blood component group or the pure red blood cell group. Conclusion Blood components and dose of B. microti parasites may affect intravenous injection of B. microti injection in mice, and transfusion of blood components may case a risk of Babesia infection.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818583

ABSTRACT

In 1980s, Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, was found in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China, and currently, this snail has colonized in Shenzhen City and spread to peripheral cities involving of Dongguan and Huizhou. Since imported cases infected with S. mamoni have been reported from time to time in China, Mainland China is facing the potential risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni. With the deepening of the opening-up policy, notably the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative, there is an increase in the risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Mainland China. Increasing the understanding on schistosomiasis mansoni, improving the awareness toward schistosomiasis mansoni prevention and control, and identifying, reporting and managing imported cases with S. mansoni infection or pathogen carriers, are of particular importance to prevent the development of entire life cycle of S. mansoni and the resultant schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China. To protect public health, a consensus has been reached pertaining to the surveillance and control strategy of imported schistosomiasis mansoni by Chinese infectious disease experts and parasitologists, with aims to improve the awareness and capability for the diagnosis, treatment and control of imported schistosomiasis mansoni among Chinese disease control and prevention institutions and medical institutions, and decrease and even eliminate the risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818526

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis hominis infections among patients with HIV/AIDS in Fuyang City, Anhui Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fuyang City, Anhui Province in 2016. The demographic and socioeconomic status, and the lifestyle and production style were collected using a questionnaire survey. B. hominis DNA was detected in subjects’stool samples using a PCR assay, and the CD4+ T lymphocyte count and HIV viral load were measured in the subjects’ blood samples. The risk factors of B. hominis infections among patients with HIV/AIDS were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 398 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 49.3 years, a mean body weight of 55.9 kg and a mean height of 164.4 cm. The prevalence of B. hominis infection was 6.78% in the study subjects, and no gender- (χ2 = 1.589, P = 0.207), education level- (χ2 =0.508, P = 0.776), marital status- (χ2 = 0.419, P = 0.811) or occupation-specific prevalence (χ2 = 2.744, P = 0.615) was detected. Among the patients with HIV/AIDS, there were no significant differences in the age (t = 0.370, P = 0.712), height (t = 1.587, P =0.113), body weight (t = 0.516, P = 0.606), CD4+ T lymphocyte count (t = 1.187, P = 0.230) or HIV viral load (t = 0.193, P =0.496) between B. hominis-infected and uninfected individuals. Dinking non-tap water [OR = 6.554, 95% CI: (1.876 to 22.903)] and keeping dogs [OR = 5.895, 95% CI: (2.017 to 17.225)] were identified as risk factors for B. hominis infection in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The prevalence of B. hominis infection is high in HIV/AIDS patients, and drinking non-tap water and keeping dogs are risk factors for B. hominis infection among HIV/AIDS patients.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818523

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis hominis infection in inpatients in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community hospital in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, and the inpatients were surveyed by questionnaires. After obtaining the informed consent from the inpatients or legal guardians, the stool and blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy and PCR from April 17 to May 1, 2018. The univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of the B. hominis infection. Results A total of 198 hospitalized patients were investigated, and the infection rate of B. hominis was 10.61% (21/198), and the infection rate of the females (12.10%) was higher than that of the males (8.11%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The highest rate of infection was 19.23% in the age group of 10 to 20 years, followed by 17.74% in the age group of 60 years and above, and the lowest rate was 2.38% in the age group of 20 to 40 years. The difference in infection rates of B. hominis among the different age groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The infection rate of B. hominis in the people who used dry pail latrines was 33.30%, which was higher than that of the people who used water flush toilets (9.10%) (P < 0.05). The genotypes of B. hominis were ST1, ST3, ST6 and ST7, and ST6 and ST3 being the most predominant genotypes which accounted for 47.62% (10/21) and 38.10% (8/21) respectively, and among the infected males, the genotypes were only ST3 and ST6. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that among the factors affecting B. hominis infection, only keeping pets was a risk factor [OR = 3.798, 95% CI (1.245, 11.581), P < 0.05]. Conclusion A high prevalence of B. hominis infection is found in the inpatients in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, the predominant genotypes are ST6 and ST3, and keeping pets may be one of the main risk factors.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818508

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of intravenous injection of different blood components containing Babesia microti on B. microti infection in mice. Methods Healthy mice were infected with B. microti, and then blood samples were collected from the mouse orbit to prepare whole blood, serum-free blood components and pure red blood cells containing B. microti. Twenty seven BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, including the whole blood group, the serum-free blood component group and the pure red blood cell group, of 9 mice in each group, and then, each group was divided into three subgroups, of 3 mice in each subgroup, which were injected with 100 μL of blood components containing B. microti at concentrations of 9.00, 0.90, 0.09 B. microti parasites/μL (900, 90, 9 B. microti parasites) via the tail vein, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the mouse tail tip every other day since one day post-injection to prepare thin blood smears. Following Giemsa staining of blood smears, B. microti infection was identified in red blood cells using microscopy. Results Following injection of 900 B. microti parasites, B. microti was identified in the peripheral blood in the whole blood group and the serum-free blood component group 3 days post-injection, and the density of B. microti parasites started to increase 15 days post-injection and peaked 21 days post-injection, with 2.21% and 1.76% rates of B. microti infection in red blood cells, respectively. Subsequently, the density of B. microti parasites declined, and the percentage of B. microti infection in red blood cells tended to be 0 31 days post-injection. During the study period, no B. microti was found in the peripheral blood in the pure red blood cell group. Following injection of 90 B. microti parasites, B. microti was identified in the peripheral blood in the whole blood group 3 days post-injection, and the density of B. microti parasites increased 15 days post-injection and peaked 21 days post-injection, with a 1.35% rate of B. microti infection in red blood cells, while the percentage of B. microti infection in red blood cells tended to be 0 31 days post-injection. During the study period, no B. microti was detected in the peripheral blood in the serum-free blood component group or the pure red blood cell group. Following injection of 9 B. microti parasites, no B. microti was detected in the peripheral blood in the whole blood group, the serum-free blood component group or the pure red blood cell group. Conclusion Blood components and dose of B. microti parasites may affect intravenous injection of B. microti injection in mice, and transfusion of blood components may case a risk of Babesia infection.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704280

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the changes in body weight,spleen weight and complete blood cells in BALB/c mice infected with Babesia microti.Methods For the infection group,six weeks old BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 100μL of B.microti infected blood(20%RBC infection rate,each mouse).For the determination of the progres-sion of B.microti infection up to 28 days of the infection,the microscopic visualization of thin blood smears of tail blood stained with Giemsa staining was performed in the infection group.The experiment was carried out at different intervals on days 0,7,14,21,and 28 after the infection,respectively.The mice were sacrificed,and spleens were collected and weighed,and the body weight of the mice was also determined.The blood cells of the mice were analyzed by using Mindray BC-5300 Vet animal automatic hematology analyzer.Results On the first day after the infection,B.microti was visualized in RBC of the infection group.The significantly highest infection rate(55%)appeared on the seventh day of the infection,and then steadily decreased;the mice attained the latent infection phase on the 28th day post-infection,when the parasite could not be visualized in the pe-ripheral blood.The mice in the infected group acquired a significantly lowest body weight on the 7th day of the infection,and then gradually returned to normal.The weight of the spleen was the significantly highest on the 14th day of the infection,and then consistently decreased.On the 28th day of infection,the spleen weight was still higher than that of the control group.There were no significant changes in the number of white blood cells(WBC),lymphocytes,and eosinophils in the infected mice;and altered levels were all within the normal mouse reference range.The number of red blood cells,hemoglobin,and platelet count in the infected mice were decreased to the lowest level when the B.microti infection rate achieved to the highest,and then gradu-ally returned to the normal levels.Conclusions B.microti infection can cause body weight loss,splenic weight gain,and re-duction in the number of erythrocytes and platelets in whole blood of the mice.Besides,the whole blood cell analyzer has a diag-nostic significance in the identification of babesiosis.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704223

ABSTRACT

Objective To predict the monthly reported echinococcosis cases in China with the autoregressive integrated mov-ing average(ARIMA)model,so as to provide a reference for prevention and control of echinococcosis. Methods SPSS 24.0 software was used to construct the ARIMA models based on the monthly reported echinococcosis cases of time series from 2007 to 2015 and 2007 to 2014,respectively,and the accuracies of the two ARIMA models were compared. Results The model based on the data of the monthly reported cases of echinococcosis in China from 2007 to 2015 was ARIMA(1,0,0)(1,1, 0)12,the relative error among reported cases and predicted cases was-13.97%,AR(1)=0.367(t=3.816,P<0.001),SAR (1)=-0.328(t=-3.361,P=0.001),and Ljung-Box Q=14.119(df=16,P=0.590).The model based on the data of the monthly reported cases of echinococcosis in China from 2007 to 2014 was ARIMA(1,0,0)(1,0,1)12,the relative error among reported cases and predicted cases was 0.56%,AR(1)=0.413(t=4.244,P<0.001),SAR(1)=0.809(t=9.584, P<0.001),SMA(1)=0.356(t=2.278,P=0.025),and Ljung-Box Q=18.924(df=15,P=0.217).Conclusions The different time series may have different ARIMA models as for the same infectious diseases.It is needed to be further verified that the more data are accumulated,the shorter time of predication is,and the smaller the average of the relative error is.The estab-lishment and prediction of an ARIMA model is a dynamic process that needs to be adjusted and optimized continuously accord-ing to the accumulated data,meantime,we should give full consideration to the intensity of the work related to infectious diseas-es reported(such as disease census and special investigation).

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168705

ABSTRACT

Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica. The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Diagnosis , Eggs , Eosinophilia , Fasciola , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis , Fever , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ovum , Parasitic Diseases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168665

ABSTRACT

We described 4 human infection cases of zoonotic fish-tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense, identified with morphological and molecular characters and briefly reviewed Chinese cases in consideration of it as an emerging parasitic disease in China. The scolex and mature and gravid proglottids of some cases were seen, a rosette-shaped uterus was observed in the middle of the mature and gravid proglottids, and the diphyllobothriid eggs were yellowish-brown in color and displayed a small knob or abopercular protuberance on the opposite end of a lid-like opening. The average size of the eggs was recorded as 62–67×42–45 μm. The parasitic materials gathered from 4 human cases were morphologically identified as belonging to the genera Diphyllobothrium and Adenocephalus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of the etiologic agents confirmed that the 4 cases were D. nihonkaiense infection. The finding of 4 additional D. nihonkaiense cases suggests that D. nihonkaiense might be a major causative species of human diphyllobothriasis in China. A combined morphological and molecular analysis is the main method to confirm D. nihonkaiense infection.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Base Sequence , China , Diphyllobothriasis , Diphyllobothrium , Eggs , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Methods , Ovum , Parasitic Diseases , Uterus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50648

ABSTRACT

Angiostrongyliasis is difficult to be diagnosed for the reason that no ideal method can be used. Serologic tests require specific equipment and are not always available in poverty-stricken zone and are time-consuming. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) may be useful for angiostrongyliasis control. We established a LFIA for the diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis adults. The sensitivity and specificity were 91.1% and 100% in LFIA, while those of commercial ELISA kit was 97.8% and 86.3%, respectively. Youden index was 0.91 in LFIA and 0.84 in commercial ELISA kit. LFIA showed detection limit of 1 ng/ml of A. cantonensis ES antigens. This LFIA was simple, rapid, highly sensitive and specific, which opened an alternative approach for the diagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoassay , Limit of Detection , Methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243442

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish and evaluate a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with depression for further elaborating the disease.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group (group N), T2DM group (group T) and T2DM with depression group (group T + D), with 8 rats in each group. The T2DM rat model was induced by high fat diet and low dose of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, and in addition, the T2DM rats were made restraint stress for 21 days. After the model was established, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed. Then the rat depression level was analyzed by open field test, and the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA)was determined by ELISA to confirm the model identity.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The blood glucose level in group T and group T + D didn't return to the normal level at 180 minutes in the ITT and OGTT test; Compared with the group N, the max movement distance, retaining time in the central zone and the retaining frequency within 5 minutes in the group T + D decreased; 5-HT and DA level in the serum of rats in. group T + D was reduced.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression has been successfully established by high fat diet and injection of low dose streptozotocin in combination with restraint stress for 21 days. This rat model is useful for further relevant studies.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, High-Fat , Glucose Tolerance Test , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Restraint, Physical , Serotonin , Streptozocin , Stress, Psychological
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347177

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites in rats with chronic immobilization stress (CIS) taking Xiaoyao Powder (XYP) and its modified prescription version, which lacks the volatile oils extracted from Herba Menthae.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-four experimental male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each: control, model, XYP-1 (containing volatile oils from Herba Menthae), and XYP-2 (lacking volatile oils). All rats except control group rats were subjected to CIS 3 h per day for 21 consecutive days. Groups XYP-1 and XYP-2 were given the extracted XYS with or without volatile oils (3.854 g/kg; suspended in distilled water) via gavage 1 h before CIS each day for 21 days. Rats were anesthetized using intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/kg) on the 22nd day. Observations were made using a Varian INOVA 600 MHz NMR spectrometer at 27 °C. Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) and longitudinal eddy-delay (LED) were applied, resulting in spectra showing only the signals from micro- and macro-metabolites.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to controls, rats subjected to CIS showed increased levels of plasma metabolites, such as acetic acid, choline, N-glycoprotein (NAC), saturated fatty acid, and blood sugars. Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and unsaturated fatty acids were decreased. The biochemical effects of XYS were characterized by elevated levels of VLDL, LDL, threonine, methionine, and glutamic acid in plasma.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Some common and characteristic metabolites on the anti-CIS of XYP and its modified prescription were obtained. The metabolomics technology is a valuable tool and may be used to identify the specific metabolites and potential biomarkers of therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal prescriptions.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Proteins , Metabolism , Chronic Disease , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Metabolome , Powders , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Restraint, Physical , Stress, Psychological , Blood , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347132

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To formulate the standard measuring tool for the evaluations on fire-heat syndrome in oral cavity by means of Chinese medicine (CM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The measuring scale for fire-heat syndrome in the oral cavity by means of CM was investigated by symptom collection, item pool formulation, item selection, pre-investigation, evaluations on the reliability, validity and reactivity of the measuring scale, according to the principles for measuring scale design and under the guidance of CM theories.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The measuring scale was composed of two integrative parts: the self-filling section and the interview section. As far as the reliability was concerned, the total Cronbach α coefficient of the measuring scale was 0.866, the total test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.726 and the split-half reliability coefficient was 0.851. As far as the validity was concerned, the scores for the subjects of fire-heat syndrome in oral cavity and healthy people in their oral cavity in the items of symptoms were statistically different (P<0.01); three common divisors were extracted according to the theoretical dimensions, the accumulated contribution rate was 63.468%. As far as the reactivity was concerned, the difference between the symptom scores before and after the test in which 31 subjects used the Chinese herb toothpaste was statistically significant (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This measuring scale has relatively good reliability, validity and reactivity, and it can be used in an objective quantitative evaluation on patients suffering from fire-heat syndrome in oral cavity, and thus lay the foundations for the evaluations on the therapeutic effects of Chinese herb toothpaste on fire-heat syndrome in oral cavity.</p>


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Humans , Mouth , Pathology , Statistics as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome , Tooth , Toothpastes , Pharmacology
20.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 599-603, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-642574

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct cDNA entry library and cDNA expression library of Armillifer agkistrodontis (A.) nymphs and make a preliminary immunoscreening for the cDNA expression library.Methods The nymphs were collected from the Kunming mice infected experimentally with A.agkistrodontis eggs and the total RNA were extracted from the nymphs using TRIzol Reagent.After purifying the mRNA,the synthesized cDNAs were cloned into the donor vector pDONR222 by BP reaction of Gateway technology and the recombinants were transformed into the DH10B cells by electroporation,the cDNA entry library was obtained.Next,the expression vector pDEST17 was ligated with entry clones by LR reaction,and the recombinants were transformed into the BL21 (DE3) cells.Hence,the cDNA expression library was constructed.Then,the expression library was immunoscreened with the mixed sera of mice infected with A.agkistrodontis,and the insertions of positive clones were sequenced.After that,the open reading frame(ORF) of positive slone sequence,the homology of the screened genes and their encoded proteins were analyzed by Finder and BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) program of National Center of Biotechnology Information(NCBI),and the discovered new genes were submitted into the GenBank.Besides,the physico-chemical properties,secondary structure and B cell epitopes of encoded proteins were also analyzed by bioinformatics software.Results The average titer and total clones of the cDNA entry library were 1.45 × 105 CFU/ml(colony-forming unit,CFU) and 1.74 × 106 CFU,respectively,and the range of fragment length of the inserted cDNA was between 0.2-4.0 kb,with an average of 1.4 kb.The total clones of cDNA expression library were 1.00 × 105 CFU,and the fragment length of the inserted cDNA was between 0.3-2.2 kb,with an average of 1.0 kb.Five positive clones,coded S1,S5,A1,D1 and F1,respectively,were obtained through preliminary immunoscreening.The sequence and homology of the five positive clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST program.No significant similarities were found in pentastomida species,which meant that they were all novel genes of A.agkistrodontis.The gene sequences were submitted to GenBank,with the accession number from JQ180451 to JQ180455.Also,results obtained by bioinformatics software showed that the predictive encoding proteins were all potential to be valuable recombinant diagnostic antigens.Conclusions The cDNA library of A.agkistrodontis nymphs is successfully constructed,and five new genes of A.agkistrodontis are discovered.The establishment of cDNA library and the discovery of the new genes will lay a foundation for further studying the gene functions and screening the immunodiagnostic antigens.

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