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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876713

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new schistosomiasis surveillance program and consolidating schistosomiasis elimination achievements. Methods A total of 54 to 55 national surveillance sites and 6 risk monitoring sites were assigned in historical endemic regions of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, where the Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock, snails and wild feces were monitored. All data pertaining to the surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. Results There were 34 530 person-time local residents receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.29% to 0.68%; however, no egg-positives were detected. During the period from 2015 to 2019, there were 62 086 person-time mobile populations receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.32% to 0.56%; additionally, there were 27 egg-positives identified, including 3 imported cases with schistosomiasis haematobia and one case with acute schistosomiasis japonica, indicating that the adjusted prevalence of Schistosoma infections were 0.01% to 0.07% among mobile populations. A total of 829 livestock were examined for S. japonicum infections, with no positives detected. There were 10.55 hm2 and 2.89 hm2 snail habitats found in national surveillance sites and risk monitoring sites of Zhejiang Province during the 5-year period, respectively; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails. Moreover, a total of 305 wild feces were tested for S. japonicum infections, and no egg-positives were identified. Conclusions The schistosomiasis elimination achievement have been consolidated in Zhejiang Province; however, the risk factors of re-emerging schistosomiasis have not been completely eliminated, such as residual snails and imported schistosomiasis cases. Further surveillance and control activities of snails and the source of S. japonicum infections should be reinforced.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876711

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficiency of a recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) assay for the detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania hupensis snails. Methods A group test was employed. Fifty Oncomelania snails were collected as a detection sample. The detection samples without infected snails were designated as negative specimens, while the detection samples that contained different numbers of infected snails were designated as positive specimens. A total of 10 negative specimens, 10 positive specimens containing 1 infected snail, 20 positive specimens containing 2 infected snails and 10 positive specimens containing 3 infected snails were assigned. Following random grouping, 40 specimens were subject to the florescent RAA assay using a blind method. The miradium shedding method served as a gold standard, and the sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and coincidence rate of the florescent RAA assay were estimated. In addition, 20 samples consisted of 5 negative specimens and 15 positive specimens with 1, 2 and 3 infected snails respectively were grouped randomly. The same specimens were detected using the crushing method and fluorescent RAA assay with the blind method in a paired-design manner. Then, the test results were compared and analyzed. Results Florescent RAA assay detected 29 positives in the 30 specimens containing different numbers of infected snails, with a sensitivity of 96.67%, and 8 negatives in the 10 detection specimens without infected snails, with a specificity of 80.00%, showing a Youden’s index of 0.77. The coincidence rate was 100% among 10 repeated assays for a detection specimen. In addition, there was no significant difference in the detection of infected snails between the florescent RAA assay and the crushing method (χ2 = 0, P > 0.05), and the actual coincidence rates of the florescent RAA assay and crushing method were 95.00% (19/20) and 90.00% (18/20) with the real results, respectively. Conclusion Fluorescent RAA assay has a favorable efficiency for the detection of S. japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails, which shows a potential in screening of S. japonicum-infected Oncomelania snails.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787768

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new outbreak of coronavirus pneumonia began to occur. Its pathogen is 2019-nCoV, which has the characteristics of strong infectivity and general susceptibility. The current situation of prevention and control of new coronavirus pneumonia is severe. In this context, as front-line medical workers bearing important responsibilities and pressure, while through strict management strategy, we can minimize the risk of infection exposure. By summarizing the research progress and guidelines in recent years in the fields of colorectal cancer disease screening, treatment strategies(including early colorectal cancer, locally advanced colorectal cancer, obstructive colorectal cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer and the treatment of patients after neoadjuvant therapy), the choice of medication and time limit for adjuvant therapy, the protective measures for patients undergoing emergency surgery, the re-examination of postoperative patients and the protection of medical staff, etc., authors improve treatment strategies in order to provide more choices for patients to obtain the best treatment under the severe epidemic situation of new coronavirus pneumonia. Meanwhile we hope that it can also provide more timely treatment modeling schemes for colleagues.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812929

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, so as to provide scientific evidence for the dynamic assessment of the risk of snail spread in this region. Methods O. hupensis snail status was collected in the plain regions with waterway networks in the study area from 2012 to 2017. The spatio-temporal variations of snail distribution were investigated along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal using buffer zone analysis, spatial autocorrelation, hotspot analysis and standard deviational ellipse with the geographical information system (GIS) tools. Results The number of snail habitats showed a tendency towards a rise in the study area from 2012 to 2017, and snail habitats were predominantly distributed in the 1 000 m long buffer zone of the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, notably along the Jiuqu River at the junction between the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal. The distribution of snail habitats appeared spatial autocorrelations in 2014, 2016 and 2017, and the hotspot areas were mainly identified at the junction between the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. In addition, the overall distribution of snail habitats was located in the northeastern-southwestern part of the study aera, and gradually shifted to the southern and northern parts with the time. Conclusions The spatial distribution of O. hupensis snails is complex along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, and there is a risk of snail spread from the upper reaches to the lower reaches, where snail control needs to be intensified.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829571

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats in three cities of Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou along the Taihu Lake region, so as to provide technical supports for establishing a sensitive and highly effective surveillance and forecast system for schistosomiasis. Methods Snail distribution data were collected from Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities from 1950 to 2018, and the changing trend for snail habitats were described over years. In addition, the clusters of snail habitats were detected using Kernel density analysis and SaTScan space-time scan analysis. Results The number of snail habitats appeared a single-peak distribution in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities from 1950 to 2018, which peaked in 1970 and then declined rapidly. There were 62.68% of snail habitats eliminated within 10 years after identification, of which 38.24% were eliminated at the year of identification. Kernel density analysis and SaTScan space-time scan analysis revealed that high-density clusters of snail habitats were mainly distributed in Kunshan City, Wuzhong District and Xiangcheng District from 1970 to 1980, and in Yixing City in 1990; since then, the clusters gradually shrank, and overall appeared a move from northeast to west of Taihu Lake. A total of 4 new clusters were detected after 1970, as revealed by space-time scanning of snail habitats. In current snail habitats, emerging snail habitats are mainly identified in Huqiu District (Dongzhu Town), Wuzhong District (Guangfu Town), Taicang City (Shaxi Town) and Jintan District, and re-emerging snail habitats are scattered in 7 districts. Conclusions The distribution of snail habitats are spatio-temporal aggregation in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities. The monitoring and prediction of emerging and re-emerging snail habitats are the key points in the future.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825220

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a recombinase-aided isothermal amplification (RAA) assay for nucleic acid detection of Schistosoma mansoni. Methods The 121 bp highly-repeated sequence of S. mansoni was selected as the target gene fragment to be detected. The primers and fluorescent probes were designed using the Amplfix software, and a fluorescent RAA assay was established and optimized. The fluorescent RAA assay was performed to detect gradient diluent recombinant plasmids containing target gene fragment and different concentrations of S. mansoni genomic DNA to determine the sensitivity, and this assay was applied to detect the genomic DNA of S. japonicum, S. haematobium, Ancylostoma duodenale and Clonorchis sinensis to evaluate the specificity. Results A fluorescent RAA assay was successfully established, which was effective to amplify the specific gene fragments of S. mansoni within 20 min at 39 ℃. The minimum detectable limit of the fluorescent RAA assay was 10 copies/μL using recombinant plasmids as templates and 0.1 fg/μL using S. mansoni genomic DNA samples as templates. The fluorescent RAA assays were all negative for detecting the genomic DNA from S. japonicum, S. haematobium, A. duodenale and C. sinensis. Conclusions A novel fluorescent RAA assay is successfully established, which is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific to detect genomic DNA of S. mansoni.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776648

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To collect and analyze multi-dimensional pulse diagram features with the array sensor of a pressure profile system (PPS) and study the characteristic parameters of the new multi-dimensional pulse diagram by pulse diagram analysis technology.@*METHODS@#The pulse signals at the Guan position of left wrist were acquired from 105 volunteers at the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. We obtained the pulse data using an array sensor with 3×4 channels. Three dimensional pulse diagrams were constructed for the validated pulse data, and the array pulse volume (APV) parameter was computed by a linear interpolation algorithm. The APV differences among normal pulse (NP), wiry pulse (WP) and slippery pulse (SP) were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated for WP, SP and NP.@*RESULTS@#The APV difference between WP and NP in the 105 volunteers was statistically significant (6.26±0.28 vs. 6.04±0.36, P=0.048), as well as the difference between WP and SP (6.26±0.28 vs. 6.07±0.46, P=0.049). However, no statistically significant difference was found between NP and SP (P=0.75). WP showed a similar CV (4.47%) to those of NP (5.96%) and SP (7.58%).@*CONCLUSION@#The new parameter APV could differentiate between NP or SP and WP. Accordingly, APV could be considered an useful parameter for the analysis of array pulse diagrams in Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pulse , Methods , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819021

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct the schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in Jiangsu Province, and to examine the role and diagnostic efficiency of the reference laboratory. Methods A schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory was built in Jiangsu Province according to the requirements of the construction of the national schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in China. Inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted and the diagnostic capability of grassroots laboratories was evaluated in Jiangsu Province. Results The organization structure, environmental conditions, administration and quality systems of the schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in Jiangsu Province all met the requirements for construction of the national schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in China, and the schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in Jiangsu Province was issued a certificate of a province-level schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory. During the 6 inter-laboratory comparisons performed by national schistosomiasis diagnostic reference centers of China, the qualitative and quantitative results of each detection item were all in agreement with the reference samples (Kappa = 1), and the diagnostic capability was identified excellent. The results of indirect hemagglutination assay of 426 serum samples from 4 grassroots laboratories were re-examined, and the mean coincidence rate was 94.13% (range, 92.08% to 96.25%) with the grassroots laboratories, with a mean Kappa value of 0.85 (range, 0.83 to 0.86) and a mean missing rate of 10.19% (range, 0 to 17.65%). Conclusions The schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory has been successfully established and effectively operated in Jiangsu Province, which plays an active role in improving the capability of schistosomiasis diagnostic equality in the province.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819020

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status of grass-roots schistosomiasis control professionals in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for the rational resource allocation and the improvement of capability building. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted by telephone interview and e-mail among city- and county-level disease prevention and control institutions that undertook schistosomiasis control activities in Jiangsu Province, and the age, educational background, major, duration of working, professional title and professional capability were descriptively analyzed. Results There were totally 274 fulltime schistosomiasis control professionals working at grass-roots institutions in Jiangsu Province, with a mean age of (43.19 ± 9.47) years. The least professionals were below 30 years of age (12.77%, 35/274), and the most professionals were aged from 41 to 50 years (36.86%, 101/274). Among the 274 professionals, 43.07% (118/274) had duration of working of less than 10 years, 62.04% (170/274) had a bachelor degree, and 40.88% (112/274) had the medium-level professional title. Conclusions A schistosomiasis control team with a relatively high academic degree and professional title has been built at the grassroot level in Jiangsu Province. However, capability building remains to be improved through the participation of more young professionals and professional training with adaptation to local conditions.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819016

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the value of a dynamic automatic identification system in routine miracidium hatching test with nylon gauzes. Methods Different quantities of fresh Schistosoma japonicum eggs were added to bovine fecal samples and divided into the low-infection group, medium-infection group and high-infection group, while the bovine feces without S. japonicum eggs served as negative controls. The detection efficiency and accuracy were compared between the identification system and manual detection in different groups. Results The identification system can automatically identify S. japonicum miracidium. The detection rate and efficiency of S. japonicum miracidium in bovine fecal samples were both higher by using the identification system than by manual detection. Notably in the low-infection group, the identification system had a significantly higher rate of detection of S. japonicum miracidium than manual detection (χ2 = 10.769, P = 0.002). The identification system completed the detection of bovine fecal samples in the field within 1 min. Conclusions The dynamic automatic identification system may effectively improve the detection efficiency and accuracy of routine miracidium hatching test with nylon gauzes, and it may replace manual detection to be used in the field schisotsomiasis examinations and related researches.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819007

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the total factor productivity (TFP) of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide insights into sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methods The data envelopment analysis-Malmquist index method was employed to analyze the human resources and financial investments in schistosomiasis control programs from health sectors in each schistosomiasis-endemic city of Jiangsu Province from 2005 to 2015, and assess the outputs of each schistosomiasis control project. Results The overall productive efficiency of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province showed an increasing tendency, and the mean fluctuation of annual TFP was 2.3%. The comprehensive technical efficiency, including pure efficiency and scale efficiency, appeared a steady increase with minor fluctuations, and the mean fluctuation of annual comprehensive technical efficiency was 3.8%. The growth rate of technical progress fluctuated greatly from 2005 to 2011, and showed a steady increase from 2012 to 2015, which became a major contributor to the growth of TFP. A higher growth rate of TFP was seen in Huai ‘ an and Changzhou cities, which showed a greater comprehensive technical efficiency, and a large fluctuation was observed in the growth rate of technical progress in Yancheng, Nanjing, Huai ’ an and Yangzhou cities. Conclusions There is a continuous improvement in the technical level of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province, and technical application and supervision and management capacity also show a steady increase. In addition, the application of new techniques and new strategies contributes greatly to TFP growth. In the future, the investment into new techniques and new strategies should be increased to ensure the sustainable schistosomiasis control in Jiangsu Province.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819006

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River, so as to provide evidence for eliminating schistosomiasis and formulating precision control measures in Jiangsu Province. Methods A total of 75 marshlands were randomly sampled from Nanjing, Zhenjiang and Yangzhou cities along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin, and the spatio-temporal distribution and changing patterns of O. hupensis snails were investigated using the spatial autocorrelation analysis, kernel density analysis and hotspot analysis during the period from 2015 through 2017. Results There was a spatial autocorrelation in the mean snail density along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin during the period from 2015 through 2017. The number of living snails and the density of living snails showed an overall decline in Yangzhou City; however, both showed a slight increase in 2016. Kernel density analysis and hotspot analysis showed that the hotspots of living snails were located in the regions neighboring the marshlands at the Yangzhou-Zhenjiang boundary areas along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin. Conclusion There is a spatial autocorrelation in the snail distribution with hotspots along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin, and the surveillance of snails should not be neglected in the marshlands in Jiangsu Province.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819005

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze and investigate the changing trend of the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, so as to provide scientific evidence for formulating strategies for schistosomiasis control. Methods From 2011 to 2014, the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were set in seven schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) across Jiangsu Province as according to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2011 version), and from 2015 to 2018, the national surveillance sites were assigned in all 64 counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province according to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2014 version). Schistosoma japonicum infections in local populations, mobile populations and livestock, and snail status were monitored in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and the monitoring data were statistically analyzed. Results The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 1.50% to 4.61% among local populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and a higher sero-prevalence was seen in men than in women, with the sero-positives predominantly detected in local populations at ages of over 50 years. The positive rate of stool examinations was 0 to 0.14% among sero-positive local populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no acute case was found in local populations during the study period. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 0.46% to 15.97% among mobile populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no egg-positives were identified. A total of 1 453 livestock were tested in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no S. japonicum infections were detected. During the period from 2011 through 2018, snail survey was conducted in an area of 216 million m2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province, and 1 291.01 hm2 snail habitats were identified, with snail densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.47 snails/0.1 m2; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails. Conclusions The overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a decline in Jiangsu Province, and S. japonicum infection remains at a low level in both humans and livestock. No S. japonicum infection has been identified in local populations in Jiangsu Province since 2012. In the future, monitoring and management of imported sources of S. japonicum infections should be intensified in Jiangsu Province, and the capability building of passive surveillance of schistosomiasis should be improved in sentinel hospitals in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province. In addition, the examination of schistosomiasis should be strengthened in mobile populations in Jiangsu Province, a sensitive and effective surveillance-response system for schistosomiasis is urgently needed.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819002

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once heavily endemic in Jiangsu Province. Following the control efforts for several decades, schistosomiasis was almost eradicated in all endemic counties in Jiangsu Province in 1980, and transmission control was achieved in the province in 2011. According to the principle of “implementing the control measures with adaptation to local circumstances and guiding the control programs with classified interventions”, an integrated strategy with emphasis on the management of both infectious sources and snails has been recently employed for schitsosomiasis control in Jiangsu Province. In addition, a sensitive and highly effective surveillance system has been built and the application of novel techniques and information construction has been intensified to effectively interrupt the transmission of schistosomiasis in the Province. Transmission interruption of schistosomiasis was achieved in all endemic counties in Jiangsu Province. The paper summarizes the endemic situation of schistosomiasis, progress of schistosomiasis control, and major schistosomiasis control measures implemented during the stage of transmission interruption in Jiangsu Province.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818989

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the potential risk of schistosomiasis transmission in Xiuzhou District of Jiaxing City, so as to provide the scientific evidence for consolidating schistosomiasis control achievements. Methods Fixed and mobile surveillance sites were set up in Xiuzhou District of Jiaxing City from 2013 to 2015. Oncomelania hupensis snails was surveyed historical snail habitats, current snail habitats, and suspected snail habitats. The schistosome infections were identified using serological and parasitological testing among local residents and mobile populations. In addition, the survival and reproduction of snails imported into Xiuzhou District was observed, and the schistosome infection in wild reservoir hosts was detected. Results A total of 540.14 hm2 of settings were surveyed in Xiuzhou District, Jiaxing City from 2013 to 2015, and 1.65 hm2 of snail habitats were identified. The snail habitats were mainly located in dry lands, and no infected snails or importation of snails were found. During the period from 2013 to 2015, a total of 7 668 local residents and mobile populations were examined in Xiuzhou District, and no new local infections were detected; however, three imported schistosomiasis cases were identified. Field simulation experiment showed that the imported snails laid eggs and reproduced in Xiuzhou District, and no schistosome infections were found in wild animals. Conclusion There are still residual Oncomelania snails and imported schistosomiasis patients in Xiuzhou District of Jiaxing City; therefore, the surveillance and management of local Oncomelania snails and imported schistosomiasis should be intensified to reduce the risk of schistosomiasis transmission.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818888

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a florescent recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) assay for rapid detection of Schistosoma japonicum-infected Oncomelania snails and explore the optimal method for treatment of snail samples. Methods Snail samples were divided into 3 groups, and each group consisted of 7 subgroups. There were 50 uninfected snails mixed with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 infected snails in the 6 subgroups, respectively, and the remaining subgroup contained 100 uninfected snails mixed with 1 infected snails. DNA was extracted from snails in the three groups using a genomic DNA extraction kit following snail crushing and snail shells removal, crude nucleic acid extraction assay following snail crushing and snail shells removal, and crude nucleic acid extraction assay following direct snail crushing with snail shells preserved, and subjected to florescent RAA and PCR as says. The detection results were compared between the two assays. Results A florescent RAA assay was developed, which completed the detection of S. japonicum-infected snails at 39 ℃ within 30 min. Following DNA extraction from mass snail samples with a genomic DNA extraction kit following snail crushing and snail shells removal, the lowest detection limit of the florescent RAA assay was one infected snail mixed in 100 uninfected snails, while the lowest detection limit of PCR assay was one infected snail mixed in 50 uninfected snails. Following DNA extraction using crude nucleic acid extraction method following snail crushing and snail shells removal, the lowest detection limit of the florescent RAA assay was one infected snail mixed in 100 uninfected snails, while the lowest detection limit of PCR assay was 3 infected snails mixed in 50 uninfected snails. Following DNA extraction with a crude nucleic acid extraction assay following direct snail crushing with snail shells preserved, the lowest detection limit of the florescent RAA assay was 10 infected snails mixed in 50 uninfected snails, while the lowest detection limit of PCR assay was 10 infected snails mixed in 50 uninfected snails. Conclusions A fluorescent RAA assay that is rapid to detect S. japonicum-infected snails in mass snail samples is successfully developed, which is fast, sensitive and easy to perform. Crude nucleic acid extraction following snail crushing and snail shells removal is the optimal method for the treatment of snail samples.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818766

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a florescent recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) assay for rapid detection of Schistosoma japonicum-infected Oncomelania snails and explore the optimal method for treatment of snail samples. Methods Snail samples were divided into 3 groups, and each group consisted of 7 subgroups. There were 50 uninfected snails mixed with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 infected snails in the 6 subgroups, respectively, and the remaining subgroup contained 100 uninfected snails mixed with 1 infected snails. DNA was extracted from snails in the three groups using a genomic DNA extraction kit following snail crushing and snail shells removal, crude nucleic acid extraction assay following snail crushing and snail shells removal, and crude nucleic acid extraction assay following direct snail crushing with snail shells preserved, and subjected to florescent RAA and PCR as says. The detection results were compared between the two assays. Results A florescent RAA assay was developed, which completed the detection of S. japonicum-infected snails at 39 ℃ within 30 min. Following DNA extraction from mass snail samples with a genomic DNA extraction kit following snail crushing and snail shells removal, the lowest detection limit of the florescent RAA assay was one infected snail mixed in 100 uninfected snails, while the lowest detection limit of PCR assay was one infected snail mixed in 50 uninfected snails. Following DNA extraction using crude nucleic acid extraction method following snail crushing and snail shells removal, the lowest detection limit of the florescent RAA assay was one infected snail mixed in 100 uninfected snails, while the lowest detection limit of PCR assay was 3 infected snails mixed in 50 uninfected snails. Following DNA extraction with a crude nucleic acid extraction assay following direct snail crushing with snail shells preserved, the lowest detection limit of the florescent RAA assay was 10 infected snails mixed in 50 uninfected snails, while the lowest detection limit of PCR assay was 10 infected snails mixed in 50 uninfected snails. Conclusions A fluorescent RAA assay that is rapid to detect S. japonicum-infected snails in mass snail samples is successfully developed, which is fast, sensitive and easy to perform. Crude nucleic acid extraction following snail crushing and snail shells removal is the optimal method for the treatment of snail samples.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818738

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the actual effect of the schistosomiasis control program in Jiangsu Province from 2010 to 2015. Methods A total of 67 schistosomiasis-endemic counties in 10 cities were selected, and a combination of retrospective investigation and on-site investigation was adopted to collect and record the epidemic data of the counties from 2010 to 2015, and a retrospective survey database of epidemic situation was established. The effects of integrated control strategies with both Oncomelania hupensis snail control and infection source control were evaluated. Results From 2010 to 2015, 2 465 911 persons who lived in endemic areas were detected for schistosomiasis, with 16 974 positive cases of blood examinations, and 8 positive cases of fecal examinations. Totally 5 145 people with advanced schistosomiasis were treated and 40 460 people with the history of schistosome cercarial-infested water contact received the expanded chemotherapy. A total of 127 636 cattle raised in the endemic areas were detected, and 51 619 cattle (head-times) with the history of cercarial-infested water contact also received the expanded chemotherapy. The area with snails control by molluscicides was 18 604.84 hm2. By the end of 2015, schistosomeinfected snails had not been found and there was no zoological schistosome infection for 5 consecutive years, and in addition, there had been no acute schistosome-infected persons for 6 consecutive years in the whole province. The area with snails dropped to 1 977.18 hm2, with a decreasing rate of 55.24% compared with that in 2010. Conclusion After the implementation of the plan for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province (2010–2015), the prevention and control of schistosomiasis has achieved remarkable effects and realized the goal of the plan.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818601

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct the schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in Jiangsu Province, and to examine the role and diagnostic efficiency of the reference laboratory. Methods A schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory was built in Jiangsu Province according to the requirements of the construction of the national schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in China. Inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted and the diagnostic capability of grassroots laboratories was evaluated in Jiangsu Province. Results The organization structure, environmental conditions, administration and quality systems of the schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in Jiangsu Province all met the requirements for construction of the national schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in China, and the schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory in Jiangsu Province was issued a certificate of a province-level schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory. During the 6 inter-laboratory comparisons performed by national schistosomiasis diagnostic reference centers of China, the qualitative and quantitative results of each detection item were all in agreement with the reference samples (Kappa = 1), and the diagnostic capability was identified excellent. The results of indirect hemagglutination assay of 426 serum samples from 4 grassroots laboratories were re-examined, and the mean coincidence rate was 94.13% (range, 92.08% to 96.25%) with the grassroots laboratories, with a mean Kappa value of 0.85 (range, 0.83 to 0.86) and a mean missing rate of 10.19% (range, 0 to 17.65%). Conclusions The schistosomiasis diagnostic reference laboratory has been successfully established and effectively operated in Jiangsu Province, which plays an active role in improving the capability of schistosomiasis diagnostic equality in the province.

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