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1.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 967-973, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911916

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of individualized rituximab rescue therapy for active lupus nephritis with acute kidney injury (AKI).Methods:The clinical data of lupus nephritis patients with AKI treated with rituximab at the Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from April 2017 to June 2020 were collected, and the renal remission rate and adverse events after rituximab treatment were analyzed retrospectively. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative incidence of patients' remission.Results:There were 13 patients enrolled, including 8 females, and aged (35.23±15.92) years old. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio was (5.22±1.57) g/g before rituximab treatment. Four patients were on dialysis at admission, and 9 patients without dialysis had serum creatinine of (223.22±85.73) μmol/L. Eight patients were confirmed as proliferative lupus nephritis by renal biopsies, including 7 cases with crescent formation and 1 case with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and the other 5 cases without renal biopsies were clinically diagnosed as TMA. The dose of rituximab was (815±516) mg (200-2 100 mg), and all the patients reached the state of peripheral blood B cells clearance (CD19 + B cell count was<5/μl). After the first treatment of rituximab, the median time to B-cell clearance was 21(15, 35) days, and 8 patients reached B-cell depletion (CD19 + B cell count was 0). The remission rate was 12/13 (two cases reached complete remission, and 10 cases reached partial remission). Three cases stopped dialysis, and 1 case (with glomerulosclerosis of 52.94%) entered maintaining dialysis. The relapse times in the maintenance remission period of 7 patients with refractory lupus nephritis declined significantly from (1.57±0.53) times in a median history of 60(20, 109) months to (0.43±0.79) times in a median history of 18(10, 23) months after the use of rituximab ( P=0.015). After using rituximab, the incidence of infection was 7/13. The median time from the use of rituximab to infection was 26(4, 44) days. Pulmonary infection (5/13) was the most common type and all infected patients recovered after anti-infection treatment. Conclusions:Rituximab can be used in the treatment of active lupus nephritis with AKI, especially in patients with crescent formation and TMA, but the infection should be paid close attention to and prevented.

2.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 789-794, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911900

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the weight score and clinical application of 2019 European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology (EULAR/ACR) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria in lupus nephritis patients.Methods:Lupus nephritis patients with renal biopsy results who were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University College of Medicine between January 2014 and December 2018 were enrolled retrospectively. According to whether these patients were treated with glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressants at the time of renal biopsy, they were divided into untreated group and post-treatment group. The weight scores were compared between the two groups, and the relationship between each weight score and remission after treatment was analyzed. Taking no remission as the end event, Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the influence of each weighted integral on the end event.Results:A total of 153 patients were enrolled, including 131 (85.6%) females. These were 70 (45.8%) patients in the untreated group and 83 (54.2%) patients in the post-treatment group. The patients in the untreated group had higher scores of fever (>38.3℃), blood system involvement, low complement and positive specific antibodies than those in post-treated group (all P<0.05). In a median follow-up of 34 (6-50) months, 99 patients (64.7%) achieved complete remission, 38 patients (24.8%) achieved partial remission and 16 patients (10.5%) had no remission. With no remission as the endpoint event, univariate Cox regression analysis showed that proliferative lupus nephritis (renal score of 10 points vs 8 points) and neuropsychiatric involvement were the risk factors (both P<0.05), while multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that neuropsychiatric involvement ( HR=4.758, 95% CI 1.324-17.101, P=0.017) was an independent risk factor. Conclusion:The weight scores of 2019 EULAR/ACR SLE classification diagnostic criteria have certain predictive value for remission of patients with lupus nephritis.

3.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 705-711, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911893

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in the treatment of adult primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).Methods:Adult FSGS patients treated with rituximab in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University College of Medicine were retrospectively enrolled. One or two doses of rituximab (375 mg/m 2) were used aiming to achieve B cell depletion (defined as<5 B cells per microliter in peripheral blood) and the interval between the two doses was 2 weeks. The evaluated major outcomes were remission and relapse of nephropathy, and the secondary outcome measures were adverse events and renal outcomes. Results:A total of 14 patients (9 males) were enrolled, among whom 7 cases were steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS), 6 cases were steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and one patient was new onset FSGS with contraindication to steroid. After treatment with rituximab, 7 patients with SDNS/FRNS achieved complete remission. At 6 months, the daily oral steroid dose reduced significantly compared with the baseline [(33.3±5.2) mg/d vs (6.7±6.6) mg/d, P<0.01]; while one patient still received tacrolimus 1.0 mg/d, the other 6 patients stopped using immunosuppressants; and the total number of relapse/total follow-up months decreased from 0.257 times/month to 0.058 times/month after the use of rituximab. For the other 6 SRNS patients and one patient with contraindication to steroid, three SRNS patients achieved partial remission and one patient with contraindication to steroid achieved complete remission at 34.50(20.25, 95.25) days after use of rituximab, and the other 3 SRNS patients failed to achieve remission, of whom one patient developed end stage renal disease at 23 months. Conclusions:Rituximab may reduce the risk of relapse and help steroid or immunosuppressant-tapering in adult steroid-dependent/frequently relapsing idiopathic FSGS. However, it is not effective in SRNS patients.

4.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 639-646, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911889

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the status of frailty and activities of daily living (ADL) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, and to explore the effect of frailty phenotype on ADL.Methods:The patients who underwent MHD in Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital from March 2019 to March 2020 were enrolled in this study. The demographic and laboratorial data were collected by cross-sectional survey method. Fried frailty phenotype scale and ADL scale were used to evaluate the frailty and ADL, respectively. The differences of basic data and different frailty phenotypes between the normal function group and the function decline group were compared in terms of ADL, physical self-maintenance ability and instrumental ADL ability. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between frailty and ADL, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of ADL.Results:A total of 676 MHD patients were included in this study, including 434 males (64.2%) and 242 females (35.8%). The age was (59.2±19.4) years old, and the median dialysis age was 59.0 (25.3, 110.0) months. There were 159 frailty patients (23.5%), 230 pre-frailty patients (34.0%), and 287 non-frailty patients (42.5%). The ADL was decreased in 163 patients (24.1%), including 131 patients (19.4%) with decreased physical self-maintenance ability and 161 patients (23.8%) with decreased instrumental ADL ability. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the frailty score was positively correlated with total ADL score ( r=0.728, P<0.001), physical self-maintenance ability score ( r=0.669, P<0.001) and instrumental ADL ability score ( r=0.729, P<0.001). Binary logistic regression analysis results showed that older age and lower physical activity, fatigue, slowed steps and lower grip strength in the frailty phenotypes were the independent influencing factors of ADL, physical self-maintenance ability and instrumental ADL ability (all P<0.05). Conclusions:The prevalence of frailty is 23.5% in MHD patients, and 24.1% of MHD patients have decreased ADL. Elder age and lower physical activity, fatigue, reduced step counts, and lower grip strength in frailty phenotypes are the independent influencing factors for poor ADL, poor physical self-maintenance ability and poor instrumental ADL ability.

5.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 105-112, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885485

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the relationship between end-dialysis over-weight (edOW) in initial stage of hemodialysis and long-term prognosis in maintenance hemodialysis patients.Methods:The data of initial uremia patients receiving hemodialysis in the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University from January 1, 2008 to April 30, 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The end point of follow-up was death or until April 30, 2018. The general data including age, gender, body mass index, primary disease, complications and laboratory indicators of the patients and the related parameters of dialysis from four to twelve months were collected. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival rate. Cox multivariate regression was used to analyze the relationship between edOW and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.Results:A total of 469 patients (300 males, 64.0%) were enrolled, with age of (56.9±17.1)years old. During the follow-up period of (4.1±2.4) years (1.0-10.3 years), 102 patients died. The main cause of death was cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, accounting for 44.1% (45/102). The value of edOW was (0.28±0.02) kg. The patients were divided into edOW<0.28 kg group ( n=292) and edOW≥0.28 kg group ( n=177) according to the mean value of edOW. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the long-term survival rate in edOW<0.28 kg group was higher than that in edOW≥0.28 kg group (Log-rank χ2=4.134, P=0.043), and the CVD mortality in edOW≥0.28 kg group was significantly higher than that in edOW<0.28 kg group (Log-rank χ2=11.136, P=0.001). Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that high edOW was an independent influencing factor for all-cause death and CVD death in hemodialysis patients ( HR=1.541, 95% CI 1.057-2.249, P=0.025; HR=1.930, 95% CI 1.198-3.107, P=0.007). Conclusion:High edOW in early phase is an independent influencing factor of all-cause and CVD death in hemodialysis patients.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885140

ABSTRACT

Objective:To retrospectively analyze the early mortality and related risk factors in adult patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).Methods:Adult MHD patients from 2008 to 2018 were enrolled and divided into training data group and validation data group. In training data group, multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of early death within 120 days after hemodialysis and establish a prediction model. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to evaluate the prediction ability of the model.Results:A total of 4 885 patients were included. The cumulative mortality within 120 days was 20.97/100 person years, and that within 365 days was 12.25/100 person years. A total of 3 603 patients in the training data group were analyzed. The following risk factors were correlated with early mortality (all P<0.05), including age at start of dialysis over 60 years old ( OR=1.792), non-chronic glomerulonephritis ( OR=2.214), cardio-cerebrovascular disease ( OR=2.695), plasma albumin less than 35 g/L ( OR=1.358), platelet count less than 120×10 9/L ( OR=2.194), serum creatinine less than 600 μmol/L ( OR=1.652), blood urea nitrogen over 30 mmol/L ( OR=1.887), blood phosphorus less than 1.13 mmol/L ( OR=1.783), pulse pressure over 55 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) ( OR=1.656), low density lipoprotein less than 1.5 mmol/L ( OR=1.873), and blood calcium over 2.5 mmol/L ( OR=1.876). Risk prediction model was established. The other 1 282 cases in the validation data group were verified. The area under ROC curve was 0.810, with sensitivity 85.7%, and specificity 62.5%. Conclusion:The mortality rate of adult MHD patients within 120 days after dialysis is high. The established prediction model can effectively predict the risk of early death.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922552

ABSTRACT

BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) is a common cause of allograft failure. However, differentiation between BKPyVAN and type I T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is challenging when simian virus 40 (SV40) staining is negative, because of the similarities in histopathology. This study investigated whether donor-derived cell-free DNA (ddcfDNA) can be used to differentiate BKPyVAN. Target region capture sequencing was applied to detect the ddcfDNAs of 12 recipients with stable graft function, 22 with type I TCMR, 21 with proven BKPyVAN, and 5 with possible PyVAN. We found that urinary ddcfDNA levels were upregulated in recipients with graft injury, whereas plasma ddcfDNA levels were comparable for all groups. The median urinary concentrations and fractions of ddcfDNA in proven BKPyVAN recipients were significantly higher than those in type I TCMR recipients (10.4 vs. 6.1 ng/mL,

8.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 94-100, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799540

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the distribution of glomerular immunofluorescence IgG4 subtypes in primary membranous nephropathy, and to explore the relationship between IgG4 deposit intensity and renal pathology, clinical manifestations and prognosis.@*Methods@#All the patients of biopsy-proven primary membranous nephropathy with IgG staining and at least one IgG subtype staining 1+ or higher on capillary loops from September 2015 to April 2017 were retrospectively enrolled. The distribution of IgG4 deposits were analyzed, and the relationship between IgG4 positive intensity and clinical manifestations, pathological indexes and clinical remission was investigated.@*Results@#A total of 250 cases were enrolled, including 157 males (62.8%) and 93 females (37.2%), and age was (54.4 ± 14.6) years. There were 40 patients in IgG4-negative group, and 210 patients in IgG4-positive group. The IgG4-positive group was divided into subgroups as 114 cases of the mild positive subgroup (1+) and 62 cases of the moderate positive subgroup (2+), and 34 cases of the strong positive subgroup (3+, 4+). The IgG4-positive group had higher 24-hour urine protein and higher positive rate of phospholipase A2 receptor staining than those in the negative group (both P<0.05), while the strong positive subgroup had lower serum albumin and higher IgG1 staining than those in the mild positive subgroup (both P<0.05). There was no difference in the ratio of glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, IgG2, IgG3 or other immunofluorescence between the groups. After a median follow-up of 180(122, 209) days, 32 individuals were lost to follow-up. Among the rest 218 patients, 45 patients (20.6%) got complete remission, 104 patients (47.7%) got partial remission, and 69 patients (31.7%) showed no response. For no response as the outcome event, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher IgG4 staining intensity (HR=1.371, 95%CI 1.068-1.759, P=0.013), male (HR=1.818, 95%CI 1.028-3.214, P=0.040), higher 24-hour urine protein level (HR=1.108, 95%CI 1.003-1.225, P=0.043) were independent risk factors for disease remission.@*Conclusions@#The glomerular IgG4 positivity and intensity are related to the severity of primary membranous nephropathy. The glomerular IgG4 deposit degree may be an effective prognostic marker for the treatment response of primary membranous nephropathy.

9.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 817-823, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871010

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of serum magnesium level on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients.Methods:Clinical data of MHD patients in Shaoxing People's Hospital from June 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018 were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into low magnesium group (serum magnesium≤0.96 mmol/L) , medium magnesium group (serum magnesium 0.97-1.07 mmol/L) and high magnesium group (serum magnesium≥1.08 mmol/L) according to the tertile of mean serum magnesium level. The differences of clinical data and laboratory results were compared among the three groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw the survival curves, and log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate differences. Multivariate Cox regression was used to analyze the relationship between serum magnesium and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortality in MHD patients. Results:A total of 332 patients [194 males (58.4%)] were included in this study, with a median age of 63(51, 72) years and a median follow-up time of 36(20, 45) months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the all-cause survival rate and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases survival rate in the low magnesium group were lower than those in the medium magnesium group and the high magnesium group (Log-rank χ2=36.286, P<0.001; Log-rank χ2=20.145, P<0.001; respectively). After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, the results of multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that low serum magnesium was an independent risk factor for all-cause death and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases death in MHD patients. The risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases death in the low magnesium group were significantly higher than those in the high magnesium group ( HR=2.925, 95% CI 1.352-6.330, P=0.006; HR=3.821, 95% CI 1.394-10.473, P=0.009; respectively). Conclusions:Hypomagnesemia may be an independent risk factor for all-cause death and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases death in MHD patients. Low serum magnesium level increases the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in MHD patients.

10.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 595-600, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870990

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the early mortality and related risk factors of new hemodialysis patients in Zhejiang province, and provide basis for reducing the death risk of hemodialysis patients.Methods:The early mortality and related factors of new hemodialysis patients from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2018 were retrospectively analyzed using the database of Zhejiang province hemodialysis registration. The early mortality was defined as death within 90 days of dialysis. Cox regression model was used to analyze the related risk factors of the early mortality in hemodialysis patients.Results:The mortality was the highest in the first month after dialysis (46.40/100 person year), and gradually stabilized after three months. The early mortality was 25.33/100 person year. The mortality within 120 days and 360 days were 21.40/100 person year and 11.37/100 person year, respectively. The elderly (≥65 years old, HR=1.981, 95% CI 1.319-2.977, P<0.001), primary tumor ( HR=3.308, 95% CI 1.137-5.624, P=0.028), combined with tumors (not including the primary tumor, HR=2.327, 95% CI 1.200-4.513, P=0.012), temporary catheter (the initial dialysis pathway, HR=3.632, 95% CI 1.806-7.307, P<0.001), lower albumin (<30 g/L, HR=2.181, 95% CI 1.459-3.260, P<0.001), lower hemoglobin (every 0.01 g/L increase, HR=0.861, 95% CI 0.793-0.935, P=0.001), lower high density lipoprotein (<0.7 mmol/L, HR=1.796, 95% CI 1.068-3.019, P=0.027) and higher C reactive protein (≥40 mg/L, HR=1.889, 95% CI 1.185-3.012, P=0.008) were the risk factors of early death for hemodialysis patients. Conclusions:The early mortality of hemodialysis patients is high after dialysis, and gradually stable after 3 months. The elderly, primary tumor, combined with tumors, the initial dialysis pathway, lower albumin, lower hemoglobin, lower high density lipoprotein and higher C reactive protein are the risk factors of early death for hemodialysis patients.

11.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 497-502, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870988

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) caused by lupus nephritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) - associated vasculitis, or primary glomerulonephritis who were treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and then withdrew PD because of renal recovery.Methods:Data of the above patients were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were diagnosed as RPGN and received PD therapy in Kidney Disease Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University from February 2009 to August 2018. The patients were divided into early withdrawal group (PD time≤183 days, n=24) and late withdrawal group (PD time>183 day, n=24). The differences of clinical characteristics between the two groups were compared. The cumulative incidence of adverse events in both groups was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the risk factors influencing the prognosis of patients. Results:Forty-eight RPGN patients were included. The median time of maintaining PD was 178(76, 378) days. Compared with the late withdrawal group, the patients in early withdrawal group had lower levels of urine volume, serum albumin and parathyroid hormone, and lower rates of gross hematuria and hypertension at the beginning of PD, and received higher rates of methylprednisolone impulse, combined immunosuppressive agents, and hemodialysis or continuous renal replacement therapy (all P<0.05). At the time of PD withdrawal, the levels of serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum albumin and parathyroid hormone in the early withdrawal group were significantly lower than those in the late withdrawal group (all P<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that there was no significant difference in the cumulative survival of patients in both groups (log-rank test χ2=3.485, P=0.062). Cox regression analysis revealed serum creatinine≥209 μmol/L at the time of PD withdrawal was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis ( HR=5.253, 95% CI 1.757-15.702, P=0.003). Conclusions:PD can be used for RPGN patients caused by lupus nephritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis and primary nephritis. Serum creatinine≥209 μmol/L at the time of PD withdrawal is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis.

12.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 424-428, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870976

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the emergency treatment and clinical effect when the guidewire stuck in the right atrium during central vein catheter placement for hemodialysis.Methods:Five cases with guidewire stuck in the right atrium during central vein catheter placement for hemodialysis from January 2011 to July 2018 admitted into the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University were retrospectively analyzed. In two cases, the guidewires were found completely stuck when the insert depth was about 20 cm. The guidewires were not able to move forward nor backward. In the other three cases, the guidewires could be moved forward but not backward with the insert depth at about 18 cm. All patients received emergent computed tomography angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging. Images showed that the guidewires were stuck in the right atrium near the ventricular valve. The guidewire core drawing method, the multipurpose angiography(MPA) catheter capturing method and the manual guidewire adjusting method were used for emergent treatment.Results:One patient with completely stuck guidewire was successfully treated with guidewire core drawing method and the temporary central vein catheter catheterization through the internal jugular vein was performed under DSA. In a completely stuck case and a retrogradely stuck case, the J-shaped ends of the warped guidewires were captured into the MPA catheter, and the guidewires were then withdrawn from right atriums along with the contrast catheter. In the other 2 retrogradely stuck cases, under DSA, the guidewires were repeatedly pushed, the direction of J-shaped ends was manually adjusted, and then the guidewires were repeatedly pushed and pulled until catheters can be pulled out of the right atriums. The later 4 cases had permanent central vein catheter placement with the same guidewire after the stuck guidewires were withdrawn from the right atrium and readjusted.Conclusions:All three methods can successfully solve the emergent situation of the stuck guidewire in the right atrium. For patients with completely stuck guidewires, the MPA catheter capturing method can be simpler, safer, and more effective.

13.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 286-293, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870961

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the cause of the allograft IgA nephropathy (IgAN) recurrence or de novo, and the risk factors for the graft-survival in allograft IgAN. Methods:Patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical College who were diagnosed as a transplanted kidney IgAN by allo-renal biopsy during November 2012 to December 2018 were selected. According to the increased levels of serum creatinine and the descent rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on the last follow up, the patients were divided into the graft-function stable group (increased Scr<20 μmol/L, eGFR descent rate<10%), the graft-function inadequacy progressive group (Scr increased but less than doubling increase, 30%<eGFR descent rate<60%) and the graft-function lost group [double increase in serum creatinine and eGFR down to<15 ml·min -1· (1.73 m 2) -1 to chronic kidney disease stage V]. The clinical data and pathological characteristics were retrospectively analyzed and compared in the three groups. Taking the eGFR drop to<15 ml·min -1·(1.73 m 2) -1 to chronic kidney disease stage V as the end point event of follow-up, the effects of tacrolimus (FK506) concentration, the quantity of proteinuria and pathological changes of graft-renal on the survival rate of graft-renal were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Results:At the time of allograft biopsy, the urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP/Cr) was (2.00±2.38) g/g in the 38 cases, and the serum creatine increased in 17 cases (44.7%). Meanwhile, the blood concentration of FK506 was< 4 μg/L in 16 of 29 (55.2%) cases who taken FK506. With (23.2±22.2) months follow-up after renal biopsy, 11 cases (28.9%) progressed in renal insufficiency (graft-function inadequacy progressive group), and 7 cases (18.4%) lost their graft-function (graft-function lost group). The UP/Cr on the biopsy was significantly higher in graft-function lost group than that in graft-function stable group ( P=0.001), and the blood concentration of tacrolimus before biopsy was significantly lower in graft-function lost group than that in graft-function stable group [(3.05±0.71) μg/L vs (5.03±1.62) μg/L, P<0.010]. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the kidney graft survival rate was significantly lower in the groups with a lower concentration of tacrolimus before the biopsy, with a large amount of proteinuria at the time of biopsy than that in the concentration of tacrolimus≥4.0 μg/L, and UP/Cr<2.3 g/g groups ( P=0.020, P=0.001, respectively), and with a infiltrated inflammatory cells in renal glomerular capillary loops and a co-deposition of C1q in mesangial region groups than that no infiltrated inflammatory cells in renal glomerular capillary loops and no co-deposition of C1q in mesangial region groups ( P=0.042, P=0.015, respectively). Conclusions:The low concentration of tacrolimus is the cause of the recurrence or de novo of allograft IgAN. A large amount of proteinuria, the inflammatory cells infiltration in glomerular capillary, the C1q deposition in mesangial region and the low concentration of tacrolimus are the factors that affect the survival rate of graft-renal IgAN.

14.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 94-100, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870951

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the distribution of glomerular immunofluorescence IgG4 subtypes in primary membranous nephropathy, and to explore the relationship between IgG4 deposit intensity and renal pathology, clinical manifestations and prognosis.Methods:All the patients of biopsy-proven primary membranous nephropathy with IgG staining and at least one IgG subtype staining 1+ or higher on capillary loops from September 2015 to April 2017 were retrospectively enrolled. The distribution of IgG4 deposits were analyzed, and the relationship between IgG4 positive intensity and clinical manifestations, pathological indexes and clinical remission was investigated.Results:A total of 250 cases were enrolled, including 157 males (62.8%) and 93 females (37.2%), and age was (54.4 ± 14.6) years. There were 40 patients in IgG4-negative group, and 210 patients in IgG4-positive group. The IgG4-positive group was divided into subgroups as 114 cases of the mild positive subgroup (1+) and 62 cases of the moderate positive subgroup (2+), and 34 cases of the strong positive subgroup (3+, 4+). The IgG4-positive group had higher 24-hour urine protein and higher positive rate of phospholipase A2 receptor staining than those in the negative group (both P<0.05), while the strong positive subgroup had lower serum albumin and higher IgG1 staining than those in the mild positive subgroup (both P<0.05). There was no difference in the ratio of glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, IgG2, IgG3 or other immunofluorescence between the groups. After a median follow-up of 180(122, 209) days, 32 individuals were lost to follow-up. Among the rest 218 patients, 45 patients (20.6%) got complete remission, 104 patients (47.7%) got partial remission, and 69 patients (31.7%) showed no response. For no response as the outcome event, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher IgG4 staining intensity ( HR=1.371, 95% CI 1.068-1.759, P=0.013), male ( HR=1.818, 95% CI 1.028-3.214, P=0.040), higher 24-hour urine protein level ( HR=1.108, 95% CI 1.003-1.225, P=0.043) were independent risk factors for disease remission. Conclusions:The glomerular IgG4 positivity and intensity are related to the severity of primary membranous nephropathy. The glomerular IgG4 deposit degree may be an effective prognostic marker for the treatment response of primary membranous nephropathy.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870570

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical prognosis of early endarteritis (within 2 weeks) and late endarteritis (after 2 weeks) after renal transplantation.Methods:A total of 81 cases with higher creatinineand receiving renal biopsy after renal transplantation were recruited from September 2001 to December 2014. They were divided into early endarteritis group (n=43) and late endarteritis group (n=38). Baseline profiles, serum creatine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) before and after treatment, steroid resistance, reversal rate, graft loss and survival rate were analyzed for two groups.Results:Early endarteritis group showed worse serum creatine and GFR than late endarteritis group before rejection. Early endarteritis group had a higher rate of treatment with steroid plus antibody (86 %) than that of late endarteritis group (86 %vs.18.6 %, P<0.05). No significant inter-group difference existed in graft loss (23.3 % vs.10.5 %, P=0.131). The survival curve of transplanted kidney showed no significant inter-group difference insurvival time. Conclusions:The status of patients with early simple endothelitis is significantly worse than that of those with late simple endothelitis. However, after active treatments, the prognosis of patients with early simple endothelitis is not inferior to that of those with late simple endothelitis.

16.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 316-2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817612

ABSTRACT

In the second half of 2019, the last four sessions of Transplant Cloud College jointly established by Chinese Research Hospital Association and Medical Neighbor Network were successfully held. During the courses in the second half of this year, the lecturers from each institution mainly focused upon four topics including management of hyperuricemia (HUA) after kidney transplantation, renal graft pathology, diagnosis and treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after kidney transplantation and pulmonary infection after liver transplantation. All participants delivered discussions and exchanges in kidney and liver transplantation from multiple perspectives.

17.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 893-898, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800438

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of steroids-free immunosuppressive therapy including tacrolimus, cyclosporin A, tripterygium glycosides or intravenous cyclophosphamide in membranous nephropathy (MN) patients combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*Methods@#This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with T2DM complicated with biopsy proved MN in the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University from January 2009 to January 2017. The patients were divided into steroids-free group and control group. The patients in steroids-free group were treated with one or two immunosuppressive agents except glucocorticoids. The patients in control group were treated with glucocorticoid combining with immunosuppressive agents.@*Results@#A total of 64 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 26 cases in steroids-free group and 38 cases in control group. The total remission rate was 69.24% in steroids-free group and 73.68% in control group at 12 months. In a median follow up of 33(12-106) months, two patients in control group entered hemodialysis and one of them died after 1 year of dialysis. One patient in steroids-free group died of accidental death and no patient entered dialysis. All patients in control group had elevated blood glucose level, whereas only 5 patients in steroids-free group had elevated blood glucose and all these 5 patients used tacrolimus.@*Conclusion@#Immunosuppressive regimen without glucocorticoid treatment can reduce side effects on blood glucose level in MN patients with type 2 diabetes, with a certain rate of treatment response.

18.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 721-727, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796919

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the association between the home blood pressure (BP) and morality in peritoneal dialysis (PD).@*Methods@#PD patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2016 were studied. Over the first 6 months PD therapy, systolic SB (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) averaged as 5 (<120 to≥150 mmHg in 10 mmHg increments) and 4 (<70 to≥90 mmHg in 10 mmHg increments) categories, respectively, as well as continuous measures. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed by using Cox regression models adjusted for demographics, laboratory measurements, comorbid conditions and antihypertensive medications. The relationships between home BP and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed by restricted cubic spline regression model.@*Results@#A total of 1663 PD patients were included with a median follow-up of 29.9 months, in which 737 patients (44.3%) were female. The SBP and DBP were (135.2±15.8) mmHg and (83.1±10.5) mmHg, respectively. Two hundred and twenty-one PD patients died during the study period, of which 102 patients (46.2%) died of cardiac-cerebral vascular events. With 130≤SBP<140 mmHg as a refernece, SBP≥150 mmHg (HR=1.83, 95%CI 1.19-2.82, P=0.005) and SBP<120 mmHg (HR=2.05, 95%CI 1.29-3.27, P<0.001) were associated with significantly higher risks of all-cause morality, but not cardiovascular morality. With 80≤DBP<90 mmHg as a refernece, patients with DBP≥90 mmHg exhibited significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (HR=1.80, 95%CI 1.21-2.68, P=0.009). SBP presented a U-shaped association with all-cause mortality. DBP presented a J-shaped association with all-cause mortality.@*Conclusions@#Higher SBP, lower SBP and higher DBP are associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality in PD patients. However, neither SBP nor DBP is observed statistically significant relationship with the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Further prospective and randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the optimal BP targets and improve the management of hypertension in PD patients.

19.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 721-727, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-791951

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the association between the home blood pressure (BP) and morality in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Methods PD patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2016 were studied. Over the first 6 months PD therapy, systolic SB (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) averaged as 5 (<120 to≥150 mmHg in 10 mmHg increments) and 4 (<70 to≥90 mmHg in 10 mmHg increments) categories, respectively, as well as continuous measures. All - cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed by using Cox regression models adjusted for demographics, laboratory measurements, comorbid conditions and antihypertensive medications. The relationships between home BP and all - cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed by restricted cubic spline regression model. Results A total of 1663 PD patients were included with a median follow-up of 29.9 months, in which 737 patients (44.3%) were female. The SBP and DBP were (135.2±15.8) mmHg and (83.1±10.5) mmHg, respectively. Two hundred and twenty-one PD patients died during the study period, of which 102 patients (46.2%) died of cardiac - cerebral vascular events. With 130≤SBP<140 mmHg as a refernece, SBP≥150 mmHg (HR=1.83, 95%CI 1.19-2.82, P=0.005) and SBP<120 mmHg (HR=2.05, 95%CI 1.29-3.27, P<0.001) were associated with significantly higher risks of all-cause morality, but not cardiovascular morality. With 80≤DBP< 90 mmHg as a refernece, patients with DBP≥90 mmHg exhibited significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (HR=1.80, 95%CI 1.21-2.68, P=0.009). SBP presented a U-shaped association with all-cause mortality. DBP presented a J-shaped association with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Higher SBP, lower SBP and higher DBP are associated with higher risks of all - cause mortality in PD patients. However, neither SBP nor DBP is observed statistically significant relationship with the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Further prospective and randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the optimal BP targets and improve the management of hypertension in PD patients.

20.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 481-485, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756077

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the application of percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation (PTA) in catheter replacement within patients with catheter-related central vein disease (CVD). Methods Thirteen cases of CVD patients from Jan 2015 to Mar 2018 admitted into the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University were retrospectively analyzed. All of them underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to clarify problem origin. Suitable balloons were chosen to dilate the original catheters or the occlusive veins, and then the original catheters were replaced. PTA was used to help catheter replacement and all patients were followed up for 6 months. Results Four of the 13 patients were found stuck when replacing catheters. All of them successfully had catheters removed with PTA (Hong's techniques). All patients had successfully catheter replacement with blood flow volume>250 ml/min. Among 4 patients with edema, 3 patients showed better within 6 months. Only 3 patients needed warfarin to keep blood flow volume>250 ml/min within 6 months. Conclusions PTA shows advantages of lesser trauma, better tolerance and higher success rate in patients with catheter-related CVD. It can also relieve symptoms resulting from occlusive central vein.

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