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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920275

ABSTRACT

Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) is a rapidly growing benign vascular neoplasm of unknown etiology. LCH usually occurs on the cutaneous and mucosal surfaces, such as gingiva, lips, fingers, and face. LCH was previously called ‘pyogenic granuloma (PG),’ because it was thought to be granulation of tissue occurring in reaction to an infectious etiology despite the fact that it demonstrates no infectious signs in histology or microbiology. Instead, its features seem more like angiomatous lesions rather than granulomatous lesions, so the term ‘LCH’ has been used thereafter. Reports of LCH of hypopharynx have been rare. Here we report a 63-yearold male patient with LCH of hypopharynx with a review of related literature.

2.
Ultrasonography ; : 198-203, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919556

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of strain elastography (SE) in the differential diagnosis of ruptured epidermal cyst and superficial abscess. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 34 patients with ruptured epidermal cysts and 17 patients with superficial abscesses who underwent ultrasonography (US) including SE. The SE characteristics were classified into four grades (1 to 4) according to elasticity. The largest length and height of the lesion and their ratio were evaluated on the US images. Involvement of more than half of the depth of the dermis and the presence of the submarine sign were assessed. @*Results@#The inter-reader agreement of US and SE findings showed excellent or almost perfect agreement. The height, length, ratio of height to length, and more-than-half-depth sign did not significantly differ between ruptured epidermal cysts and superficial abscesses for either reader (reader 1, P=0.071, P=0.129, P=0.806, and P=0.102, respectively; reader 2, P=0.173, P=0.053, P=0.669, and P=0.060, respectively). The submarine sign was significantly more frequent in ruptured epidermal cysts than in superficial abscesses (both readers, P<0.001). The difference in SE scores between ruptured epidermal cysts and superficial abscesses, which are harder than ruptured epidermal cysts, was statistically significant (reader 1, P=0.046; reader 2, P=0.028). @*Conclusion@#The SE score and submarine sign may be useful characteristics for distinguishing ruptured epidermal cyst from superficial abscess.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918873

ABSTRACT

In vitro studies are essential to predict the clinical performance of ceramic widely used as restorative materials. Traditional experiments such as fracture toughness and flexural strength have been used to evaluate the properties of brittle ceramics. However, these experiments have a limitation that the load conditions, failure patterns, and load values at which failure occurs are not similar to human occlusal force ranges or clinical failures. On the other hand, the edge chipping test (ECT), which was recently introduced to study chipping fracture of ceramics, has similar failure patterns to clinical trials. In addition, the failure loads from ECT were similar to human occlusal force. ECT can be usefully used in the study of ceramic properties. In this literature review, a more clinically meaningful experimental study of ceramics by examining the meaning and limitations of traditional ceramic failure tests and comparing them with ECT.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916894

ABSTRACT

Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is a rare tumor of the sweat glands of eccrine or apocrine differentiation. It can occur anywhere in the body, but common sites of involvement are the head, face, trunk, and extremities. Although several reports have described sonographic findings of CCH, only one study on the axilla mentioned its strain elastographic findings. Here, we present a case of CCH in the right calf with its sonographic and strain elastographic findings in a tumor that looked like an epidermoid tumor.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916887

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the correlation between Lee’s grades and surgical intervention for central lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) and to assess whether this grading system can be used as a decision-making tool for the surgical treatment of this condition. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 290 patients (M:F = 156:134; mean age, 46 ± 16 years). Radiologists assessed the presence and grade of CLSS at the stenosis point according to Lee’s grading system, in which CLSS is classified into four grades according to the shape of the cauda equina. Correlation coefficients (rs) between Lee’s grades and the operation were calculated with Spearman rank correlation. @*Results@#Among the operated patients, grade 2 was the most commonly assigned grade (50%– 58%), grade 3 was less common (35%), and grade 0 was the least common (2%–3%). Among the non-operated patients, grade 1 was the most common (63%–65%), grade 0 was less common (15%–16%), and grade 3 was the least common (8%). The distribution of grades differed between the operated and non-operated groups (p < 0.001). Less than 25% of patients who underwent surgery were assigned grades 0 and 1, and more than 88% were assigned grades 2 and 3.A moderate correlation was found between the grade and surgical intervention (rs = 0.632 and rs = 0.583). @*Conclusion@#Lee’s grade was moderately correlated with surgical intervention. Lee’s grading system can be a decision-making tool for the surgical treatment of CLSS.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915899

ABSTRACT

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, and mood disorder. The pathophysiology of FM has been unclear, leading to inconsistent diagnosis and ineffective management. Several diagnostic criteria for FM have been proposed in recent years, including the revised 2016 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, the criteria of the ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) group, and the modified 2019 Fibromyalgia Assessment Status (FAS) criteria. Despite the appearance of newer criteria for FM diagnosis, the 2016 ACR criteria demonstrate the best performance. Many randomized controlled studies and systematic reviews have shown the therapeutic efficacies of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of FM. Nevertheless, further research is needed to develop better treatment options.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915539

ABSTRACT

Background@#Injury is a social problem that causes health and property losses, and it is important to identify the size and trend of injury for efficient prevention and management.Therefore, this study analyzed the trends in injury mortality and hospitalization rates from 2005 to 2019 in Korea. @*Methods@#Using mortality data by Statistics Korea and Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth injury survey by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA), age standardized rates were calculated for death and hospitalization to analyze trends and annual changes with the joinpoint regression model. In addition, annual changes in the hospitalization rate of the transport accident and fall injuries by age group were analyzed, which are the major causes of injuries. @*Results@#From 2005 to 2019, the injury mortality rate has been on the decline, but the injury hospitalization rate has been on the rise. The annual rate of change varied depending on the injury mechanism, but the mortality rate tended to decrease or remain similar level, while the rate of hospitalization has steadily increased. In addition, by age group, injury mortality and hospitalization rates were high in the elderly. In particular, the hospitalization rate of the elderly was higher when comparing the hospitalization rate of the children in transport accidents and falls. Pedestrian transport accidents tended to decrease under the age of 15, but remained similar for those aged 65 and older, and bicycle accidents tended to increase in both groups. In addition, hospitalization rates were higher in the fall, with both groups showing a statistically significant increase in hospitalization rates caused by falls. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the trend of injury mortality and hospitalization and found that transport accidents and falls may vary depending on the means or age of the accident.Since injury is a big social problem that is a burden of disease, safety education and legal sanctions for injury prevention should be further improved in the future, especially by prioritizing vulnerable groups by age and detailed mechanisms of injury.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915535

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the health status of healthcare workers (doctors and nurses) compared to those in the general population based on the National Health Insurance Service database and the cause of death data from Statistics Korea. @*Methods@#The subjects of this study were 104,484 doctors and 220,310 nurses working in healthcare facilities from 2002 to 2017, and who had undergone at least one general medical examination. Based on the subject definition, the subject data were extracted from the National Health Insurance healthcare facility database and qualification database. We collected medical use details included in the research database, general medical examination results, medical history included in the health examination database, and additional data on the cause of death from the National Statistics database to analyze the main cause of death and mortality. @*Results@#In terms of the major causes of death and mortality among healthcare workers, the mortality rate associated with intentional self-harm, injury, transportation accident, heart disease, addiction, and falling was significantly higher than that in the general population. Further, the prevalence of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases was high. When analyzing the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) by cause of death for healthcare workers, the PMR values for death related to malignant neoplasm was the highest. In terms of diseases, both doctors and nurses had higher rates of infectious diseases such as maternal sepsis, rubella, and measles. @*Conclusion@#The health status of healthcare workers differs from that of the general population. Thus, it is important to consider the occupational characteristics of healthcare personnel. This study is unique in that it was conducted based on medical use indicators rather than survey data.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915533

ABSTRACT

Background@#At the end of 2014, we implemented an online video to inform patients of the entire process from admission to rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of online video instruction in THA patients. @*Methods@#Electronic medical records of 184 patients undergoing THA in 2014 (pre-video group) and 182 patients in 2015 (post-video group) were reviewed. We compared 1) the time to start wheelchair ambulation, 2) walker or crutch ambulation, 3) the length of hospital stay, 4) postoperative satisfaction using visual analogue scale (0–10 points), and 5) modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) at postoperative 6 weeks. @*Results@#In the post-video group, the time to start wheelchair ambulation (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 2.4 ± 3.2 days, P = 0.021) and walker/crutch ambulation were faster (2.9 ± 1.2 vs. 3.8 ± 1.0 days, P = 0.016), and the hospital stay was shorter (8.2 ± 4.7 vs. 9.9 ± 7.8 days, P = 0.001) compared to the pre-video group. The visual analogue scale for satisfaction (7.84 ± 1.62 vs. 7.68 ± 1.85 points) and mHHS (89.59 ± 9.47 vs. 89.58 ± 8.59) were similar. @*Conclusion@#Online video instruction is an effective tool to expedite ambulation and reduce the hospital stay without compromising the clinical outcome and postoperative complications after THA.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915504

ABSTRACT

Background@#The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of self-injurious behavior (SIB) among persons who were directly impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially those with pre-existing mental disorders. @*Methods@#Using the National Health Insurance Service-COVID-19 database cohort, the monthly SIB rate was calculated by COVID-19 subgroups (i.e., positive for COVID-19 test, negative for COVID-19 test, and non-COVID-19 test [control]). In addition, moderated regression analysis was utilized to examine the statistical difference of SIB (suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury using ICD-10 code) trend between COVID-19 subgroups and with and without pre-existing mental disorder. @*Results@#A total of 328,373 persons were included in the cohort study. Of these, 212,678 had been tested for COVID-19, and 7,713 of them were confirmed positive. During the pandemic peak, the “negative for COVID-19” group showed a large increase (P = 0.003) in SIB rates compared to the control group, the “positive for COVID-19” group showed a decreasing trend, but not significant (P = 0.314). Among those who were tested for COVID-19, those with pre-existing mental disorders showed an increasing trend of SIB compared to those without pre-existing mental disorders, however statistically insignificant (P= 0.137). @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that people who are tested for COVID-19 are at a high risk of SIB during the peak COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, screening for suicide risk and psychological interventions is needed for these high-risk groups.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913825

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to evaluate the prognosis of pathologically node-positive bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in these patients, and the value of preoperative clinical evaluation for lymph node metastases. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by partial/radical cystectomy and had pathologically confirmed lymph node metastases between January 2007 and December 2019 were identified and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 53 patients were included in the study. The median age was 61 years (range, 34 to 81 years) with males comprising 86.8%. Among the 52 patients with post-neoadjuvant/pre-operative computed tomography results, only 33 patients (63.5%) were considered positive for lymph node metastasis. Sixteen patients (30.2%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (AC group), and 37 patients did not (no AC group). With the median follow-up duration of 67.7 months, the median recurrence-free survival (RFS) and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.5 months and 16.2 months, respectively. The 2-year RFS and OS rates were 23.3% and 34.6%, respectively. RFS and OS did not differ between the AC group and no AC group (median RFS, 8.8 months vs. 6.8 months, p=0.772; median OS, 16.1 months vs. 16.3 months, p=0.479). Thirty-eight patients (71.7%) experienced recurrence. Distant metastases were the dominant pattern of failure in both the AC group (91.7%) and no AC group (76.9%). @*Conclusion@#Patients with lymph node-positive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed high recurrence rates with limited survival outcomes. Little benefit was observed with the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927094

ABSTRACT

Determining blood loss [100% – RBV (%)] is challenging in the management of haemorrhagic shock. We derived an equation estimating RBV (%) via serial haematocrits (Hct1 , Hct2 ) by fixing infused crystalloid fluid volume (N) as [0.015 × body weight (g)]. Then, we validated it in vivo. Mathematically, the following estimation equation was derived: RBV (%) = 24k / [(Hct1 / Hct2 ) – 1]. For validation, nonongoing haemorrhagic shock was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by withdrawing 20.0%–60.0% of their total blood volume (TBV) in 5.0% intervals (n = 9). Hct1 was checked after 10 min and normal saline N cc was infused over 10 min. Hct 2 was checked five minutes later. We applied a linear equation to explain RBV (%) with 1 / [(Hct1 / Hct2 ) – 1]. Seven rats losing 30.0%–60.0% of their TBV suffered shock persistently. For them, RBV (%) was updated as 5.67 / [(Hct1 / Hct2 ) – 1] + 32.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the slope: 3.14–8.21, p = 0.002, R2 = 0.87). On a Bland-Altman plot, the difference between the estimated and actual RBV was 0.00 ± 4.03%; the 95% CIs of the limits of agreements were included within the pre-determined criterion of validation (< 20%). For rats suffering from persistent, non-ongoing haemorrhagic shock, we derived and validated a simple equation estimating RBV (%). This enables the calculation of blood loss via information on serial haematocrits under a fixed N.Clinical validation is required before utilisation for emergency care of haemorrhagic shock.

14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 135-145, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926900

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated phubbing (the act of ignoring one’s companion or companions to pay attention to one’s smartphone) and examined the factors affecting phubbing among nursing students in South Korea. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional survey design was adopted, and a self-reported questionnaire was used. Data were collected from 200 nursing students in two cities. Self-administered questionnaires included demographic data, smartphone addiction, media multitasking motivation, interpersonal competency, and phubbing. @*Results@#Phubbing was positively correlated with smartphone addiction (r=0.41, p<0.001) and media multitasking motivation (r=0.16, p<0.05), and negatively correlated with interpersonal competence (r=-0.51, p<0.001). Factors influencing nursing students’ phubbing were interpersonal competency (β=-0.59, p<0.001), media multitasking motivation (β=0.24, p<0.001), smartphone addiction (β=0.19, p<0.01) and interpersonal relationships (β=0.14, p<0.05). The model including these variables accounted for 43% of variance in phubbing. @*Conclusion@#Nursing students showed a moderate level of phubbing, and interpersonal competency was an important factor for reducing their phubbing of nursing students. Since phubbing occurs frequently among nursing students, educators in nursing are required to develop and implement active interventional measures to help nursing students avoid phubbing and improve their interpersonal relationships by increasing their empathic ability and communication skills.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926739

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate whether hyperoxia-induced ΔR1 (hyperO2ΔR1) can accurately identify histological infarction in an acute cerebral stroke model. @*Materials and Methods@#In 18 rats, MRI parameters, including hyperO2ΔR1, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), cerebral blood flow and volume, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET were measured 2.5, 4.5, and 6.5 hours after a 60-minutes occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Histological examination of the brain was performed immediately following the imaging studies. MRI and PET images were co-registered with digitized histological images. The ipsilateral hemisphere was divided into histological infarct (histological cell death), non-infarct ischemic (no cell death but ADC decrease), and nonischemic (no cell death or ADC decrease) areas for comparisons of imaging parameters. The levels of hyperO2ΔR1 and ADC were measured voxel-wise from the infarct core to the non-ischemic region. The correlation between areas of hyperO2ΔR1-derived infarction and histological cell death was evaluated. @*Results@#HyperO2ΔR1 increased only in the infarct area (p ≤ 0.046) compared to the other areas. ADC decreased stepwise from non-ischemic to infarct areas (p = 0.002 at all time points). The other parameters did not show consistent differences among the three areas across the three time points. HyperO2ΔR1 sharply declined from the core to the border of the infarct areas, whereas there was no change within the non-infarct areas. A hyperO2ΔR1 value of 0.04 s-1 was considered the criterion to identify histological infarction. ADC increased gradually from the infarct core to the periphery, without a pronounced difference at the border between the infarct and non-infarct areas. Areas of hyperO2ΔR1 higher than 0.04 s-1 on MRI were strongly positively correlated with histological cell death (r = 0.862; p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#HyperO2ΔR1 may be used as an accurate and early (2.5 hours after onset) indicator of histological infarction in acute stroke.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926423

ABSTRACT

Gastric metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare, occurring in 0.2% of all RCC cases. Owing to its low prevalence, metachronous gastric metastasis from RCC may be underdiagnosed, and the imaging findings have not been well-established. Herein we present a case of metastatic RCC manifesting as a gastric polyp in a 70-year-old female along with a literature review on the imaging findings of gastric metastases from RCC. In patients presenting with gastric hyper-enhancing polypoid masses, metastasis from RCC should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926400

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Cough suppression therapy (CST) is a physiotherapy that can be used for patients with chronic refractory cough (CRC). We aimed to investigate the efficacy of CST for CRC.Materials and Method A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in 27 patients with CRC. Participants were randomized to receive either standard mucolytic medications for CRC combined with supplemental CST (CST group) or standard medications alone (control group). CST consists of laryngeal hygiene management, humidification, cough suppression technique, breathing method, and counseling. We assessed the symptoms change at baseline and week 4 with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Secondary efficacy outcomes included the degree of cough Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score (0 to 100 scale). @*Results@#From 2019 to 2021, 14 CST group patients and 13 control group patients were included. The improvement was significantly greater in the CST group than in the control group for cough VAS score (36.67 to 13.33 vs. 74.29 to 16.43, p<0.001). Patients in the CST group had a significant improvement in total (70.14 to 107.71, p=0.005), physical (31.42 to 43.86, p= 0.015), psychological (23.57 to 40.14, p=0.003), and social (15.14 to 23.71, p=0.005) LCQ scores. However, there was not a significant pre- to post-treatment LCQ score improvement in control group. @*Conclusion@#CST might be an effective supplemental intervention for CRC.

18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926298

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4 RD) is a systemic immune-mediated inflammatory disease that presents as multiple organ dysfunction or mass lesions with lympho-plasmacytic infiltration. However, there are few case reports presenting central nervous system involvements. Herein, we report a case of a 70-year-old man with recurrent ischemic stroke which induced by IgG4 RD. IgG4 RD should be considered and treated as one of etiologies manifesting small vessel disease infarctions, especially when it occurs multiply and recurrently.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925741

ABSTRACT

In mammalian species, females are born with a number of oocytes exceeding what they release via ovulation. In humans, an average girl is born with over a thousand times more oocytes than she will ovulate in her lifetime. The reason for having such an excessive number of oocytes in a neonatal female ovary is currently unknown. However, it is well established that the oocyte number decreases throughout the entire lifetime until the ovary loses them all. In this review, data published in the past 80 years were used to assess the current knowledge regarding the changing number of oocytes in humans and mice, as well as the reported factors that contribute to the decline of oocyte numbers. Briefly, a collective estimation indicates that an average girl is born with approximately 600,000 oocytes, which is 2,000 times more than the number of oocytes that she will ovulate in her lifetime. The oocyte number begins to decrease immediately after birth and is reduced to half of the initial number by puberty and almost zero by age 50 years. Multiple factors that are either intrinsic or extrinsic to the ovary contribute to the decline of the oocyte number. The inflammation caused by the ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge is discussed as a potential contributing factor to the decline of the oocyte pool during the reproductive lifespan.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925726

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine tumor, with rapidly increasing incidence worldwide. However, its transcriptomic characteristics associated with immunological signatures, driver fusions, and recurrence markers remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the transcriptomic characteristics of advanced papillary thyroid cancer. @*Methods@#. This study included 282 papillary thyroid cancer tumor samples and 155 normal samples from Chungnam National University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital. Transcriptomic quantification was determined by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We investigated the associations of clinical parameters and molecular signatures using RNA sequencing. We validated predictive biomarkers using the Cancer Genome Atlas database. @*Results@#. Through a comparison of differentially expressed genes, gene sets, and pathways in papillary thyroid cancer compared to normal tumor-adjacent tissue, we found increased immune signaling associated with cytokines or T cells and decreased thyroid hormone synthetic pathways. In addition, patients with recurrence presented increased CD8+ T-cell and Th1-cell signatures. Interestingly, we found differentially overexpressed genes related to immune-escape signaling such as CTLA4, IDO1, LAG3, and PDCD1 in advanced papillary thyroid cancer with a low thyroid differentiation score. Fusion analysis showed that the PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were regulated differently according to the RET fusion partner genes (CCDC6 or NCOA4). Finally, we identified HOXD9 as a novel molecular biomarker that predicts the recurrence of thyroid cancer in addition to known risk factors (tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and extrathyroidal extension). @*Conclusion@#. We identified a high association with immune-escape signaling in the immune-hot group with aggressive clinical characteristics among Korean thyroid cancer patients. Moreover, RET fusion differentially regulated PI3K and MAPK signaling depending on the partner gene of RET, and HOXD9 was found to be a recurrence marker for advanced papillary thyroid cancer.

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