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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876702

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. Results S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829578

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. Methods On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. Results Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. Conclusions The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819001

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818581

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

5.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 462-467, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the film-ultrasonic technique for preparing nicotinate-curcumin nanoparticles. METHODS: An HPLC method was established for determination of nicotinate-curcumin. Using the entrapment efficiency of nicotinate-curcumin as the evaluation indicator, the optimum excipient formula was selected through the Box-Bebnken reponse surface design of three factors (amounts of nicotinate-curcumin and lecithin and concentration of tween-80) at three levels. RESULTS: With the established optimal formula, ie 80 mg stearic acid, 150 mg lecithin and 20 mL tween-80 (0.6%), the entrapment efficiency of nicotinate-curcumin approached 65%. The mean particle size was 190 nm. CONCLUSION: The nicotinate-curcumin nanoparticles prepared by the film ultrasonic technique optimized by central composite design test have high entrapment efficiency, indicating that the technique is feasible.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286584

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influential factors for job burnout among the managerial staff in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer in Guangzhou, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 288 managers in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer were surveyed using the Occupational Stress Indicator, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Social Support Rating Scale.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>On the depersonalization dimension, the male managers had significantly higher scores than the female managers. The scores of emotion exhaustion and depersonalization of MBI showed significant differences among the managers with different levels of occupational stress. The path analysis showed that occupational stress, neuroticism, and psychoticism had negative effects on emotion exhaustion, while job satisfaction and utilization of social support had direct positive effects on emotion exhaustion. Occupational stress, psychoticism, and passive coping style had direct negative effects on depersonalization, while job satisfaction, objective support, and utilization of social support had positive effects on depersonalization. Job satisfaction and active coping style had positive effects on sense of personal accomplishment, while passive coping style had a negative effect on sense of personal accomplishment. Personality exerted its effect on social support through coping style and thus on job satisfaction and job burnout.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Male managers have a greater propensity to depersonalization than their female counterparts. High occupational stress is a risk factor for job burnout. Personality, social support, and coping style are influential factors for job burnout.</p>


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Psychology , Adult , Burnout, Professional , Psychology , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242808

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of occupational diseases in Guangzhou City, China in 2001 - 2010, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational diseases.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Statistical analysis was performed on the reported data on the occupational diseases in Guangzhou from 2001 to 2010.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 380 cases of occupational diseases (37 types,8 classes) were diagnosed and reported in 2001 - 2010. The three most frequent diseases were occupational poisonings (48.9%), pneumoconiosis (20.0%), and occupational ear, nose, and throat (ENT) diseases (18.7%). In the cases of occupational poisonings, 25.3% suffered from acute occupational poisonings, especially the poisoning by dichloroethane (19.1%), and 74.7% suffered from chronic occupational poisonings, mainly caused by lead (38.8%), benzene (37.4%), and n-hexane (18.0%). The cases of silicosis accounted for 77.6% of all cases of pneumoconiosis. The cases of noise-induced deafness accounted for 97.2% of all cases of occupational ENT diseases. Patients with occupational diseases were reported in 13 districts of Guangzhou, mostly in Panyu (18.9%), Tianhe (13.2%), Baiyun (12.9%), and Liwan (11.1%). All the cases occurred in 19 industries, mainly including light industry (27.1%) and machinery industry (23.7%). Of all cases, 29.5% were in the public sector, 40.3% in the private sector, and 30.3% in the foreign-funded enterprises and those funded by businessmen from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. The ratio of male to female cases was 15:4. The mean age of onset was 42.2 ± 10.9 years. The average speed of development of occupational diseases was 134.0%, and the average growth rate was 34.0%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The incidence of occupational diseases tends to increase year by year, with younger age of onset and shorter history of exposure in patients. The occupational poisonings caused by lead, benzene, n-hexane, and dichloroethane, silicosis, and noise-induced deafness seem to be the main occupational hazards in Guangzhou, China. Occupational diseases occur in all districts of Guangzhou and in various industries. The private sector and small enterprises should be the focuses of occupational health supervision.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases , Epidemiology , Young Adult
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